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Full text of "Testimony of Walter S. Steele regarding Communist activities in the United States. Hearings before the Committee on Un-American Activities, House of Representatives, Eightieth Congress, first session, on H. R. 1884 and H. R. 2122, bills to curb or outlaw the Communist Party in the United States. Public law 601 (section 121, subsection Q (2) July 21, 1947"

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TESTIMONY  OF  WALTER  S.  l.llil.  RE^AP^^^€ 

com:"!Unist  activities  in  the  united  states 


HEARINGS 

■  -  BEFORE  THE 

COMMITTEE  ON  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE  OF  REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTIETH  CONGRESS 

FIRST  SESSION 
ON 

H.  R.  1884  and  H.  R.  2122 

BILLS  TO  CURB  OR  OUTLAW  THE  COMMUNIST 
PARTY  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES 


Public  Law  601 

(Section  121,  Subsection  Q  (2)) 


JULY  21,  1947 


Printed  for  the  use  of  the  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities 


UNITED   STATES  \^ 

GOVERNMiiNT  PRINTING   OFFICE 
65176  WASHINGTON  :   1947 


.-n'Oi 


^f,^:.^iU/\; 


^:  i'  07  DOCUMENTS 

OUl    ?  1947 


COMMITTEE  ON  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES 

J.  PARNELL  THOMAS,  New  Jersey,  Chairman 
KARL  E.  MUNDT,  South  Dakota  JOHN  S.  WOOD,  Georgia 

JOHN  MCDOWELL,  Pennsylvania  JOHN  E.  RANKIN,  Mississippi 

RICHARD  M.  NIXON,  California  J.  HARDIN  PETERSON,  Florida 

RICHARD  B.  VAIL,  Illinois  HERBERT  C.  BONNER,  North  Carolina 

Robert  B.  Stripling,  Chief  Investigator 
Benjamin  Mandel^  Director  of  Research 
II 


TESTIMONY    OF    WALTER    S.    STEELE    REGAEDING 
COMMUNIST  ACTIVITY  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES 


MONDAY,   JULY   21,    1947 

i  House  of  Kepresentatives, 

COMMITfEE  ON  Un-AmERICAN  ACTIVITIES, 

Washington^  D.  C. 

The  committee  met  at  10:  30  a.  m.,  Hon.  J.  Paniell  Thomas  (chair- 
man) presiding. 

The  Chairman.  The  meeting  will^jome  to  order. 

The  record  will  show  that  a  subcommittee  is  sitting,  a  subcommittee 
consisting  of  Mr.  Nixon,  Mr.  Vail,  and  Mr.  Thomas, 

The  subcommittee  will  suspend  for  a  few  minutes. 
•    (Pause.) 

The  Chairman.  I  want  to  say  for  the  benefit  of  those  who  are  in  the 
room  that  tlie  committee  will  sit  either  as  a  subcommittee  or  a  full 
committee  throughout  this  week.  We  have  a  heavy  schedule,  and  due 
to  the  fact  that  Congress  is  in  session  and  it  will  be  necessary  for  vari- 
ous members  of  this  committee  to  be  on  the  floor  of  the  House,  we 
have  made  ari-angements  within  the  committee  so  that  there  will  al- 
ways be  one  member  of  the  committee  here  to  act  as  chairman. 

Now.  the  committee  will  conduct  the  hearings  during  the  entire 
week.  We  will  hear  14  witnesses,  all  of  whom  will  testify  concerning 
Communist  activities. 

The  first  witness  this  morning  will  be  Mr.  Walter  S.  Steele,  who  is 
appearing  before  the  committee  in  the  capacity  of  chairman  of  the 
national  security  committee  of  the  American  Coalition  of  Patriotic, 
Civic,  and  Fraternal  Societies.  ]Mr.  Steele  is  also  ap])earing  as  the 
managing  editor  of  the  National  Republic  magazine.  Last  Marcli  the 
committee  held  rather  extensive  hearings  on  two  bills,  H.  E.  2122  and 
H.  R.  1884.  which  bills  seek  to  curb  or  outlaw  the  Communist  Party. 
At  that  time  Mr.  Steele  and  his  organization  requested  to  be  heard. 
However,  Mr.  Steele  became  ill  and  was  unable  to  appear.  Since  these 
two  bills  are  still  pending  before  the  committee,  we  are  affording  Mr. 
Steele  an  opportunity  to  present  the  views  of  his  organ'zations  on  these 
two.bills  and  also  to  hear  his  testimony  of  the  various  ramifications  of 
the  Communist  Party  of  the  United  States,  a  subject  upon  which  he  is 
well  qualified  to  testify. 

Mr.  Steele,  will  you  take  the  stand  and  raise  your  right  hand  and 
be  sworn,  please  ? 

Do  you  solemnly  swear  that  the  testimony  you  are  about  to  give  is 
the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the  truth,  so  help  you  God? 

Mr.  Steele.  I  do. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Stripling. 

1 


2  TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE 

TESTIMONY  OF  WALTER  S.  STEELE,  CHAIRMAN,  NATIONAL 
SECURITY  COMMITTEE  OF  THE  AMERICAN  COALITION  OF 
PATRIOTIC,  CIVIC,  AND  FRATERNAL  SOCIETIES 

Mr,  Stripling.  Mr.  Steele,  will  you  state  your  full  name  and  present 
address  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  Walter  S.  Steele.  My  home  address  is  2916  Twenty- 
ninth  Street  NW.,  Washington,  D,  C.  My  business  address  is  511 
'  Eleventh  Street  NW.,  Washington,  D.  C. 

Mr.  Stripling.  When  and  where  were  you  born? 

Mr.  Steele.  Louisville,  Ky.,  June  2,  1890. 

Mr.  Stripling.  What  is  your  occupation? 

Mr.  Steele.  I  am  managing  editor  of  the  National  Republic 
magazine. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Are  you  appearing  before  the  committee  as  a  rep- 
resentative of  any  other  organization  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  I  am. 

Mr.  Stripling.  What  organization  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  American  Coalition  of  Patriotic,  Civic,  and  Fraternal 
Societies,  with  offices  in  the  Southern  Building,  Washington,  D.  C. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Will  you  explain  to  the  committee  just  what  the 
American  Coalition  is  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  Tlie  American  Coalition  is  a  coalition  of  84  patriotic, 
civic,  and  fraternal  societies,  to  which  these  societies  delegate  two 
delegates,  two  official  delegates,  one  of  which  is  the  high  officer  of 
the  society,  the  other  is  a  delegate  selected  from  the  body.  The  coali- 
tion meets  once  each  year  in  Washington  to  consider  matters  per- 
•  taining  to  patriotism.  It  does  not  appear  on  legislation  that  affects 
industry  or  labor  and  such  matters  that  have  any  commercial  slant 
to  them. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Who  are  some  of  the  present  prominent  officers  of 
the  organization  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  Mr.  John  B.  Trevor,  of  New  York,  former  special  dep- 
uty attorney  general  of  the  State  of  New  York,  chief  counsel  of  the 
New  York  Joint  Legislative  Committee  Investigating  Subversive 
Activities,  associate  counsel  for  the  subcommittee  of  the  Committee 
on  Foreign  Relations  of  the  United  States  Senate  (1920),  and  an 
officer  in  the  Military  Intelligence  Division  of  the  United  States  Army 
during  the  First  World  War,  is  president. 

First  vice  president  is  Mrs.  Grace  L.  H.  Brosseau • 

Tlie  Chairman.  Pardon  me.  Did  you  give  the  name  of  the 
president  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes.     John  B.  Trevor. 

The  Chairman.  All  right. 

Mr.  Steele.  Mrs.  Grace  L.  H.  Brosseau  is  first  vice  president.  She 
is  a  past  president  general  of  the  DAR,  an  officer  of  several  of  the 
societies  on  the  list  I  wish  to  submit  as  an  exhibit — the  list  of  organi- 
zations, Mr.  Stripling. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Yes.    We  would  like  to  have  it.    Thank  you. 

Mr.  Steele.  And  second  vice  president  is  Messmore  Kendall,  past 
president  general  of  the  Sons  of  the  American  Revolution. 

The  third  vice  president  is  Mrs.  Frederic  G.  Bauer,  past  national 
president  of  the  DAR,  and  associated  with  many  of  the  societies 
listed. 


TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE  3 

The  treasurer  is  Frank  B.  Steele — who,  by  the  way,  is  no  relation  to 
me — secretary  general  of  the  Sons  of  the  American  Revolution,  and 
member  of  other  societies  listed. 

The  secretary  is  Mrs.  Flpra  A.  Walker,  a  member  of  a  number  of 
the  societies  on  the  list. 

The  executive  board,  of  which  I  am  a  member,  is  composed  of  the 
following:  Col.  Edward  S.  Bettleheim,  Miss  Alice  D.  Butterfield,  Vic- 
tor E.  Devereaux,  Charles  H.  Hall,  Mrs.  Mary  J.  Love,  Hon.  Smith 
L.  Multer,  Mrs.  Frank  L.  Nason,  Mr.  C.  H.  Paul,  Mr.  Perry  F.  Ramey, 
W.  W.  Stearns,  Hon.  Maurice  H.  Thatcher,  former  Members  of  Con- 
gress from  Kentucky,  Mr.  Edson  L.  Whitney,  and  Roscoe  C.  Walker, 
all  members  an.d/or  officers  of  one  or  more  of  the  societies  mentioned. 
The  board  of  directors  is  made  up  of  1  executive  officer  and  1  member 
of  each  of  the  84  societies. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Mr.  Chairman,  is  that  sufficient  identification  of  the 
organization  ? 

The  Chairman.  I  think  that  you  ought  to  place  in  the  record  at  this 
point  the  list  of  organizations  that  are  either  affiliated  or  cooperating 
with  the  American  Coalition. 

Mr.  Stripling.  That  is  the  list  of  84  organizations  which  you 
mentioned.  Mr.  Steele. 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Stripling.  They  will  be  made  a  part  of  the  record. 

(The  list  referred  to  is  as  follows :) 

Exhibit  I  ^  v 

Societies  Cooperating  With  the  American  Coatjtion 

Americanism  Defense  League.  ■ 

American  League  for  Good  Government,  Inc. 
American  Vigilant  Intelligence  Federation. 
American  War  Mothers. 
American  Women's  Legion. 

Associated  cliapters,  Order  of  DeMolay  of  Pennsylvania. 
Associated  Farmers  of  California,  Inc. 

California  Society,  Order  of  the  Founders  and  Patriots  of  America. 
Colonial  Order  of  the  Acorn,  New  York  Chapter. 
Congres.s  of  States  Societies. 

Connecticut  Daughters  of  the  American  Colonists. 
Dames  of  the  Loyal  Legion  of  the  United  States. 
Daughters  of  America,  National  Council. 
Daughters  of  America,  District  of  Columbia  Council. 

District  of  Columbia  Commandery,  Naval  and  Military  Order  of  the  Spanish- 
American  War. 
District  of  Columbia  Society,  Order  Founders  and  Patriots  of  America. 
Eugenics  Society  of  Northern  California. 

First  Motor  Corps  Unit  No.  12,  Massachusetts  State  Guard  Veterans. 
Fraternal  Patriotic  Americas,  State  of  Pennsylvania,  Inc. 
General  Court,  Order  of  the  Founders  and  Patriots  of  America. 
General  Pershing  Chapter,  American  War  Mothers. 
General  Society  of  the  War  of  1812. 
Illinois  Society  of  War  of  1812. 

Junior  Order  tFnited  American  Mechanics,  New  Jersey. 
Junior  Order  United  American  Mechanics,  New  York,  Inc. 
Junior  Order  United  American  Mechanics,  Pennsylvania. 
Ladies  of  the  Grand  Army  of  the  Republic. 

Massachusetts  Society,  Order  of  the  Founders  and  Patriots  of  America. 
Military  Order  of  the  Loyal  Legion  of  the  United  States,  Commandery  in  Chief. 


^  See  appendix  at  end  of  hearing  for  list  of  all  exhibits  given  in  this  testimony. 


4  TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE 

Military  Order  of  the  Loyal  Legion  of  the  United  States  Comraandery  of  the 

District  of  Columbia. 
Military  Order  of  the  Loyal  Legion  of  the  United  States,  Commandery  of  the 

State  of  New  York. 
Military  Order  of  the  Loyal  Legion  of  the  United  States,  Commandery  of  the 

State  of  I'ennsylvania. 
Military  Order  of  the  World  Wars. 
National  Camp,  Patriotic  Order  Sons  of  America. 

National  Commandery,  Naval  and  Military  Order  of  the  Spanish-American  War. 
National  Constitution  Day  Committee. 
National  Council,  Sons  and  Daughters  of  Liberty. 
National  Society,  Daughters  of  the  Revolution. 
National  Society,  Daughters  of  the  Union,  1S61-18G5. 
National  Society  for  Constitutional  Security. 
National  Society  for  Constitutional  Security,  Chapter  I. 
National  Society  of  New  England  Women. 
National  Society,  Patriotic  Women  of  America,  Inc. 
National  Society,  Service  Star  Legion. 
National  Society,  Sons  and  Daughters  of  the  Pilgrims. 
National  Society,  Sons  of  the  American  Revolution. 
National  Society,  Sons  of  the  American  Revolution  in  California. 
National  Society,  United  States  Daughters  of  1812. 
National  Society,  United  States  Daughters  of  1812,  State  of  New  York. 
National  Society,  Women  Descendants  of  the  Ancient  and  Honorable  Artillery 

Company. 
National  Woman's  Relief  Corps. 

New  Jersey  Society,  Order  of  the  Founders  and  Patriots  of  America. 
New  Jersey  State  Society,  Daughters  of  the  Revolution. 
New  York  City  Colony,  National  Society  of  the  New  England  Women. 
New  York  Society,  United  States  Daughters  of  1812. 
Order  of  Colonial  Lords  of  Manors  in  America. 

Order  of  Independent  Americans,  Inc.,  State  Council  of  Pennsylvania. 
Order  of  Three  Crusades  1092-1192,  Inc. 

Pennsylvania  Society,  Order  of  the  Founders  and  Patriots  of  America. 
Philadelphia  Protestant  Federation. 
Regular  "Veterans  Association. 
Rhode  Island  Association  of  Patriots. 
Rhode  Island  Daughters  of  the  American  Colonists. 
Rhode  Island  Society,  Order  of  the  Founders  and  Patriots  of  America. 
Society  of  Colonial  Wars  in  the  District  of  Columbia. 
Society  of  Colonial  Wars  in  the  State  of  New  York. 
Society  of  New  York  State  Women. 
Society  of  Old  Plymouth  Colony  Descendants. 
Society  of  the  Daughters  of  the  United  States  Army. 

Society  of  the  Sons  of  the  Revolution  in  the  Commonwealth  of  Massachusetts. 
Sons  of  Union  Veterans  of  the  Civil  War. 
Southern  Vigilant  Intelligence  Association,  Inc. 

State  Council  (District  of  Columbia),  Sons  and  Daughters  of  Liberty. 
State  Council  (Massachusetts),  Sons  and  Daughters  of  Liberty. 
Tax  Evils  Committee  of  Council  Bluffs,  Iowa. 
The  Federation  of  Huguenot  Societies  in  America. 
The  Wheel  of  Progress. 

Veterans  of  Foreign  Wars  of  United  States,  Department  of  Delaware. 
Veterans  of  Foreign  Wars  of  United  States,  Morley  S.  Oates  Auxiliary,  No.  701. 
Westchester  Security  League. 

Wisconsin  Chapter.  Daughters  of  Founders  and  Patriots. 
Women's  National  Defense  Committee  of  Philadelphia. 
Women  of  Army  and  Navy  Legion  of  Valor,  U.  S.  A. 

Mr,  Stripling.  Mr.  Steele,  for  how  many  years  have  you  been  active 
in  combatino-  subversive  activity  in  the  United  States? 

Mr.  Steele.  Well,  I  began  by  exposing  the  IWW  as  a  newspaperman 
specializing  in  that  field,  and  in  1924  I  came  to  my  present  position  to 
study  the  other  subversive  movements  that  might  have  sprung  up, 
including  the  Communist  Party  movement. 


TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE  5 

Mr.  Stripling.  Have  you  over  that  period  of  time  assembled  con- 
siderable files  on  the  subject  of  communism  in  the  United  States? 

Mr.  Steele.   I  have.     I  have  enormous  files  on  the  subject. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Do  you  also  have  files  on  Fascist  activity  in  the 
United  States? 

Mr.  Steele.  I  do ;  yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Have  your  files  ever  been  used  by  any  of  the  inves- 
tigative agencies  of  the  Government? 

Mr.  Steele.  I  venture  to  say  that  there  is  not  an  agency  in  the  Gov- 
ernment that  hasn't  used  my  files,  and  I  might  say  that  during  the  war, 
particularly,  I  spent  approximately  50  percent  of  my  time  serving  the 
Government.  But  I  want  it  understood  that  I  have  never  been  an 
agent  of  the  Govermnent. 

Mr.  Stripling.  All  that  service  was  gratuitous  on  your  part  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  That  is  right. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Would  you  state  some  of  the  agencies  which  used 
your  files  extensively? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes.  The  FBI,  Military  Intelligence,  I  would  say 
G-2,  and  ONI,  State  Department,  Treasury,  Civil  Service,  and  the 
various  special  branches  of  the  Government  that  were  set  up  during 
the  war.  There  were  numerous  special  branches  set  up,  and  I  think 
it  safe  to  say  that  I  served  all  of  those  departments.  I  have  also  served 
congressional  committees,  police  departments.  State  legislative  com- 
mittees, security  departments  of  war  industries,  labor  unions,  veter- 
ans' organizations,  civil  and  patriotic  societies  and  associations,  editors, 
et  cetera. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  believe  Mr.  Steele  has  prepared 
testimony,  and  I  suggest  that  he  proceed  in  his  own  way  to  submit  the 
views  of  his  organization  on  the  two  bills  which  are  now  pending 
before  the  committee  and  also  any  information  which  he  has  compiled 
on  the  subject  of  communism  in  the  United  States. 

The  Chairman.  Do  you  have  a  statement,  Mr.  Steele  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  I  do. 

The  Chairman.  If  you  care  to,  you  may  proceed. 

Mr.  Steele.  For  many  years,  the  American  Coalition  and  the  Na- 
tional Republic  have  supported  the  continuation  of  congressional  in- 
vestigations of  subversive  menaces  within  our  country,  and  at  its  last 
annual  conference,  held  on  January  24,  1947,  at  the  Mayflower  Hotel, 
Washington,  D.  C.,  a  resolution  was  passed  commending  the  work  of 
this  committee.  The  societies  represented  at  this  conference  have  con- 
tinued over  a  period  of  years  to  request  that  the  Congress  of  the  United 
States  deprive  the  Communist  Party,  as  well  as  any  and  all  other  sub- 
versive movements,  of  its  legal  status.  The  following  resolution  was 
adopted  by  the  American  Coalition  at  its  January  1947  convention : 

Whereas  it  is  demonstrable  that  the  doctrines  of  Marxian  socialism,  which 
constitute  the  creed  of  the  Communist  Party,  contemplate  the  creation  of  a 
dictatorship  by  violence  if  necessary ;  and 

Whereas  dictatorship  under  any  form  or  under  any  name  is  utterly  repugnant 
to  the  ideals  of  the  American  people :  Be  it 

Resolved,  That  the  American  Coalition,  in  annual  convention  assembled,  urges 
Congress  to  take  appropriate  steps  to  deprive  the  Communist  Party  of  legal 
status,  or  any  party  which  directly  or  indirectly  suggests  the  use  of  violence 
for  attainment  of  power ;  and  be  it  further 

Resolved,  That  the  Congress  be  urged  to  take  appropriate  steps  to  deprive  of 
civil  rights  any  citizen  who  acts  as  the  agent  of  a  foreign  power  or  political 
party  seeking  the  overthrow  of  the  Government  of  the  United  States. 


6  TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE 

I  Avish  to  submit  a  copy  of  this  resolution,  please. 

Mr.  Stripling.  It  will  be  received  as  exhibit  No.  2.^ 

(Exhibit  No.  2  was  received.) 

Mr.  Steele.  I  have  carefully  studied  all  the  resolutions  dealing  with 
the  Communist  menace  that  have  been  presented  to  this  Congress,  and 
any  one  and  all  of  them  can  be  endorsed,  since  the  intent  of  each  is 
the  same.  H.  E.  2122  and  H.  K.  1884,  now  under  consideration,  had 
not  been  introduced  at  the  time  of  the  January  convention  of  the 
American  Coalition,  and  they  were  not,  of  course,  discussed  at  that 
time.  However,  I  feel  that  they  are  in  line  with  the  resolution 
adopted  at  the  convention  and  the  sentiments  expressed  by  the  dele- 
gates on  the  subject.  H.  R.  2122  deals  with  the  Communist  Party, 
and  it  supports  a  law  which,  in  effect,  would  at  least  cripple  its  soli- 
darity activities.  H.  R.  1884  deals  with  party  activities  and  its  fronts, 
its  penetration  in  our  schools,  and  its  propaganda  sent  through  the 
mails. 

I  wish  to  take  this  opportunity  to  present  to  this  committee  evidence 
of  the  all-inclusive  ramifications  of  the  movement  these  and  other 
resolutions  are  intended  to  either  control  or  to  outlaw  entirely.  These 
ramifications  are  so  extensive  that,  while  the  two^resolutions  referred 
to  above  aiKl  others  have  been  presented  to  this  Congress  previously 
are  definite  steps  toward  the  elimination  of  the  menace,  much  broader 
legislation  must  be  passed.  State  legislatures  will  have  to  pass  much 
of  the  leoislation  controllinof  the  activities  of  subversive  forces. 

Although  the  Communist  Party  has  already  been  outlawed  as  such 
in  12  States  which  have  barred  it  from  the  ballot,  it  continues  to 
operate  in  those  States.  It  has  apparently  found  no  trouble  in  cir- 
cumventing laws  by  nominating  candidates  as  independents  without 
partv  label  or  in  forcing  its  candidates  on  legitimate  party  tickets. 
In  California  where  the  party  is  barred  from  the  ballot.  Communists 
maintain  their  second  largest  section.  They  ran  a  Communist  as  an 
independent  in  the  last  State  election,  and  they  freely  nominate  them 
for  local  office.  Communists  in  Indiana  have  even  changed  the  emblem 
of  the  party,  originally  the  hammer  and  sickle. 

The  Chairman.  May  I  interrupt  there? 

Then  it  is  your  opinion  that  if  the  Congress  should  approve  one  of 
these  bills  and  enact  it  into  law,  to  outlaw  the  Communist  Party,  that 
the  Communist  Party  would  circumvent  the  law  and  nothing  would 
be  gained? 

Mr.  Steele.  I  think  that  you  would  set  a  precedent  for  the  States, 
but  imder  the  election  laws,  I  believe,  you  will  find  that  the  States  con- 
trol the  ballot,  antl,for  that  reason  I  don't  think  that  a  law  by  Congress 
itself  would  be  sufficient.    Each  State  would  have  to  follow  suit. 

In  most  States  they  continue  to  run  their  own  candidates  in  elections 
for  local  posts.  They  are  now  pushing  for  a  coalition  of  leftists,  with 
the  expectation  of  forming  a  major  third  party. 

You  understand,  of  course,  that  the  Communist  Party  is  set  up  on  a 
National,  State,  and  local  organizational  basis.  There  is  an  over-all 
national  organization,  under  which  are  district  organizations.  These, 
in  tuin,  supervise  State  organizations.  Under  them  come  the  section 
organizations  and,  finally,  the  local  unit  organizations. 

I  submit  herewith  the  break-down  of  this  set-up,  together  with  the 
names  of  the  leaders  and  organizers  of  these  movements.    It  includes 


See  appendix,  p.  174,  for  exhibit  No.  2. 


TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE  7 

the  names  of  some  500  leaders  of  the  Communist  Party,  with  nota- 
tions of  the  positions  they  hold  in  the  party  and  the  addresses  of  the 
National  and  State  headquarters  tliereof.  It  also  names  the  personnel 
of  various  party  connnittees  which  direct  the  diverse  functions  or 
party  activity. 

INIr.  SxRirLiNG.  Mr.  Chairman,  Mr.  Steele  has  compiled  the  break- 
down accordino;  to  States  of  the  various  officials  of  the  Communist 
Party.  The  length  of  the  list  is  some  10  or  12  pages  long,  and  unless 
the  Chair  would  like  to  hear  the  officials  of  any  particular  State,  I 
suggest  that  the  list  be  not  read  but  that  the  entire  list  be  included 
in  the  record,  not  as  an  exhibit,  but  included  in  the  record. 

The  Chx\irman.  We  will  include  it  in  the  record  at  this  point. 

Mr.  Striplixg.  I  also  suggest,  Mr.  Chairman,  since  the  committee 
is  not  going  to  have  Mr.  Steele  read  the  list,  that  if  he  has  an  extra 
copy  that  he  make  it  available  at  the  press  table  in  the  event  anyone 
with  the  press  would  like  to  take  any  of  the  names. 

The  CiiAiRMAX.  Do  you  have  an  extra  copy,  Mr.  Steele? 

Mr.  Steele.  I  brought  an  extra  copy  along;  yes,  sir. 

(The  list  referred  to  above  is  as  follows :) 

Communist  Party,  United  States  of  America 

National  headquarters:  35  East  Twelfth  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y. 

Chairman — William  Z.  Foster 

General  secretary — Eugene  Dennis  (Waldron) 

Administrative  secretary — John  Williamson 

Treasurer — Vacant  j^ince  the  death  of  Charles  Krumbein 

National  secretariat : 

William  Z.  Foster  Gil  Green 

Eugene  Dennis  Gus  Hall 

Robert  Thompson  Irving  Potash 

John  Williamson  Jack  Stachel 

Benjamin  J.  Davis,  Jr.  Carl  Winter 

John  Gates  •  Henry  AVinston 

National  committee : 

William  Z.  Foster  Gus  Hall 

Benjamin  J.  Davis,  Jr.  Nat  Cohen 

Rose  Gaulden  Ferdinand  Smith 

Mickey  Lima  Abner  Berry 

John  Williamson  Alexander  Bittleman 

Nat  Ganley  Claudia  Jones 

Bella  Dodd  Alexander  Trachtenberg 

James  Jackson  David  Davis 

Louis  Weinstock  Herb  Signer 

William  McKie  .    Irving  Potash 

Nat  Ross  ( South )  Max  Weiss 

Fred  Blair  Lein  Harris 

Jack  Stachel  Hal  Simon 

National  review  hoard : 

Chairman — Ray  Hansborough 

Vice  chairman — Vacant  since  the  death  of  Charles  Krumbein 

Secretarv — Saul  Wellman 

William  McKie 
National  labor  commission  : 

Chairman — .John  Williamson 

Secretary — William  Albertson 

Administrative  secretarj' — Robert  Minor 

Al  Blumberg 

Pat  Toohey 
National  women's  commission  : 

Chairman — Elizabeth  Gurley  Flynn 

Assistant  Secretarv — Claudia  Jones 


8  TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE 

National  Negro  commission : 

Chairman — Josh  Lawrence 

■  Secretary — Henry  Winston 
National  groups  commission : 

Chairman — Steve  Nelson 
National  farm  commission : 

Chairman — Mas  Weiss 
Secretary — Lem  Harris 
Organizing  commission : 

Secretary — Henry  Winston 

Assistant  Secretary — Betty  Gannett- 
Coordinating  Committee,  National  Maritime  Field — ■ 

Al  Lannon. 
Jewish  Commission : 

Secretary — Moses  Miller 

General  Secretary — Alexander  Bittleman 
Veterans'  commission : 

Director — John  Gates  Leon  Strauss 

George  Blake  Robert  Thompson 

Joseph  Clark  Carl  Vedro 

Louis  Diskind  George  Watt 

Irving  Goff  Saul  Wellman 

Howard  Johnson  Herbert  Wheeldin 

Herbert  Kurzer  Henry  Winston 

Carl  Reinstein 
Student's  commission : 

Director — Marion  Shaw. 
Legislative  commission : 

Chairman — Arnold  Johnson 

Secretary — Robert  Minor 
Educational  Agit-Prop.,  and  publicity  commission : 

Chairman — Jack  Stachel 

Secretary — Max  Weiss 

DISTRICT  AND  LOCAX  OFFICIALS 

Northeast  district,  80  Boylston  Street,  Boston,  Mass. 

(States  included :  Massachusetts,  Maine,  New  Hampshire,  Rhode  Island,  Vermont) 

Chairman  (district)  —  (Manny)  Emmanual  Blum 
Secretary  (district) — Fanny  Hartman 
Chairman  (Massachusetts  section) — Otis  A.  Hood 
Committee  members  for  Massachusetts : 

Jack  Green 

Hy  Gordon  (trade  union  secretary,  Massachusetts). 

William  E.  Harrison 

Arthur  E.  Timpson  (husband  of  Anna  Durlak) 

Joseph  C.  Figueiredo  (Bristol  organizer) 
Organizer,  Boston — F.  Collier 
Secretary-treasurer  (district) — Hugo  Gregory 
Educational  director,  Massachusetts — Alice  Gordon 

State  (Massachusetts)  campaign  committee — Frances  Hood  (Mrs.  Archer  Hood) 
Chairman,  New  Hampshire  section — Elba  Chase  Nelson 
Labor  secretary  and  Massachusetts  organizer^ — Daniel  Boone  Schirmer 
Chairman  (Maine) — Lewis  Gordon 

Eastern  Pennsylvania-Delatvare  District,  250  South  Broad  Street, 

Philadelphia,  Pa. 

( States  included :  Eastern  Pennsylvania  and  Delaware) 

Chairman  (district) — Phil  Bart 

Secretary  (district) — Bob  Klonsky 
Committee  members : 

Tom  Nabried  Bill  McKane 

Bstelle  Shohen  Jessie  Sclmeiderman 

Carl  Reeve  Sarn  Donehin 

Jules  Abercaupli  John  Deviue 


TESTIMONY    OF   WALTER   !5.    STEELE  9 

Secretary,  thirty-sixth  ward    (Philadelpliia) — Bill  Brockman 
Financial  secretary  (district) — Ben  Weiss 
Organizer,  Wilkes-Barre  section — Joseph  Dougher 
Organizer  (district) — Sam  Rosen 
Member,  labor  committee — David  Davis 

Westei'ti  Pennsylvanw.  district,  Jflt  Grant  Street,  Pittsburgh,  Pa. 

(Western  Pennsylvania) 
Chairman — Roy  Hudson 
Secretary — Dave  Grant 
Organizer — J.  G.  Eddy 

Chairman,  Lehigh  Valley  section — Charles  Spencer 
Chairman,  Lawrenceville  section — Matt  Cortich 
Organizer,  Lawrenceville  section — Eleanor  Sackter 

Organizer,  Jones  «&  Laughlin  Club  of  Communist  Party  (Pittsburgh) — Sam  Reed 
Youth  organizei",  Pittsburgh — Mike  Hanusik 
Executive  secretary  (district) — Peter  Edward  Karpa 
Committee  members : 

Joe  Godfrey  Ben  Careathers 

Elmer  Kish  Gabor  Kist 

Dave  Grant 

Maryland-District  of  Colnmhia   district.  210  West  Franklin  Street,  Baltimore, 
Md.,  and  521  Ninth  Street  NW.,  Washington,  D.  G. 

(Maryland  and  Washington,  D.  C.) 

Chairman  (district) — Phil  Frankfeld 

Secretary  (district) — Dorothy  Blumberg 

Chairman  (District  of  Columbia  section) — William  Taylor 

Vice  chairman  (District  of  Columbia  section) — William  S.  Johnson 

Secretary  (District  of  Columbia  section) — Elizabeth  Searle 

Treasurer  (District  of  Columbia  section) — Mary  Stalcup 

Literary  director  (District  of  Columbia  section) — Casey  Gurewitz 

Cumberland  organizer — Mel  Fiske 

Director,  membership  committee — Constance  Jackson 

District  of  Ohio,  2056  East  Fourth  Street,  Cleveland,  Ohio 

(State  of  Ohio) 

Chairman — Gus  Hall 

Secretary — Martin  Chancey 

Organizing  secretary — Frieda  Katz 

Organizer — A.  Krchmarek 
Committee  members : 

Gus  Hall  Carl  Guilood 

Abe  Lewis  Elmer  Fehlhaber 

Edward  Chaka  '         Martin  Chancey 

Bernard  Marks  Mike  Davidow 

Robert  Hamilton 

Chairman.  Cedar-Central  section — Abe  Lewis 

Chairman,  Cuyahoga  County  section — Gus  Hall  ' 

Chairman,  Cleveland  County  section — Elmer  Fehlhaber 

Secretary.  Cleveland  County  section — Mike  Davidow 

Organizer.  Toledo  section — Nat  Cohn 

Organizer.  Cincinnati  section — Robert  Gunkel 

Organizer,  Akron  section — Bernard  Marks 

Minnesota.  North  Dakota,  and  F?outh  Dakota  district,  1216  Nicollet  Street 

Minneapolis,  Minn. 

(States  included:  Minnesota,  North  Dakota,  and  South  Dakota) 

Chairman   (district) — Martin  Mackie   (Minnesota)  ' 

Secretary  (district) — Carl  Ross 

Assistant  secretary   (district) — Rose  Tillotson 

Chairman,  Hennepin  County  section  (Minnesota) — ^Robert  J.  Kelly 

Secretary,  Pine  County,  Minn.,  district — Clara  Jorgensen 


10  TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE 

District  of  Indiana,  29  South  Delaware  Avenue,  Indianapolis,  Ind. 

(State  of  Indiana) 
Chairman — Elmer  Johnson 
Secretary — Henry  Aron 

Legislative  director,  Indiana  and  Illinois — William  Patterson 
Committee  members : 

Elmer  Johnson  Benjamin  Cohen 

Morris  Poi'terfield  Imogene  Johnson 

Sylira  Aron 

District  of  Michigan,  902  Lawyers  Building,  Detroit,  Mich. 

(State  of  IVIichigan) 
Chaii'man — Carl  Winters 
Secretary — Helen  Allison 

National  committee  representative — James  Jackson 
Educational  director — Abner  Berry 
Youth  director — Robert  Cummings 
Daily  Worker  representative — Mabel  Mitchell 
Organizer — Fred  Williams 
Committee  members : 

Hugo  Beiswenger  Joe  Brandt 

Geneva  Olmsted 
■Chairman,  Ypsilanti,  Willow  Run  section — Thomas  Dennis 
Chairman,  Flint  section — Thomas  Kelly 
Chairman,  Hamtramck  section — Thomas  Dombrowski 
Secretary,  New  Haven — Joseph  Gonzales,  Jr. 
State  literature  director — Byron  Edwards 
Chairman,  Flint — Berry  Blossinghame 
Chairman,  Michigan  Avenue,  Detroit  section — John  Hell 

District  of  Illinois,  208  North  Wells,  Chicago,  III. 

(States  included:  Illinois  and  Kentucky) 

Chairman,  Illinois  section — Alfred  Wagenknecht 

Chairman   (district) — Gil  Green 

Vice  chairman — William  L.  Patterson 

Assistant  secretary — Victoria  Kram'er 

Legislative  director,  Ilinois  section — Edward  Starr 

Labor  secretary,  Ilinois  section — Fred  Fine 

Chaii-man,  East  Side  Chicago  section — Claude  Lightfoot 

Section  organizer — Jim  Keller 

Chairman,  Communist  Party  Club  section — Paul  Robeson 

Oi'ganizer — Henry  Davis 

Section  organizer.  Ninth  Congressional  District — Ethel  Sliapiro 

Organizer,  South  Chicago  section — James  Balanoff,  Jr. 

Chairman,  twenty-eighth  ward — Sylvia  Woods 

Chairman,  third  ward — Ishmael  Flory 

District  of  Neto  York,  35  East  Twelfth  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y. 

(State  of  New  York) 

Chairman — Robert  Thompson 
Vice  chairman — Rose  Gaulden 
Organizing  secretary — William  Norman 
Organizer — Donald  MacKeiizie  Lester 
Director  of  education — William  Weinstone 
Secretary  of  education — Sam  Coleman 
Legislative  director — Bella  Dodd 
Farm  organizer — George  Cook 
Youth  director — Lou  Diskin 
Secretary,  legislative  committee — Lillian  Gates 
Director,  industrial  section — Ben  Gold 
Chairman,  Negro  committee — Charles  Loiiman 


TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE 


11 


Israel  Amter 
William  Norman 

Elwood  Dean 
George  Watt 


Maude  White 
Cyril  Phillips 
Fern  Owens 
Theodore  Bassett 
John  Lavin 
Letty  Cohen 
Herb  Whiteman 
Oscar  James 


Director,  veterans'  committee — John  Gates 

Assistant  director,  veterans  committee — Howard  Johnson 

Director,  Daily  Worker  veterans'  committee — Joe  Clark 

Assistant  organizational  director — Charles  Lohman 

Chairman,  Connnnuist  Party  Club,  New  York  City — Leon  Beverley 

Water  front  organizers — Tom  Christensen  and  Al  Rothbart 

Italian  section  organizer — Antonio  Lombardo' 

State  secretariat : 

Robert  Thompson 
Hal  Simon 
Committee  members  (in  addition  to  above) 
Nat  Slutsky  (sectional  organizer) 
Michael  Salerno 
Harlem  section : 

Chairman — Benjamin  J.  Davis,  Jr. 
Executive  secretary — Robert  Campbell 
Administrative  secretary — John  Lavin 
Industrial  section  director — Rose  Gaulden 
Organizing  director — Anselo  Cruz 
Organizing  secretary — Bonita  Williams 
Educational  director — Carl  Dorfman 
Committee  members : 
Bob  Campbell 
Bonita  Williams 
Rose  Gaulden 
Larry  Washington 
Leon  Love 
Carmen  Lopez 
Horace  Marshall 
Benjamin  J.  Davis,  Jr. 
Sam  Patterson 
New  York  County  section : 

Executive  secretary — George  Blake  Charney 
Membership  director — Clara  Lester 
Educational  director — Rebecca  Grecbt 
Executive  connuittee  members : 
.Tames  Tormey 
Louis  IMitchell 
Howard  Johnson 
Esther  Cantor 
Tom  Christinsen 
Queens  County  section : 

Chairman — Paul  Crosbie 
Organizer — Dave  Rosenberg 
Secretary — James  A.  Burke 
Educational  director — Helen  Stuart 
Organizing  secretary — Fay  Collar 
Sectional  organizer — Milton  Goldstein 
Bronx  section : 

Chairman — Isidora  Begun 
Organizing  secretary — Bob  Appel 
Press  director — Bob  Alpert 
Educational  director — Robert  Klonsky 
Assistant  educational  director — Henry  Kuntzler 
Kings  County  section : 

Chairman — Peter  V.  Cacchione 

Chairman,  women's  committee — Margaret  Cowl  (Krumbein) 
Sectional  organizer — Carl  Vedro 
Press  director — Mickey  Langbert 
Essex  County  section : 

Chairman — Martha  Stone 
Manhattan  County  section : 

Executive  secretary — George  Charney 
Press  director  (industrial) — Al  Reger 
Brooklyn  section  : 

Organizing  secretary — John  White 


Robert  Campbell 
Ester  Letz 
David  Gi'eene 
Evelyn  Wiener 
Alvin  Warren 


12  TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE 

Miscellaneous  sections : 

Chairman,  Buffalo — Lloyd  Kinsey 

Organizer,  Buffalo — Nicholas  Kosanovich 

Assistant  to  chairman,  Buffalo — Norman  Ross 

Chairman,  Rochester — Gertrude  Kowal 

Chairman,  Syracuse — George  Sheldrick 

Chairman,  Utica — Murray  Savage 

Chairman,  Schenectady — Harold  Klein 

Chairman,  Binghamton — Irving  Weissman 

Chairman,  Tonkers — Edna  Fried 

Chairman,  Astoria,  Long  Island — Esther  Signer 

Secretary,  Nassau  County — John  Lavin 

Secretary,  Coney  Island — William  Albertson 

Organizing  secretary,  eastern  Nevp  York — Morris  Smith 

Director,  Nassau  County- — Jim  Faber 

Chairman,  Melrose — Joe  Jackson 

Xiiterature  director,  Middletown — Rose  Walsh 

Oi'ganizing  secretary,  Williamsburg — Leon  Nelson 

Organizer,  Brownsville — Abe  Osheroff 

Organizer,  Nassau — Sam  Faber 

Chairman,  Westchester — Herbert  L.  Wheeldin 

Section  organizer — Leon  Nelson 

Press  director,  Bright  Beach — Harry  Klein 

Organizer,  Morrisania — Morris  Stillmnn 

Organizer,  Allerton — Bernard  Schuldiner 

Organizer,  Parkchester — Sparky  Friedman 

Organizer,  Jamaica — Charles  Evans 

Northwest  district,  IOI6Y2   Second  Avenue,   F^eattle,   Wash.,  and  916  East 
Hawthorne  Street,  Portland,   Oreg. 

(States  included  :  Idaho,  Oregon,  and  Washington) 

Chairman   (district) — Henry  Huff 
Labor  secretary  (district) — Andre  Renies 
Secretary,  Pierce  County  section — Clara  Sear 
Director,  People's  Vv^orld,  Seattle — Marx  Blashko 
Committee  members  (in  addition  to  above)  : 

C.  Van  Lydegraf 

Barbara  Hartle 

Edward  Alexander 
Chairman,  Spokane  section — William  L.  Cumming 
Chairman,  Oregon  section — Ead  Payne 
Secretary,  Oregon  section — Mark  Haller 

District  of  California,  9.^2  Market  Street,  San  Francisco,  Calif. 

(State   or   California) 

Chairman — William  Schneiderman 

Organizing  secretary — Loretta  Starvis 

State  treasurer — Anita  Whitney 

State  field  organizer — Mickey  Lima 

State  educational  director — Celeste  Strack 

People's  Daily  World  circulatio]i  director — Leo  Baro-way  __ 

Chairman,  youth  commission — George  Kaye  "^ 

Chairman,  Jewish  commission — A.  Olken 

State  press  diiector' — Ida  Rothstein 
'  State  youth  director — Geoi-ge  Kaye 

Labor  secretaries — Archie  Brown  and  Leon  Kaplan 
Committee  members : 

John  Pittman  Loretta    Starvis 

Louise  Todd  Nemmy   Sparks 

Ray  Thonijison  Clarence  Tobey 

William   Schneiderman  George  Lohr 

Pettis  Perry  Mickey  Lima 

State  political  editor — Douglas  Ward 

Secretary,  water-front  section — Herbert  Nugent 


TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE  13 

Los  Angeles  County  section  : 

Chairman — Neniniy  Sparks 

Labor  secretary — Ben  Dobbs 

Press  director — Elizabeth  Ricarrlo 

Chairman,  minorities  commission — Pettis   Perry 

Organizing  secretary — Dorothy  Healy 

Editor,  People's  Daily  World — Sidney  Burke 

Chairman  Sixteenth  Congressional  District — Emil  Freed 

Section  organizer — Alvin  Averbuck 

Legislative  director — Harry  Daniels 

Harbor  section  organizer — Jim  Forrest 

Veterans"  director — Merel  Brodeky 

Youth  director — Phil  Bock 

Secretary,  Carver  Club  section — Mort  Newman 

Candidate,  board  of  education — La  Rue  McCormack 

Candidate,  councilman — Henry  Steinberg — Ninth  District 

Candidate,    councilman — James    C.    McGowan — Eleventh    District 

Candidate,  councilman — Elsie  M.  Monjar — Eighth  District 

Director,  West  Adams  Club  of  Communist  Party — Joe  Klein 

Social  activity  secretary,  62  AD,  Communist  Party — Ida  Elliott 
Northern  California  section : 

Chairman,  San  iVancisco  section — Oleta  Yates 

Legislative  director,  San  Francisco  section — Herb  Nugent 

Labor  director.  San  Francisco — Leon  Kaplan 

Water-front   organizer — Alex   Freskin 

Educational  director,   San  P^rancisco — Aubrey  Grossman 
San  Diego  County  section  : 

Chairman  :  Fnos  J.  Baker 
Alemeda  County  section : 

Chairman — Lloyd  Lehman 

Labor  director — Wesley  Bodkin 

Organizer,  Ben  Davis  Club  of  Communist  Party  (Alemeda) — Buddy  Green 

Trade-union    director,    Hariet    Tubman    Club    of    Communist    Party    (Ala- 
meda)— Helen  Bodkin 
Miscellaneous  section : 

President,  Santa  Monica  Club  of  Communist  Party — David  Grant 

Chairman,  Contra  Costa  County — Mildred  Bowen 

Chairman.   Hollywood  section — John   Stapp 

Press  director,  East  Side  Youth  Club  (Los  Angeles) — Libbj  Wilson 

Organizer,  North  Oakland  section — George  Edwards 

District  of  Arizona,  716 1^  North  Washington  Street,  Phoenix,  Ariz. 

( State  of  Arizona ) 
Chairman — Morris  Graham 
Committee  members : 

Lewis  Johnson  Karl  M.  Wilson  ' 

Chairman,  Maricopa  County — M.  Dallen 

District  of  New  Jersey,  38  Park  Place,  Neicark,  N.  J. 

(State  of  New  Jersey) 

Chairman — Sid  Stein 

Organizing  secretary — Larry  Mahon 

Section  organize!-,  Plainfield — Al  Muniz 

Committee  members : 

Martha  Stone  ( Scherer)  Joseph  Magliacana 

Tom  Scanlon  El  wood  Dean 

Irving  Glassman  Mrs.  Gaetana  Mahan 

District  of  Connecticut,  231  Fairfield  Avenue,  Bridgepoi-t.  Conn. 

(State  of  Connecticut) 
Chairman — Joe  Roberts 
Secretary — Mike  Rosso 
Committee  members  (in  addition  to  above)  : 

Rudolph  Gillespie 

Roy  A.  Leib 
Chairman  Hartford  section — Roy  A.  Leib 
Chairman  Nev\-  Haven  section — Sidney  S.  Taylor 


14  TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE 

District  of  Wisconsin,  611  Xorth  Secoud  Street,  Miiu-nitkee.  Wis. 

(State  of  Wisconsin) 

Chairman — Frerl  Blair 
Secretary — E.  Eiseusclier 
State  committee — Slgmund  Eisenscher 
Chairman  Milwaukee  section — G.  Eisenscher 
Chairman  sixth  ward — Joe  Ellis 

Secretary  Milwaukee  section — Clarence  Blair  (alias  Clark) 
Organizer,  Milwaukee^James  Phillips 

District  of  Colorado,  929  fierenteeiitli   Sttt^et,  Dcnrer.  Colo. 

(States  included:  Colorado,  New  Mexico,  and  Wyoming) 

Chairman — William  Dietrich 
Secretary— Arthur  W.  Barry 
Organizational  secretary — Tracy  Rogers 

District  of  Missouri,  lOJfl  NortJi  Grand  Street.  St.  Loui.9.  Mo. 

(State  of  Missouri) 

Chairman — Ralph  Shaw 
Secretary — Nathan  Oser 

District  of  West  Virginia,  CJiarleston.  W.  Va. 

(State  of  West  Virginia) 
Chairman — Ted  Allen 

Southern  District 

(States    included:    Texas,    Louisiana,    Florida,    Georgia,    Virginia,    Alabama, 
Mississippi,  Tennessee,  Oklahoma,  North  Carolina,  and  South  Carolina) 

Chairman,  Texas— Ruth  Koenig,  305  Herman  Building,  Houston,  Tex. 

Executive  secretary,  Texas — James  J.  Green. 

Chairman,  Houston  section — William  C.  Crawford 

Chairman,  Louisiana — James  E.  Jackson.  Jr. 

Secretary,  Louisiana — Kay  Davis.  Godchaux  Building,  New  Orleans,  La. 

Chairman,  Florida-Georgia- Alex  W.  Trainor,  1.546  Loma,  Jacksonville,  Fla. 

Organization  secretary,  Florida-Georgia — Homer  Chase 

Chairman,  Virginia — Alice  Burke,  102  North  Eighth.  Richmond,  Va. 

Chairman,  Alahama-Mississippi-Tennesseee — Harold  Bolton 

Secretary,  Alabama-Mlssisslppi-Tenne.ssee — Andy  Brow^i 

Press  director,  Alabama-Mississippi-Tennessee — Harry  Raymond 

Organizer,  Alabama-Mississippi-Tennessee — INIary  Southard 

Chairman,  Oklahoma — Allen  Shaw 

District  organizer.  Oklahoma — H.  Smith.  Oklahoma  City.  Okla. 

Organizing  secretary,  Oklahoma — Al  Lowe 

Organizing  secretary.  North  and  South  Caroliqa — Sam  Hall 

District  of  Montana,  2111  Fourth  Arnnie  Soutli.  Great  Falls,  Mont. 

(State  of  Montana) 
Chairman — Ira  Slebrasse 

Di-'itrici   of  Nehrasl:a.    'it')   KarhacI,-   liKildiiu;,   Omaha,  Nehr. 

(State  of  Nebraska) 

State  chairman — Warren  Batterson 

District  of  Utah.  75  South w(st  Tciiiitle  Street.  Salt  Lake  City,  Utah 

(State  of  Utah) 

State  cliainnan — Wallace  Talbot 
State  secretary — Joseph  Douglas 


TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER    S.    STEELE  15 

Mr.  Steele.  Let  us  consider,  as  an  example,  the  partial  division  of 
the  party  sections  in  one  State — Pennsylvania.  This  State  is  divided 
into  two  districts:  One  is  tlie  western  Pennsylvania  district,  which 
operates  independently  from  the  eastern  section;  the  other  the  eastern 
Pennsylvania-Delaware  district.  It  is  the  latter  that  I  will  break 
down. 

There  are  22  sections  in  eastern  Pennsylvania.  2  in  Delaware,  and 
1  in  southern  New  Jersey.  Thirteen  are  in  Philadeli)hia  and  on*:"  in 
each  of  the  following  localities:  Bucks  County,  Allentown,  Reading, 
Lancaster,  Chester,  Scranton,  Wilkes-Ban^e,  Minersville,  Washington, 
Wilmington,  and  the  Delaware  County  and  Lehigh  Valley  sections. 
Each  of  these  is  broken  down  into  smaller — club — units.  In  the  Michi- 
gan district,  Detroit,  like  Philadelphia,  is  but  one  of  the  sections,  and 
the  Detroit  section  is  divided  into  ;>3  units  or  clubs.  Los  Angeles,  as 
another  example,  is  broken  down  into  (i2  units.  In  Oregon,  a  smaller 
State,  there  are  only  nine  sections.  In  Washington,  D,  C,  there  are 
16  units. 

In  my  opinion — one  which  I  think  is  possibly  shared  by  members 
of  this  committee — the  Comnuniist  Party  is  not  a  political  party  in  the 
true  sense  of  the  word.  It  is  camouflaged  as  such,  not  with  the  expec- 
tation of  electing  candidates  to  high  office  but  rather  for  the  purpose 
of  agitating  and  propagandizing  in  behalf  of  communism  and  its  plot 
to  overthrow  our  Govermnent.  The  Communist  Party  plank  purports 
to  uphold  the  so-called  everyday  needs  of  the  masses.  Through  this 
ruse  it  hopes  to  gain  sufficient  following  and  strength  with  which  to 
carry  out  its  plans  for  a  revolution  when  the  time  is  deemed  ripe.  Its 
machine  is  kept  intact  in  order  to  lead  the  revolutionary  overthrow  and 
to  assume  dictatorship  of  the  Government  at  such  time.  By  posnig 
as  a  political  party,  by  propagandizing,  and  by  utilizing  pressure  tac- 
tics, it  can  also  further  step-by-step  legislation  tow^ard  Marxism. 
Communists  hope  to  gain  the  balance  of  power  in  certain  sections — 
for  instance,  through  the  American  Labor  Party — thereby  neutralizing 
candidates  on  major  tickets  and  forcing  them  to  become  defenders 
of  the  Communist  Party,  to  lead  its  fronts,  and  to  serve  as  its  agents 
and  mouthpieces.  The  Communists  have  admitted  that  this  is  their 
plan.  As  proof,  I  quote  at  this  point  from  the  Manifesto  and  Program 
of  the  Communist  Party  of  America,  as  exposed  by  the  State  Depart- 
nien  at  a  Senate  hearing  on  July  9,  1930 : 

Coiumimisiu  does  not  propose  to  capture  the  bourgeois  parlianieutary  state,  but 
to  conquer  and  destroj'  it.  *  *  *  The  conquest  of  power  of  the  state  is  ac- 
complished by  the  mass  power  of  the  proletariat.  Political  mass  strikes  are  a 
vital  factor  in  developing  this  mass  power,  preparing  the  working  class  for  the 
conquest  of  capitalism. 

The  power  of  the  proletariat  lies  fundamentally  in  its  control  of  industrial 
process.  The  mobilizing  of  the  control  against  capitalism  means  the  initial  form 
of  the  revolutionary  mass  action  that  will  conquer  the  power  of  the  state.    *    *    * 

The  Communist  Party  is  fundamentally  a  party  of  action.  *  *  *  The  Com- 
munist Party  directs  the  workers'  struggle  against  capitalism,  developing  fuller 
forms  and  purposes  in  this  struggle,  culminating  in  the  mass  action  of  revolution. 

The  Communist  maintains  that  the  class  struggle  is  essentially  a  political 
struggle ;  that  is,  a  struggle  to  conquer  the  power  of  the  state  *  *  *  and  the 
establishment  of  a  dictatorship  of  the  proletariat.     *     *     * 

I'articipaticm  in  parliamentary  campaigns,  which  in  the  general  struggle  of 
the  proletariat,  is  of  secondary  importance,  is  for  the  purpose  of  revolutionary 
pi-opaganda  only. 

65176—47 2 


16  TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE 

Mr.  Stripling.  You  have  been  quoting  from  the  Communist  Mani- 
festo? 

Mr.  Steele.  The  Communist  Manifesto  of  the  United  States. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Yes. 

The  Chairman.  I  would  like  to  ask  a  question. 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  This  list  of  clubs  that  you  have  there 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  What  makes  you  believe  that  they  are  Communist 
clubs  ? 

]Mr.  Steele.  I  was  speaking,  Mr.  Chairman,  of  the  Communist  clubs. 

The  Chairman.  Are  they  avowed  Communist  clubs  'i 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes ;  avowed  Conniiunist  clubs. 

The  Chairman.  I  see. 

Mr.  Steele.  Just  before  the  war,  you  recall,  the  l^arty  was  changed 
to  an  association,  and  at  that  time  they  changed  the  units  to  clubs. 
They  named  each  club,  like  the  John  Reed  Club,  and  so  forth. 

The  Chairman.  This  list  that  you  submitted  is  of  what  date  ? ' 

Mr.  Steele.  Is  of  the  present  date. 

Mr.  Stripling.  What  5'ou  mean,  Mr.  Steele,  is  that  the  Communist 
Party  revamped  its  entire  organizational  set-up  after  the  announced 
abolition  of  the  Comintern? 

Mr.  Steele.  That  is  right. 

Mr.  Stripling.  And  now,  Mr.  Chairman,  the  Communist  Party 
functions  as  study  groups,  rather  than  as  cells  or  sections,  as  they 
previously  did,  and  their  membership  records  and  their  financial 
records  are  paid  and  kept  as  such  now,  rather  than  into  central  head- 
quarters as  they  were  at  one  time ;  is  that  true  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  That  is  right. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Their  membership  list,  financial  statement,  and  so 
forth,  would  be  in  the  headquarters  of  each  one  of  these  clubs? 

Mr.  Steele.  The  local  statements;  yes.  I  would  say,  however,  that 
the  sectional  office  would  have  a  list  of  the  clubs  under  that  section — 
which  I  think  I  can  prove  by  documentary  evidence  later — and  that 
possibly  the  national  office  has  the  sectional  office  records. 

The  Chairman.  Excuse  me. 

The  record  will  show  that  Mr.  McDowell  is  present. 

Mr.  Steele.  In  testifying  before  a  congressional  committee  in  1928, 
William  Z.  Foster,  present  national  chairman  of  the  Communist  Party, 
said: 

The  Communist  Party  advocates  the  overthrow  of  the  capitalist  systeip  and 
the  confiscation  of  the  social  necessities  of  life.  *  *  *  I  have  stated  that 
the  Connuunist  Party  advocates  the  abolition  of  the  capitalist  system  in  this 
country  and  every  other  country ;  that  this  must  develop  out  of  the  sharpening 
of  the  class  struggle.  *  *  *  The  conquest  of  power  by  the  proletariat  does 
not  mean  i^eaceful  capturing  of  the  ready-made  bourgeois  state  machinery  by 
means  of  parliamentary  majority.  *  *  *  Our  party,  different  from  the 
Socialist  Party,  creates  no  illussions  amongst  the  workers  that  they  can  vote 
their  way  to  emancipation,  that  they  can  capture  the  ready-made  machinery  of 
the  state  and  utilize  it  for  the  emancipation  of  the  working  class.  On  the  con- 
tr;iry,  we  must  utilize  this  campaign  to  carry  on  widespread  and  energetic  propa- 
ganda to  teach  the  woi'kers  that  the  capitalist  class  would  never  allow  the 
working  class  peacefully  to  take  control  of  the  state.  The  working  class  must 
shatter  the  capitalist  state.  *  *  *  No  Communist,  no  matter  how  many  votes 
he  should  secure  in  a  national  election,  could  become,  even  if  he  would,  Presi- 
dent of  the  present  Government.     When  a  Comnuinist  heads  a  government  in 


TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER    S.    STEELE  17 

the  United  States,  and  that  day  will  come  .Inst  as  surely  as  the  sun  rises,  that 
government  will  not  be  a  capitalistic  government  but  a  Soviet  government,  and 
behind  this  government  will  stand  the  Red  Army  to  enforce  the  dictatorship  of 
the  proletariat.    *    *    * 

Upon  being  further  questioned  with  regard  to  the  purposes  and 
aims  of  the  Communist  Party,  Foster  stated  at  that  time : 

The  Communist  Party  advocates  the  overthrow  of  the  capitalist  system  *  *  * 
and  the  Communists  of  the  United  States  owe  no  allegiance  to  the  Government 
of  the  United  States  or  to  the  American  flag.  Communists  of  this  and  all  coun- 
tries loulv  upon  the  Soviet  Union  as  their  country,  and  they  recognize  only  one 
flag,  the  Red  flag. 

Foster  described  the  Red  flag  as  "the  flag  of  the  proletarian  revo- 
lution." 

Many  similar  statements  have  been  made  by  Communist  leaders 
from  time  to  time,  all  of  which  prove  the  charges  I  have  made.  An- 
other pertinent  statement  appeared  in  the  pamphlet,  A  Talk  About 
the  Communist  Party,  issued  in  1943  by  the  Workers'  Library  Pub- 
lishers, one  of  the  official  Communist  publication  houses.  This  boasts 
of  the  manner  in  which  a  comparatively  small  movement,  such  as  the 
Communist  Party,  can  influence  a  large  number  of  people  into  the 
following  of  the  party.     The  sfeitement  reads  as  follows : 

The  Conuuunist  Party  represents  a  coherent  set  of  ideas.  *  *  *  The  second 
characteristic  of  our  party  is  that,  while  being  a  small  well-knit  group,  thinking 
and  working  collectively  in  a  way  that  makes  it  act  different  from  any  other 
party  and  <lifferent  from  the  masses,  at  the  same  time,  if  it  is  really  functioning 
as    the    Communist    Party,    it    is    always    in    the    closest    contact    witii    the 


masses. 


*     * 


Our  program  is  the  most  powerful  thing  in  the  political  life  of  our  country 
today,  the  most  powerful  thing  in  tiie  world  today.  We  are  planting  it  in  America 
so  that  it  grows  riglit  out  of  the  ground  of  our  country  and  our  comnuinity. 
Our  party  is  strong  because  of  this,  strong  beyond  its  numbers,  because  we  grow 
slowly  in  numbers,  we  grow  by  leaps  and  bounds  in  our  influence.  *  *  * 
We  are  the  ones  who  always  know  what  we  are  doing  and  where  we  are  going. 
*  *  *  We  work  together,  we  think  together,  and  this  gives  us  a  strength 
far  beyond  any  Individuals.     *     *     * 

In  our  agitation  around  these  demands  (everday  needs  of  workers)  we  must 
emphasize  the  absolute  necessity  for  the  proletarian  revolution.  Our  strategy 
is  to  utilize  these  immediate  demands  to  educate  and  organize  the  masses  in 
jtreparation  for  the  final  revolutionary  .struggle,  wliich  will  abolish  capitalism 
.iltogether.  Reliance  on  immediate  demands  would  lead  us  merely  to  reformism. 
Our  party  is  a  revolutionary  pai'ty.  It  aims  not  simply  to  ease  conditions  a  bit 
under  capitalism  for  the  workers  bnt  to  abolish  capitalism  altogether.  *  *  * 
The  Communist  Part.y  is  a  Leninist,  Marxist  party.  It  knows  how  to  participate 
in  the  daily  struggles  of  the  workers.  It  knows  how  to  utilize  all  these  struggles 
to  develop  class  consciousness  *  *  *  and  thus  begin  the  mobilization  for  the 
eventual  overthrow  of  capitalism. 

In  promoting  these  "everyday  needs"  of  the  people,  as  a  means 
through  which  the  Communist  Party  and  its  fronts  may  gain  support 
while  building  for  the  revolution,  the  issues,  as  a  rule,  involve  ques- 
tions pertaining  to  yotith,  war,  working  clas.ses,  races,  farmers,  and 
international  afl^airs.  The  Communists  also  agitate  for  the  socializa- 
tion of  industry  and  professions,  for  government  relief,  and  for  spe- 
cial rights  for  special  groups.  They  oppose  deportations  and  laws 
which  restrict  immigration. 

In  two  of  his  books.  The  Russian  Revolution  and  Towards  a  Soviet 
America,  William  Z.  Foster  clearly  outlined  the  ultimate  purposes 
of  the  Communist  Party — the  creation  of  a  Soviet  America  which 
woidd  be  allied  with  the  Soviet  Union.     In  the  foreword  of  The  Rus- 


18  TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE 

sian  Kevoliilioii.  P^oster  said.  "The  revolution  is  a  bitter  struggle, 
but  I  do  not  despair  of  the  outcome.'*  He  explained  that  the  program 
of  the  international  Communist  movement  is  "to  lead  this  figlit,  in 
good  times  and  bad,  to  broaden  and  deepen  it  until  it  ends  in  the  over- 
throw of  the  whole  capitalist  system." 

Two  years  ago,  in  the  micl;-t  of  the  acute  afterwar  crisis,  the  world  revolution 
seemed  to  be  only  a  matter  of  a  few  months :  now  it  may  be  a  question  of  years. 

Refeience  was  to  the  First  World  War. 
In  Towards  a  Soviet  America,  Foster  said  : 

The  huildin;::-  of  Soviets  is  begun  not  alter  tlie  I'evolution,  but  bot'orc.  The  Soviets 
are  not  only  the  foundation  of  the  future  workers"  state,  but  also  the  main  in- 
stnnnents  to  mobilize  the  masses  for  rev()lutit)nary  struggle.  *  *  *  The 
American  Soviet  government  will  be  organized  along  the  broad  lines  of  the 
Russian  Soviets.  *  *  *  The  American  Soviet  government  will  join  with 
other  soviet  governments  in  a  world  .soviet  union.  *  *  *  The  American 
Soviet  government  wi'l  be  the  dictatorship  of  the  proletariat.  *  *  *  The 
leader  of  the  revolution  in  all  its  stages  is  the  Comnmnist  Party.  *  *  *  The 
socialization  program  will  be  carried  through  on  the  basis  of  contiscation  with- 
out remuneration.  *  *  *  Capitalism,  it  is  true,  makes  a  strong  and  stub- 
born resistance.  The  advance  of  the  I'evolution  is  difficult ;  its  pace  is  .slow  *  *  * 
but  its  direction  is  sure  and  its  movement  irresistible. 

The  Communist  movement,  which  had  reached  its  peak  in  the 
United  States  at  the  beginning  of  World  W^ar  II.  following  the  break 
between  Hitler  and  Stalin,  was  forced  to  throw  everything  it  had  into 
the  war  effort  in  behalf  of  Russia.  As  a  result,  it  changed  its  name 
to  the  Comnuuiist  Political  Association  and.  for  ]n'opaganda  pur- 
poses and  to  circumvent  the  Foreign  Agent  Registration  Act,  it 
allegedly  severed  its  ties  to  the  Communist  International,  which 
Avas  months  later  also  dechtred  dissolved,  and  this  with  American 
Communist  approval,  although  it  had  previously  announced  that  it 
had  severed  affiliation  w^ith  it. 

The  ])oint  I  am  making  there  is  that  although  the  Connnimist  Party 
of  the  United  States  declared  that  it  had  severed  its  connections 
with  the  Connnunist  International  one  year,  the  next  year  it  took  part 
in  voting  "the  Connnunist  International  out  of  existence. 

At  that  time,  the  name  of  the  Young  Communist  League  was 
changed  to  American  Youth  for  Democracy.  The  names  of  Com- 
nnniist  schools  and  propaganda  publishing  centers  were  also  changed. 
Front  organizations  which  had  previously  been  disguised  as  "peace'- 
and  "democracy''  groups  sw^itched  their  activities  to  "civil  rights," 
racial,  and  foreign  fronts.  IManj^  of  their  other  fronts  were  tem- 
porarily shelved,  but  hundreds  of  movements  for  the  postwar  period 
sprinig  up.  Still  others,  already  in  operation,  extended  their  spheres 
of  influence. 

Since  tlie  Second  AVorld  War,  Communists  here  not  only  accelerated 
the  activities  of  these  groups,  but  they  have  also  been  building  new 
l)ropaganda,  agitational,  racial,  and  cidtural  movements.  We  must 
not  lose  sioht  of  the  fact  that  manv  of  these  coordinate  w4th  Red 
activities  in  the  countries  to  our  south  and  in  the  Pacific. 

It  is  my  personal  opinion  that  far  more  dangerous  than  the  Com- 
munist Party  itself  are  its  tooLs — the  fronts  or.  as  Earl  Browder  once 
called  tliem.  "transmission  belts"  of  the  Communist  movement  in  the 
United  States.  Here  we  have  a  strong  chain,  the  links  of  which  are 
composed  of  forces,  operating  under  high-sounding  and  misleading 


TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE  19 

names,  the  actual  purposes  of  which  are  carefully  camouflaged.  The 
leaders  thereof  are  publicized  as  "famed"  authors,  "renowned"  pro- 
fessors, "great"  scientists,  and  "widely  known"  professional  men. 
Ever  increasing  numbers  join  them.  All  gradually  veer  to  the  party 
line  through  the  pulling  of  strings  by  the  tireless  workers  among  these 
forces  who  have  party  affiliations.  The  most  alarming  phase  of  the 
situation  is  the  manner  in  which  these  forces  penetrated  our  armed 
services,  the  ease  with  which  they  obtained  sensitive  positions,  and 
the  fact  that  our  Government  permits  the  functioning  of  a  reserve 
unit  of  an  international  Red  brigade  whose  loyalty  is  to  another 
power. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Mr.  Steele,  in  connection  with  your  statement  that 
you  consider  the  tools  of  the  Communist  Party  to  be  more  dangerous 
than  the  party  itself,  based  upon  your  investigations  and  studies  of  the 
situation,  how  many  tools  of  the  Communist  Party  do  you  think  there 
are  in  the  United  States? 

Mr.  Steele.  Do  ,vou  mean  individuals? 

Mr.  Stripling.  Individuals. 

Mr.  Steele.  Or  organizations? 

Mr.  Stripling.  Individuals. 

Mr.  Steele.  Well,  it  is  merely  an  estimate,  3^ou  understand,  but  I 
would  say  approximately  5,000,000. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Five  million  people  who  are  affiliated  or  identified 
with  the  Communist  Party  in  one  waj-  or  another  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  That  is,  with  the  party  or  its  fronts. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Who  serve  the  party  purposes  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  That  is  right.  It  is  very  hard  to  get  an  exact  figure  on 
that  because  there  is  some  duplication ;  in  one  organization  there  may 
be  individuals  that  belong  to  another. 

The  Chairman.  How  would  you  break  it  down  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  Pardon  me? 

The  Chairman.  How  would  3^011  break  it  down?  How  many  mem- 
bers of  the  Communist  Party  and  how  many  fellow-travelers,  and  how 
many  members  of  the  fronts? 

Mr.  Steele.  There  are  approximately  100.000  members  of  the  party 
and  we  have  no  idea  how  many  candidates  there  are.  We  overlook 
the  fact  that  a  person  that  is  signed  up  with  the  Communist  Party  does 
not  become  a  member  of  the  party  immediately.  He  becomes  a  candi- 
date— as  you  have  in  Russia,  for  instance.  You  have  something  like 
6,000,000  members  of  the  party  in  Russia.  You  have  something  like 
8,000,000  candidates  waiting  to  become  party  members.  Consequent- 
ly, in  this  country  we  find  that  in  their  drives  they  sign  a  person  up  to 
the  party,  but  he  remains  a  candidate  until  he  is  sworn  into  the  party — 
and  I  presume  that  he  has  to  go  through  a  certain  test  in  party  work. 
He  possibly  works  more  diligently  than  a  party  member  during  that 
period.  As  to  the  fronts,  I  have  tried  to  estimate  that  on  this  l^asis : 
We  have  taken  the  leadership  of  the  front  organizations,  and  we  find 
quite  a  duplication  there,  possibly  40  percent,  so  we  have  assumed 
that  there  is  40  percent  duplication,  maybe  50  percent  duplication  in 
the  memberships,  and  so  we  have  taken  total  members  of  the  organi- 
zations as  we  could  obtain  them  and  divided  it  in  half.  I  think  that 
is  a  very  liberal  way  of  estimating  it.  It  is  possiblj^  greater  than  that, 
but  at  least  we  are  not  overshooting  the  mark. 


20  TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE 

The  Chairman.  Would  you  say  there  are  100,000  Communist  Party 
dues-paying,  card-holding  members,  and  would  you  say  there  were 
100,000  so-called  candidates? 

Mr.  Steele.  I  would  say  "Yes." 

The  Chairman.  Then  there  would  be  4,800,000  members  of  front 
organizations  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  That  is  right. 

The  Chairman.  Isn't  that  the  largest  figure  we  have  ever  received, 
Mr.  Stripling? 

Mr.  Stripling.  I  believe  that  is  the  largest  estimate,  Mr.  Chairman. 

Mr.  Sit;ele.  I  want  to  say  this,  that  we  obtained  the  election  sta- 
tistics several  years  ago  from  the  States,  and  we  took  the  total  of  those, 
eliminating  in  the  cases  where  there  was  a  candidate  running  State- 
wide, we  used  that  figure.  If  there  was  no  candidate  running  State- 
wide we  used  the  top  local  candidate  and  if  that  top  local  candidate 
didn't  overlap  another  candidate  we  added  other  candidates.  We  ar- 
rived at  a  figure  of  232,000  in  the  election  that  year.  And  ordinarily 
the  full  vote  of  the  party  is  never  exhibited  in  an  election — which 
statistics  show  to  be  true  in  other  countries. 

Evidence  has  been  submitted  to  this  committee  which  has  shown  that 
"the  Communists  have  sent  men  and  women,  boys  and  girls  to  study  at 
the  Lenin  Institute  in  Moscow  where  they  have  received  schooling 
in  various  phases  of  militant  Communist  action  in  order  that  they 
might  engage  in  such  Communist  activities  here  in  the  United  States. 
Witnesses  who  have  appeared  before  this  committee  and  before  com- 
mittees which  have  held  hearings  in  the  past  have  testified,  under  oath, 
that  they  were  among  those  who  had  gone  to  Russia  for  such  schooling. 
They  admitted  that  they  studied  the  philosophies  of  Marxism,  Lenin- 
ism, Stalinism,  and  communism  in  general,  and  that  they  also  re- 
ceived instruction  in  sedition,  sabotage,  street  fighting,  conspiracy,  bar- 
ricading, and  other  types  of  guerrilla  warfare. 

One  committee  which  held  hearings  in  1936.  I  am  certain  it  was 
the  Woodrum  committee,  found  that  our  WPA  had  been  infiltrated 
by  agents  who  made  maps  of  water  mains,  cable  lines,  subway  lines, 
and  other  systems  of  vital  importance,  and  that  these  maps  had  even- 
tually found  their  way  to  Moscow. 

Recently  a  member  of  this  committee  discovered  that  during  the 
recent  war,  photos  of  our  large  power  projects,  war  industries,  and 
the  terrain  of  important  sections  of  our  country  had  been  taken  and 
sent  to  ]\Ioscow.  '' 

Back  in  1939  I  testified  before  the  Special  Committee  Investigating 
Un-American  Activities,  and  I  furnished  proof  at  that  time  that  the 
Communists  had  opened,  in  1937,  a  "Red  School  of  the  Air''  at  Bennett 
Field,  N.  Y.,  at  which  scores  of  young  men  were  being  trained  by 
the  Reds  in  flying  and  ground  work.  This  school  was  under  the  di- 
rection of  the  International  Workers'  Order.  I  also  testified  to  the 
effect  that  the  Communist  Party  had  organized  a  Red  front  army 
training  and  recruiting  school,  and  that  the  headquarters  of  this  outfit 
were  then  located  at  95  Avenue  B,  New  York,  N.  Y. 

I  wish  to  submit  at  this  point  as  proof  of  the  above  statement  exhibit 
No.  3. 

(Exhibit  No.  3  was  received.)  ^ 


^  See  appendix,  p.  174,  for  exhibit  3. 


TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE  21 

Mr.  Stripling.  What  happened  to  that  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  That  was  disbanded. 

Mr.  Stripling.  When  was  it  disbanded? 

Mr.  Steele.  Shortly  after  it  was  exposed  before  the  Committee  of 
Congress. 

Mr.  Stripling.  What  happened  to  the  school  at  Bennett  Field? 

Mr.  Steele.  It  was  also  abandoned  a*fter  I  exposed  il,  and  there 
were  several  licensed  flyers  whose  licenses  were  revoked  by  the  Federal 
Government. 

I  discovered  later  that  the  Communists  maintained  a  ''Ked  An- 
napolis" on  the  Hudson  in  New  York  where  men  were  being  trained 
in  maritime  work.  .These  schools  were  short-term  schools,  and  when 
1  presented  my  testimony  80  students  were  enrolled  in  the  "Red  School 
of  the  Air.''  I  was  not  able  to  ascertain  how  many  were  enrolled  in 
other  schools. 

Party  schools  were  popular  in  those  days — short-term  schools  which 
were  se})arate  from  their  more  public  schools — they  then  operated  and 
still  operate.  These  party  schools  were  secret  schools,  and  while  I 
have  been  advised  from  time  to  time  that  they  dealt  solely  with  ideolo- 
gies and  tactics  of  revolution,  I  personally  have  had  only  one  piece 
of  evidence  to  prove  that  the  latter  was  the  case.  I  presented  that 
evidence  when  I  appeared  before  the  McCormack  committee.  It  de- 
scribed the  plan  of  inciting  mutiny  in  the  armed  forces,  of  encourag- 
ing the  workers  to  fight.  It  outlined  the  plan  for  centi^alization  of 
party  leadership  in  the  revolts  they  hoped  to  create,  and  the  plan  for 
seizure  of  the  White  House  and  the  Capitol.  This  document  was 
seized  in  a  raid  on  a  Communist  center  in  Minnesota,  and  copies  were 
sent  to  me.  This  certainly  indicated  that  there  had  been  a  connection 
between  the  special  schooling  of  people  from  this  country  in  Mos- 
cow and  the  party  schooling  and  conspiracies  in  the  United  States. 

Recently  we  have  uncovered  evidence  to  prove  that  party  schools  are 
being  revived  in  this  country,  and  that  mass  meetings  and  marches 
are  again  being  emphasized.  We  understand  that  classes  are  being 
held  in  private  homes,  and  that  they  are  naturally  limited  to  small 
groups.  They  have  also  been  held  in  large  halls,  as  have  an  increas- 
ingly large  number  of  meetings  and  forums. 

The  Nelson  Davis  Educational  Forum 

The  Chairman.  What  was  the  name  of  that  forum  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  The  Nelson  Davis  Educational  Forum. 

The  Chairman.  I  see. 

Mr.  Steele.  The  Nelson  Davis  Educational  Forum  is  being  held  at 
this  time  in  Detroit,  Mich.  Through  forums  the  Reds  are  able  to 
keep  their  labor-union  member  contacts.  There  they  meet  with  them 
"off  the  job."  They  have  assumed  greater  importance  since  some  in 
the  CIO  seem  to  have  suddenly  revolted  against  Communist  leader- 
ship. 

Last  December  1946,  the  National  Committee  of  the  Communist 
Party  met  in  New  York  City,  at  which  time  it  made  plans  for  a  resump- 
tion of  what  it  called  "party  discussion  meets"  throughout  the  country. 
The  Harlem  Leadership  School  has  since  been  opened.  This  is  a  short- 
term  school.  Two  sessions  of  party  schools  were  held  in  Oklahoma 
City  and  Tulsa,  Okla.,  evidence  of  which  I  have  submitted  (Contact). 


22  TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE 

By  the  way,  I  thought  that  was  so  important  that  I  brought  that 
up  to  your  committee,  and  your  committee  permitted  Mr.  Mandel  to 
photostat  that  for  your  records.    It  is  known  as  Contact. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Yes. 

Mr.  Steele.  Very  hard  to  obtain. 

And  I  had  five  issues  of  the  publication  in  which  the  school  activi- 
ties are  mentioned — party  school  activities. 

The  Chairman.  Which  school  is  that? 

Mr.  Steele.  The  Tulsa  school,  the  Harlem  school,  and  the  Nelson 
Davis  Educational  Forum. 

Classes  of  these  schools  were  held  on  Sundays  between  the  hours 
of  10 :  30  a.  m.  and  5  p.  m.  Unquestionably,  other  classes  are  being 
held  in  all  sections  of  the  United  States.  Oregon  party  leaders,  in 
recently  denying  a  charge  that  they  maintained  a  regular  school  in 
that  State,  admitted  they  were  holding  sessions  of  party  schools  in 
various  sections  of  that  State. 

Now,  getting  back  to  the  military  phase  of  this  picture,  we  find 
that  many  Communist;^  joined  our  armed  forces  after  Russia  and 
Germany  had  broken  off  relations,  and  Hitler's  armies  had  marched 
on  Russia.  Prior  to  that  time,  you  will  recall,  the  Connnunists  had 
organized  Yanks  Are  Not  Coming  Committees  and  urged  the  Ameri- 
can people  to '"oppose  the  imperialist  war."  They  had  even  created 
strikes  in  our  war-industry  plants.  I  am  submitting  a  list  of  hun- 
dreds of  Communists  and  Communist  fronters  who  served  in  our 
ai-med  forces. 

The  Chairman.  How  many  are  there  in  that  list? 

Mr.  Steele.  There  are  about  2,000  names. 

The  Chairman.  Two  thousand  Communists  joined  our  armed  forces? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Stripling.  I  don't  believe  he  testified,  Mr.  Chairman,  that  2,000 
Communists  joined.  He  testified  as  to  Communists  and  Communist 
fronters. 

The  Chairman.  I  see. 

Mr.  Stripling.  On  this  list,  you  say,  there  are  approximately  2,000 
names? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Stripling.  I  assume  the  committee  doesn't  want  to  have  all  of 
the  names  read  ? 

The  Chairman.  That  is  right. 

Mr.  Stripling.  I  would  like  to  ask  if  this  list  has  been  turned  over 
to  the  War  Department. 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Stripling.  It  was  turned  over  by  you  to  the  War  Department? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Stripling.  When  was  it  turned  over  by  you  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  Turned  over  2  months  ago. 

Mr.  Nixon.  You  said  that  the  names  represented  2,000  people? 

Mr.  Steele.  Approximately  2,000. 

Mr.  Nixon.  Who  belong  to  the  Communist  Party  or  to  Communist 
front  organizations? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Nixon.  You  included  them  in  the  list  then  if  you  found  that 
they  did  belong  to  these  organizations? 


TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE  23 

Mr.  Steele,  Yes.  sir;  I  mentioned  the  names  of  the  organizations. 

Mr.  Nixon.  Yon,  of  course,  recognize  tlie  fact  that  all  people  who 
happen  to  belong  to  Communist  front  organizations  may  not  in  all 
cases  be  deliberate  sympathizers  Avitli  the  Communist  Party? 

Mr.  Steele.  I  agree  with  you ;  yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Nixon.  You  Avould  also  recognize  it  possible  then  that  some  of 
these  names  might  be  the  names  of  people  who  were  members  of  the 
organization  but  who  might  not  be  sympathizers  with  the  party  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes;  in  a  few  instances. 

Mr.  Nixon.  You  haven't  checked  the  names  to  be  certain  that  all 
the  people  who  belong  to  the  organizations  were  also  sympathizers 
with  the  party  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  No  ;  I  have  only  checked  the  organization  to  determine 
•  that  it  is  in  direct  connection  with  the  party. 

Mr.  Nixon.  What  the  list  represents  then  is  that,  first,  everybody 
on  that  list  belongs  to  tliat  organization,  which  is  a  Communist  front 
organization  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  That  is  right. 

Mr.  Nixon.  And,  second,  that  the  organizations  have  been  checked 
by  you  and  to  your  satisfaction  are  Communist  front  organizations? 

Mr.  Steele.  That  is  right. 

The  Chairman.  I  think  it  is  important  to  keep  in  mind  there,  too, 
that  a  great  many  people  have  joined  up  or  belong  to  one  front  organ- 
ization and  man7>^  times  it  means  nothing,  so  until  we  check  the  names 
and  check  the  organizations,  why,  it  is  just  another  list  with  us. 

Mr.  Nixon.  That  is  the  point  I  wanted  to  emphasize. 

The  Chairman.  Yes. 

Mr.  Steele.  1  will  say  that  a  great  many  of  these  are — I  have  estab- 
lished that  a  great  many  of  these  are  active  in  the  party  itself,  and 
the  bulk  of  the  I'emaincler  of  them  are  connected  with  the  Interna- 
tional Workers'  Order,  and  I  gave  their  lodge  number  in  each  case, 
the  lodge  that  they  belong  to  in  the  International  "Workers'  Order. 

The  Chairman.  What  percentage  of  those  on  the  list  are  actual 
members  of  the  Communist  Party  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  Ap»proximately  60  percent. 

The  Chairman.  Sixty  percent? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir. 

Some  of  these  unquestionably  distinguished  themselves.  Russia's 
victory  depended  upon  our  victory,  both  in  the  west  and  in  the  east, 
and  Russia's  battles  became  our  battles.  I  can  best  emphasize  this 
point  by  submitting  a  copy  of  a  letter  written  by  one  of  these  boys,  a 
party  leader,  who  had  been  drafted.  He  explains  that  his  interest  rose 
only  when  the  United  States  accepted  Russia  as  an  ally,  and  when 
the  war  was  transformed  from  nn  "imperialist  war"  to  a  "people's 
war."    I  submit  a  copy  of  the  letter  herewith. 

(Exhibit  No.  4  was  received.)  ^ 

Mr.  Steele.  The  list  of  Communists  and  f  routers  who  served  in  our 
armed  forces  during  the  war  sliould  be  of  great  value  in  the  event  the 
United  States  and  Russia  should  go  to  Avar  against  each  other,  or  if 
the  United  States  happens  to  become  invoh^ed  in  a  war  against  any  of 
Russia's  satellite  countries.  At  such  a  time  we  may  firid  ourselves  in  an 
extremely  dangerous  position,  for  here  we  haA^e  a  great  number  of 

*  See  appendix,  p.  174.  for  exhibit  No.  4.  '' 


24  TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE 

men  trained  in  our  type  of  warfare,  many  of  whom  have  inside  knowl- 
edge of  our  technique  and  operation.  Some  of  them  are  former  mem- 
bers of  our  OSS. 

Together  with  this  list,  I  wish  to  submit  a  chart  showing  the  set-up 
of  an  organized  regiment,  the  Veterans  of  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade. 

(Exliibit  No.  5  was  received.)  ^ 

Mr.  Steele.  This  is  a  part  of  a  world  Communist  army  which  has 
been  kept  intact.  It  is  composed  of  many  Communists  who  served  in 
our  armed  forces  in  various  capacities.  We  all  know  that  the  OSS, 
with  which  many  of  these  men  were  connected,  was  the  so-called  super- 
sleuth  arm  of  our  intelligence  service.  This  chart  indicates  that  that 
which  appears  to  be  a  Red  Army  Reserve,  made  up  of  men  who  saw 
service  in  the  revolution  with  the  Red  army  of  Spain,  is  actually 
an  international  brigade. 

Mr.  Striplincx.  Mr.  Steele,  you  are  speaking  now  of  the  Abraham 
Lincoln  Brigade? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir ;  and  the  International  Brigade,  of  which  it  is 
a  section. 

Mr.  Stripling.  The  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade  is  the  American 
section  of  the  International  Brigade? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Stripling.  It  came  into  being  during  the  war  in  Spain  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  That  is  correct. 

Mr.  Stripling.  The  chart  that  you  are  referring  to,  is  that  this  map 
[indicating]  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Which  shows  the  various  units  of  the  International 
Brigade  and  their  leaders? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir.  z 

Mr.  Stripling.  In  various  countries  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Would  you  show  this  to  the  chairman  and  point 
out  before  you  continue  with  your  testimony  just  how  the  international 
set-up  is  described  there  and  explain  it? 

(Exhibit  5  was  exhibited  to  the  chairman  by  the  witness.) 

The  Chairman.  I  think  it  is  important  to  point  out  that  the  date  of 
this  chart  is  November  1916.     Is  that  correct? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Where  did  you  obtain  the  chart? 

Mr.  Steele.  From  the  office  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade  in 
New  York  City.     I  am  submitting  the  original  here. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Would  you  outline  for  the  record  the  countries  in 
which  they  state  they  have  a  unit  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  It  is  not  clear  in  my  mind  whether  this  Abraham 
Lincoln  Brigade,  or  the  organization  that  includes  the  Abraham 
Lincoln  Brigade • 

Mr.  Stlt.ele.  International  Brigade. 

The  Chairman.  Yes.  [Continuing:]  Is  in  existence  now,  or  was  it 
just  back  at  the  time  of  the  Spanish  Revolution  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  I  will  Cover  that  point,  Mr.  Chairman.  I  might  say 
that  I  will  submit  as  proof  of  my  statement  the  proceedings  of  the 

'  See  appendix,  p.  174.  for  exhibit  No.  5. 


TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE  25 

'Convention  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigfade  at  whicli  a  good  many 
of  these  individual  leaders  from  other  countries  were  present.  These 
are  the  proceedings  of  the  convention  which  was  held  in  November 
194G,  and  at  that  time  this  map  was  published  in  this  report.  So 
you  have  the  original  here.     This  is  merely  proof  of  my  statement. 

Mr.  STiurLiNo.  In  other  words,  it  is  your  opinion  that  this  Interna- 
tional Brigade  of  which  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade  is  a  unit  serves 
as  the  Red  Army  Reserve? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  Serves  today  as  a  Red  Army  Reserve  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Now,  in  what  countries.  I  wish  you  would  name  the 
countries. 

Mr,  Steele.  The  organization,  the  international  organization,  is 
set  up  in  the  Soviet  Union,  Germany — that  is,  the  Russian-occupied 
section — Albania,  Bulgaria,  Greece,  Yugoslavia,  Poland,  Norway, 
Italy,  France,  Belgium,  England,  Denmark,  Canada,  and  the  United 
States. 

The  head  of  the  Canadian  section  is  Dr.  Bethune,  who,  I  understand, 
is  serving  with  the  Chinese  Eighth  Army,  which  is  the  Red  x\rmy  of 
China. 

The  head  of  the  Bulgarian  section  is  Dimitrov,  who  was  for  many 
years  secretary  of  the  Communist  International  and  who  is  now  dic- 
tator of  the  Bulgarian  Government. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Mr.  Steele,  is  Dimitrov  the  same  individual  who 
adopted  the  so-called  Trojan  war  policy  ? 

Mr,  Steele.  The  same  individual.  There  are  two  individuals  in 
Bulgaria  by  the  same  name,  but  this  happens  to  be  the  one  that  was 
with  the  Communist  International. 

Mr.  Stripling,  Will  you  continue  with  your  testimony  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  This  brigade  has  organized  sections  in  INIoscow, 
headed  by  General  Rodimtsev,  who  wears  the  Lenin  Medal  of  Honor 
for  his  activities  in  Spain.  Another  section  exists  in  Poland  under 
General  Walter  (whose  real  name  is  Swierczewski) ,  of  the  Polish  War 
Department.  Artur  Dorf,  chief  of  security  of  the  Russian-occupied 
section  of  Germany,  heads  a  section  in  that  country.  The  Albanian 
section  is  led  by  Colonel  Hodza,  chief  of  staff  of  the  Albanian  armed 
forces.  Dimitrov,  current  Communist  dictator  of  Bulgaria  who  for- 
merly headed  the  Communist  International,  is  in  command  of  the 
section  in  his  country.  Heading  sections  in  the  respective  countries 
are  General  Nadji,  of  Tito's  Yugoslavian  staff;  Gallo,  of  Italy; 
Vaclalis,  leader  of  the  warring  Communist  factions  in  Greece ;  Colonel 
Dispy,  of  Belgium;  Colonel  Tanguy,  of  France;  Colonel  Hansen,  of 
Norway;  Colonel  Larson,  of  Denmark;  Dr.  Bethune,  of  Canada,  now 
active  with  Chinese  Red  forces;  and  Clive  Branson,  of  England.  In- 
formation has  it  that  the  International  Brigade  has  been  recruiting 
nurses  in  the  United  States  in  preparation  for  renewed  action  in  Spain. 
The  brigade  is  also  reportedly  recruiting  in  F^rance  and  elsewhere  to 
strengthen  the  Greek  guerrilla  armed  forces. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Mr.  Steele,  do  5^011  have  any  testimony  on  the  ac- 
tivities of  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade  in  this  country? 

Mr.  Steele.  I  have,  following  this. 

Mr,  Stripling.  I  think  if  you  would  give  the  committee  the  testi- 
mony concerning  that  rather  than  the  international  aspect  of  it. 


26  TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE 

Mr.  Si'EELE,  Yes,  sir. 

In  the  United  States,  tlie  Veterans  of  Abraham  Lincohi  Brigade,  a 
unit  of  the  International  Brigade,  is  lieaded  by  Lt.  Milton  Wolff,  for- 
merly with  our  OSS  in  Italy. 

The  Chairman.  That  is.  at  the  present  time  he  is  the  head  of  it  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir ;  he  is  the  head  of  it  at  this  moment. 

Wolff  was  known  in  Spain  as  El  Lobo.  It  is  reported  that  he  was 
in  charge  of  the  sabotage  school  in  Albacete,  Barcelona.  He  was  also 
political  commissar.  He  was  a  lieutenant  colonel  in  the  Spanish  Red 
forces.  Milt  Felson,  another  leader  of  the  American  section,  which 
maintains  national  headquarters  at  this  time  at  55  West  Forty-second 
Street,  New  York,  N.  Y.,  was  formerly  with  the  OSS  in  Germany. 
Irving  Goff,  now  head  of  the  veteran  activities  of  the  Comnuinist 
Party  in  the  United  States,  is  also  active  in  the  brigade.  He,  too,  was 
with  our  OSS  staff  in  Italy.  Among  the  othcers  of  this  brigade  are 
Walter  Garland,  adjutant  connnander.  who  has  been  an  active  Com- 
munist for  many  years,  and  who  saw  service  in  our  armed  forces; 
Harold  Smith,  who  fought  with  the  Red  forces  in  Spain,  and  Jack 
Bjoze,  executive  secretary.  Garland  is  the  leader  of  another  Red 
front  veterans'  movement 'in  the  United  States — tlie  United  Negro  and 
Allied  Veterans,  to  which  I  will  refer  more  in  detail  later  on  in  my 
testimony.  Mention  of  Bjoze  is  found  in  the  proceedings  of  the  fifth 
convention  of  the  International  Brigade,  which  was  held  a  few  months 
ago  in  New  York. 

Those  are  the  proceedings  that  I  sul)mitted. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Yes. 

Mr.  Steele.  A  portion  of  the  statement  reads : 

On  his  shoulders  and  for  the  longest  period  of  time  liave  fallen  most  of  the 
hardens  of  day  to  day     *     *     *. 

Others  active  in  the  brigade  are  Bob  Reed,  connected  Avith  the  Com- 
munist Michigan  Herald  in  Detroit;  Saul  Wellman.  at  the  present 
time  active  in  Red  circles  in  Detroit;  Bill  Bennett,  connected  with  the 
Communist  Chicago  Star;  Joe  Dull,  of  New  York,  and  Harold  Smith, 
editor  of  Liberty,  one  of  the  brigade's  publications. 

It  will  be  recalled  that  the  recruiting  of  this  brigade  in  the  United 
States  was  conducted  by  Communist  Party  heads  in  violation  of  our 
Federal  laws.  The  leaders  were  arrested,  but  they  were  later  freed  and 
the  charges  against  them  were  for  some  unex])lained  reason  dropped 
by  the  Department  of  Justice.  Browder  recently  admitted  in  a  radio 
address  that  this  recruiting  was  a  violation  of  our  laws,  and  that  he  was 
amonjr  the  violators.  He  declared  he  would  willingly  repeat  the 
offense. 

Mr.  Stripling.  You  referred  to  the  Volunteers  for  Liberty.  That  is 
the  official  publication  of  the  organization.  You  don't  refer  to  Liberty 
magazine? 

Mr.  Steele.  Oh,  no. 

Mr.  Stripling.  So  that  the  record  Avill  be  straight. 

Mr.  Steele.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  Stripling.  This  is  the  Volunteers  for  Libertv^ 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes ;  which  is  the  organ  of  the  brigade. 

The  Chairman.  How  long  ago  were  these  men  arrested? 

Mr.  Steele.  Shortly  after  the  Spanish  war  started. 

The  Chairman.  It  wasn't  recently? 

Mr.  Steele.  Not  recently ;  no.  sir. 


TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE  27 

t 

The  Chairman.  Do  you  know  liow  inanv  persons  are  in  the  Abra- 
ham Lincobi  Brigade  today  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  How  many  members  they  have? 
The  Chairman.  Yes. 

Mr.  Steele.  They  claim  15,000.  They  have  Friends  of  the  Abraham 
Lincobi  Brigade,  which  is  a  membership  organization,  wliich  aids 
the  veterans"  brigade.  I  am  not  positive  as  to  how  many  members  they 
claim  are  in  the  brigade  itself. 

The  Chairman.  Their  headquarters,  you  say,  are  55  West  Forty- 
second  Street,  New  York  City  ? 
Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir. 

Dr.  Barsky,  of  the  Joint  Anti-Fascist  Refugee  Committee,  and  Paul 
Robeson,  both  of  whom  were  active  in  Spain,  attended  the  fifth  con- 
vention of  the  Veterans  of  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade,  and  they  were 
decorated  with  the  Dombrowski  Medal  by  General  Walter,  of  the 
Polish  section  of  the  International  Brigade.  The  proceedings  of  the 
convention,  a  portion  of  which  I  present  herewith — exhibit  6  '^ — prove 
without  question  that  it  is  a  branch  of  an  international  Red  Army  Re- 
serve movement,  the  purpose  of  which  is  more  than  the  banding  to- 
gether for  fraternal  or  social  reasons  of  those  who  fought  in  Spain. 
Now  that  we  have  gone  to  the  aid  of  Greece  and  Turkey  in  an  effort  to 
stem  the  tide  of  communism  and  Russian  expansion  in  the  Mediter- 
ranean, we  may  discover  that  Italy  and  Spain  are  very  important  to 
the  Communists  and  to  Russia  in  their  attempts  to  stay  entirely  or  to 
force  a  modification  of  our  activities  against  Russian  expansion  and 
Communist  penetration  of  the  remainder  of  Europe,  northern  Africa, 
and  Asia.  There  is  more  than  a  discussion  of  the  Spanish  situation 
to  be  found  in  the  proceedings.  In  my  opinion,  the  brigade  constitutes 
an  organized  and  trained  force,  operating  as  a  nucleus  of  a  world  Red 
Reserve  Army. 

Veterans  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade,  Inc.,  as  it  is  known,  was 
incorporated  in  New  York  on  December  22,  1939,  by  Fred  P.  Keeler, 
Jr.,  who  gave  his  address  at  the  time  as  136-1  Sixth  Avenue,  New  York, 
N.  Y. ;  Paul  Williams,  425  East  Sixth  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y. ;  Milton 
Wolff  (e) ,  1794  West  Twelfth  Street,  Brooklyn,  N.  Y. ;  David  McKelvy 
White,  60  Clarke  Street,  Brooklyn,  N.  Y. ;  and  Joseph  Francis  Rehill, 
24  Grove  Street,  New  York.  These  were  named  as  directors  of  the  or- 
ganization, the  number  thereof  having  been  set  at  five  in  the  incorpora- 
tion papers.  All  clamied  to  be  citizens  of  the  United  States  at  that 
time.  The  organization  membership  is  Nation-wide. 
(Exhibit  7  was  received.)' 

The  Chairman.  We  will  stand  in  recess  until  such  time  as  a  member 
of  the  committee  returns. 
(Recess.) 

Mr.  Bonner.  The  subcommittee  will  resume  the  session.  The  wit- 
ness, Mr.  Steele,  will  resume. 

Mr.  Stripling.  The  record  will  show  that  Mr.  Bonner  is  chairman 
of  the  subcommittee  presiding.    Go  ahead,  Mr.  Steele. 

Mr.  Steele.  The  United  Negro  and  Allied  Veterans  of  America, 
to  which  I  have  previouslj'^  referred,  was  organized  Januai'y  8,  1946,  at 
a  joint  meeting  of  300  veterans  which  was  held  in  the  Harlem  (N.  Y.) 

'  See  appendix,  p.  174,  for  exhibit  No.  6. 
'  See  appendix,  p.  174,  for  exliibit  No.  7. 


28  TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE 

YMCA.  The  meeting  was  sponsored  by  the  United  Veterans  for 
Equality,  the  members  of  the  provisional  committee  of  which  included 
Hugh  Mulzac,  Sy  Oliver,  Walter  Bernstein. 

Mr,  Stripling.  Mr.  Steele,  in  testifying  on  these  names,  unless  they 
are  very  connnon  names,  will  you  spell  them  out  'i 

Mr.  Steele.  I  vrill;  yes,  sir. 

[Continuing:]  Millard  Lampell,  Gilbert  Sherman.  Ray  Robinson,. 
Len  Zinberg,  and  Ben  Buroki — New  Masses,  April  29,  1947. 

The  United  Negro  and  Allied  Veterans  of  America  claim  to  have 
approximately  10,000  members  in  31  States.  The  original  national 
commander  of  the  group  was  Kenneth  Kennedy,  who  led  the  march  on 
the  courthouse  in  Birmingham,  Ala.,  in  the  1916  election  campaign. 
The  organization  has  been  active  in  other  disturbances  in  Georgia, 
Mississippi,  and  New  York.  AValter  Garland,  Communist,  and 
Howard  "Stretch"  Johnson,  a  teacher  at  the  Jefferson  School — Com- 
munist— in  New  York,  headed  the  New  York  section. 

West  coasters  who  either  sponsored  or  participated  in  the  activities, 
of  this  veterans'  movement  are  Charlotta  Bass,  Angus  Hawkins,  Fritz 
Lang,  Albert  Maltz,  Carlton  Moss,  Sy  Oliver,  Ray  Robinson,  Norman 
Smith,  Michael  Uris,  Bette  Davis,  Robert  W.  Kenney,  and  Paul 
Henreid. 

Kenneth  R.  Williams,  a  representative  of  the  United  Negro  and 
Allied  Veterans  of  America,  was  elected  a  short  time  ago  to  the  Wins- 
ton-Salem, N.  C,  City  Council.  He  was  recently  feted  in  New  York: 
by  Benjamin  Davis,  head  of  the  Harlem  section  of  the  Communist 
Party  and  a  member  of  the  New  York  City  Council. 

Lou  Heit  is  a  member  of  the  educational  committee  of  this  veterans' 
group  in  California.  Bob  Rondstadt  is  the  organizer  in  that  State 
among  Mexicans.  Ruth  Johnson  is  head  of  the  California  auxiliary. 
Coleman  A.  Young  is  commander  of  tlie  Michigan  section. 

Offices  of  United  Negro  and  Allied  Veterans  of  America  in  Wash- 
ington, D.  C,  are  located  at  925  U  Street  NW. 

The  first  national  convention  of  United  Negro  and  Allied  Veterans- 
of  America  was  recently  held — May  30-June  2,  1917 — at  the  Fraternal 
Club  House,  International  Workers'  Order  Center,  110  West  Forty- 
eighth  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y.  It  was  reported  that  400  delegates 
attended  from  31  States.  The  following  officers  were  elected  at  the 
conference:  Commander,  George  Murphy,  Jr.;  adjutant,  Walter  Gar- 
land; executive  officer,  Burton  Jackson;  finance  officer,  John  Killanes;: 
advocate,  Thomas  Jones ;  vice  commanders,  Catherine  Godfrey,  How- 
ard Johnson,  Charles  Shorton,  Aaron  Williams,  Catherine  Overton,. 
Dolphin  Thompson,  and  Edward  Ateman ;  committeemen,  James  Fitz- 
butler  and  Lester  Davies. 

The  United  Veterans  for  Equality  issued  a  call  for  all  independ- 
ent veteran  movements  to  affiliate  in  forming  a  national  organization.. 
Such  groups  as  the  Brooklyn  Veterans'  Organizing  Committee,  the- 
Veterans  Against  Discrimination,  United  Veterans  of  Georgia,  Vet- 
erans of  World  War  II,  League  of  Combat  Infantrymen,  and  the  Mich- 
igan League  of  Veterans  responded  to  the  call.  A  national  conven- 
tion was  subse(|uently  held  in  Chicago  in  Ai>ril  1046.  and  the  perma- 
nent name  of  United  Negro  and  Allied  Veterans  of  America  was 
given  to  the  group  which  was  formed  at  the  January  meeting. 

Supporting  the  Veterans  of  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade  is  the  Friends; 
of  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade,  with  headquarters  in  New  York  City- 


TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE  29 

and  branches  in  principal  cities  all  over  the  country.  The  national 
oflicers  of  the  friends,  according  to  the  most  recent  records  I  have 
been  able  to  obtain,  include  the  f ollowino; :  Phil  Bard,  executive  secre- 
tary, who  was  a  contributino;  editor  of  New  Pioneer  and  New  Masses, 
Communist  publications;  Paul  Crosbie,  chairman,  who  has  been  a 
trustee  of  the  Political  Prisoners  Bail  Fund,  Communist  Party  candi- 
date for  county  judge  in  New  York,  1935,  a  member  of  the  advisory 
board  of  the  United  Citizens'  Committee  of  the  American  League 
Against  War  and  Fascism,  1936,  a  vice  chairman  of  the  American 
Society  for  Technical  Aid  to  Spanish  Democracy,  1937,  and  a  member 
of  the  executive  committee  of  the  American  Veterans'  Council,  1936 ; 
William  D.  Lieder,  treasurer;  and  Jack  R.  Miller,  national  organizer. 

Sponsors  of  the  Friends  of  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade  included 
Helen  x\rthur,  a  member  of  the  Mary  Ware  Dennett  defense  committee 
of  the  American  Civil  Liberties  Union ;  John  T,  Bernard,  Farm-Labor, 
Minnesota,  sponsor  of  a  mass  celebration  in  honor  of  "Mother"  Bloor, 
Communist,  in  1937,  and  a  speaker  at  a  meeting  of  the  North  American 
Committee  to  iVid  Spanish  Democracy  in  Chicago  on  July  21,  1937; 
Muriel  Draper,  a  member  of  the  Advisory  Board  of  Woman  Today, 
1937,  and  a  sponsor  of  the  "Mother"  Bloor  celebration  in  1937;  Lillian 
Hellman,  member  of  the  advisory  board  of  the  United  Citizens'  Com- 
mittee for  the  American  League  Against  War  and  Fascism,  1936 ;  John 
Housman;  Henry  Hart,  member  of  the  Committee  of  the  National 
Student  Forum  on  the  Paris  Pact,  1932,  the  advisory  council  of  the 
Book  Union,  1935,  Committee  of  Professional  Groups  for  Browder  and 
Ford,  Communist  Party  candidates  for  President  and  Vice  President 
of  the  United  States,  1936,  member  of  the  board  of  directors  of  the 
American  Society  for  Technical  Aid  to  Spanish  Democracy,  1937; 
Fred  Keating;  Julia  Church  Kolar,  former  head  of  tlie  Descendants 
of  the  American  Revolution ;  Arthur  Kober ;  Archibald  MacLeish,  con- 
tributor to  Common  Sense,  sponsor  of  the  American  Ff lends  of 
Spanish  Democracy,  1936,  board  of  trustees  of  New  School  for  Social 
Research,  1937.  and  a  supporter  of  the  American  Civil  Liberties  Union ; 
William  Rollins,  Jr.,  a  member  of  tlie  League  for  Mutual  Aid,  1936, 
and  a  member  of  the  advisory  council  of  the  Book  Union,  1935 ;  Carl 
Sandburg,  member  of  the  Welcoming  Committee  for  George  Russell, 
prominent  liberal;  Wallingford  Reigger;  Isabel  Walker  Soule,  ad- 
visory board  of  W^oman  Today,  1936,  sponsor  of  the  celebration  in 
honor  of  "Mother"  Bloor,  1937,  and  a  writer  for  Labor  Defender,  1937 ; 
Upton  Sinclair,  member  of  the  John  Reed  Club,  national  council  of 
tlie  League  for  Lidustrial  Democracy,  contributor  to  New  Masses, 
member  of  the  national  committee  of  the  International  Workers'  Aid, 
contributing  editor  of  the  Friends  of  Soviet  Union  Magazine,  National 
Committee  of  the  War  Resisters'  League,  member  of  the  American 
Civil  Liberties  Union,  Socialist  Party  candidate  for  Presidential 
elector,  American  Committee  for  Struggle  Against  War,  honorary 
president  of  the  League  Against  Imperialism,  national  committee  of 
the  Internatioual  Labor  Defense,  and  a  sponsor  of  the  celebration  in 
honor  of  "Mother''  Bloor;  and  Donald  Ogden  Stewart.  All  the  organ- 
izations and  publications  mentioned  above  are  directly  under  either 
Communist  or  Socialist  influence. 

I  vrill  not  go  further  into  the  Communist  connection  of  other 
personnel  of  either  the  Veterans  of  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade  or  the 
Friends  of  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade,  since  I  am  confident  this  com- 


30  TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE 

mittee  has  already  clone  that.  I  merely  wish  to  emphasize  the  recently 
uncovered  fact  that  the  Veterans  of  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade  is  a 
section  of  an  international  which  is  closely  allied  with  the  Commu- 
nist movement,  not  only  in  the  United  States  but  also  in  Russia  and 
Russian-controlled  countries.  I  would  like  to  add  that  a  w^oman's 
auxiliary  has  been  added  to  the  International  Brigade,  of  which  Nan 
Green  (Mrs.  Blake)  is  secretary.  This  is  known  as  the  International 
Brigade  Association. 

Veterans  Against  Discrimination  is  a  section  of  the  Civil  Rights 
Congress,  which  is  unquestionably  a  Communist  front,  with  national 
headquarters  in  New  York  City.  I  will  refer  to  the  Civil  Rights  Con- 
gress more  in  detail  later  on  in  my  testimony. 

WIVES — wives  of  servicemen — was  formed  in  New  York  City  in 
November  1945.  At  the  meeting  at  which  it  was  organized,  held  in 
Manhattan  Center,  there  were  250  delegates,  from  11  States,  and  some 
2,000  particii3ants.  The  outfit  propagandized  in  behalf  of  the  with- 
drawal of  American  intervention  in  China.  It  advocates  the  breaking 
off  of  relations  with  Franco.  It  is  opposed  to  anti-Sovietism.  to  what 
it  terms  fascism  at  home,  racial  discrimination.  State  Department 
interference  in  the  Balkans.  In  January  1946  it  changed  its  name  to 
Veterans  and  Wives,  Inc.  It  was  also  known  at  one  time  as  Wives 
and  Sweethearts  of  Servicemen. 

In  November  194G  Veterans  and  Wives  elected  Naomi  Nash  and 
Larry  Johnson  as  cochairmen.  It  maintains  chapters  in  Minnesota, 
Illinois,  New  Jersey,  the  District  of  Columbia,  and  New  York.  They 
are  being  used  at  this  time  as  the  nuclei  of  a  Nation-wide  organization. 

The  Connnunist  Party  claimed  on  June  2,  1947 — Daily  Worker — 
tliat  of  3,500  recruits  in  their  recent  drive  in  New  York,  628  were 
veterans  of  World  War  11. 

Mr.  Stripling.  In  your  opinion,  this  is  a  Communist  front  organ- 
ization ? 

Mr.  Steele.  It  is ;  yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Is  it  your  observation  that  they  have  consistently 
f  olloAved  the  Communist  Party  line  ? 
.     Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  McDowell.  Is  it  your  opinion,  Mr.  Steele,  that  the  organi- 
zation is  gaining  strength  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  Slowly;  very  slowly. 

Mr.  McDowell.  Is  it  still  the  Wives  and  Sweethearts  of  Soldiers? 

Mr.  Steele.  It  is  now  Veterans  and  Wives,  Inc. 

Mr.  McDowell.  It  incorporated  a  rather  broad  field  there. 

Mr.  Steele.  We  realize  that,  and  I  think  that  some  of  the  branches 
of  the  Government  realized  that  during  the  war,  because  the  American^ 
Youth  for  Democracy  also  oi'ganized  a  group  of  what  they  called 
Sweethearts  of  Servicemen  clubs,  and  they  established  centers  around 
the  recruiting  and  traininoj  centers  to  pujl  some  of  the  boys  in,  to 
entertain  them,  and  possibly  for  the  purpose  of  trying  to  win  them 
over  to  the  cause,  but  I  don't  know  just  how  successful  they  were  in 
winning  them  over  to  the  cause. 

Mr.  McDowell.  Didn't  most  Army  posts  qualify  that  sort  of  place 
as  being  out  of  bounds  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  I  think  so.  For  instance,  they  had  one  in  Washington, 
and  that  was  very  close  to  the  center ;  the  boys  came  in  from  the  camps, 


TESTIMONY  OF  WALTER  S.   STEELE  31 

training  camps,  to  Washington ;  and  I  think  that  was  the  center  that 
they  picked,  the  center  of  the  city,  and  the  center  of  the  training 
area. 

Publishing  houses  and  publications: 

The  Agit-Prop — agitation-propaganda — Division  is  the.  most  im- 
portant division  to  the  Communist  movement  in  the  United  States 
of  America.  It,  its  fronts  and  fronters,  operate  many  publishing 
houses  and  issue  122  publications,  millions  of  pamphlets,  bulletins, 
and  books  which  are  circulated  throughout  the  country. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Pardon  me,  Mr.  Steele.  Before  you  move  on  to  that 
■section  of  your  testimony.  Mr.  Chairman,  the  witness  Jias  submitted 
a  list  here.    How  many  names  are  there  on  the  list,  Mr.  Steele  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  Approximately  2,000.^'' 

jNIr.  Stripling.  People  who  served,  men  who  served  in  the  armed 
forces,  who  were  either  Communists,  he  claims,  or  were  members  of 
front  organizations.  I  believe  that  the  largest  list  consists  of  members 
■of  the  International  Workers'  Order,  men  who  were  members  of  that 
organization,  and  who  then  joined  the  armed  services.  He  has  listed 
here  the  lodge  of  the  International  Workers'  Order  in  which  they 
were  members. 

The  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  and  the  Special  Com- 
mittee on  Un-American  Activities  in  numerous  reports  has  found  the 
International  Workers'  Order  to  be  a  Communist  inspired,  controlled, 
•dominated  organization.  In  fact,  the  officials,  all  of  the  officials,  of 
the  International  Workers'  Order  are  also  very  prominent  officials 
of  the  Communist  Party. 

However,  in  the  case  of  these  names,  I  would  suggest  that  before 
such  a  list  would  be  made  public  that  the  committee  consider  in  ex- 
ecutive session  first  whether  or  not  they  would  want  such  a  list  made 
public,  because  the  mere  fact  that  a  man  belonged  to  one  organiza- 
tion— namely,  the  International  Workers'  Organization — is  certainly 
not  conclusive  that  that  person  may  be  considered  as  a  Communist, 
and  I  ask  that  this  list  be  withheld  from  the  public  record  until 
the  committee  can  consider  it. 

Mr.  McDo^vELL  (presiding).  I  agree  with  your  point  on  that.  Of 
€Ourse,  the  committee  has  one  fundamental  duty.  We  are  seeking 
information  on  enemies  of  America.  We  are  not  trying  to  smear  any 
person — except  those  people  who  are  enemies  of  America.  Is  there 
objection? 

Mr.  Bonner.  No.    I  think  the  suggestion  is  worthy. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Then  the  committee  will  receive  the  list,  but  it  is 
not  to  be  included  in  the  public  record  at  this  time. 

Mr.  McDowell.  It  is  so  ordered. 

Mr.  Stripling.  That  concludes  your  testimony  on  the  Reds  as  you 
tied  it  to  the  armed  forces  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  That  is  right. 

As  an  example  of  the  rapidity  with  which  extensive  coverage  can 
be  attained  by  the  Communist  Party,  I  refer  to  the  recent  "Don't 
tread  on  me"  campaign  waged  against  this  committee  of  Congress 
by  the  party  and  its  fronts.  During  this  campaign  the  party  printed 
and  circulated  4^/^  million  leaflets  and  2  million  pamphlets.    It  car- 

''^  List  made  a  part  of  record,  but  upon  order  of  the  committee  is  not  included  in  this 
vniume. 

65176—47 3 


32  TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE 

ried  150  advertisements,  many  full-page  ads,  in  125  newspapers  with 
a  total  circulation  of  10  million,  and  it  made  110  local  broadcasts.  In 
addition,  the  campaign  was  given  publicity  in  the  Communists'  own 
122  publications.  All  this  propagandizing  covered  a  period  within 
the  past  2  months. 

The  largest  of  the  Red  publishing  firms  is  New  Century  Publishers^ 
Inc.,  832  Broadway,  New  York.  It  was  incorporated  December  8, 
1944.  The  incorporators  were  Joseph  Felshin,  832  Broadway,  New 
York  City ;  Isidore  Greenbaum,  207  Fourth  Avenue,  New  York  City ; 
and  Betty  Greenbaum,  of  the  same  address.  Morris  Greenbaum  served 
as  its  agent.    The  capital  stock  was  set  at  $20,000. 

I  wish  to  exhibit  as  proof  of  that  statement  the  incorporation  papers 
of  the  publishing  house. 

(Exhibit  No.  8  was  received.)^ 

Mr.  Steele.  Two  other  publishing  houses  are  International  Pub- 
lishers, 381  Fourth  Avenue,  New  York,  N.  Y.,  of  which  Alex  Trach- 
tenberg  is  president;  and  the  Workers'  Library  Publishers,  also  of 
New  York. 

The  current  catalog  of  New  Century  Publishers,  Inc.,  lists  some  320 
publications  for  distribution. 

(Exhibit  No.  9  was  received.)^ 

The  Chairman.  Listing  some  320  publications  for  distribution? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes. 

Among  the  authors  of  these  publications  are  R.  Palme  Dutt, 
Clive  Branson,  Mao  Tse-Tung,  Emile  Burns,  Gerhart  Eisler,  Albert 
Norden,  Albert  Shreiner,  Stanley  B.  Ryerson,  Maurice  Thorez,  V. 
J.  Jerome,  Georgi  D'mitrov.  Eugene  Dennis.  Gino  Bardi,  V.  M. 
Molotov,  Sender  Garlin,  William  Z.  Foster,  Joseph  North,  Philip 
Foner,  Alex  Trachtenberg,  John  S'euben,  S.  A.  Lozovsky,  Alden 
Whitman,  Anthony  Bimba,  C.  Todes,  Grace  Hutchins,  Louise 
Mitchell,  Moses  Miller,  Herbert  Tark,  Robert  Friedman,  George 
Marion,  Elizabeth  Gurley  Flynn,  A.  B.  Magil.  Louis  E.  Burnham, 
Carol  King,  Robert  Minor,  Doxey  Wilkerson,  Robert  W.  Dunn, 
Jack  Hardy,  K.  D.  Lumpkin,  W.  D.  Douglas,  Anna  Rochester, 
Horace  B.  Davis,  Bruce  Minton,  John  Stuart,  Henry  Stevens,  James 
S.  Allen.  Elizab'^th  Lawson,  Francis  Franklin,  Herbert  W.  Morals, 
Isobel  Cable  Mines.  Katherine  Dupre  Lumpkin,  Earl  Conrad, 
Vincente  Lombardo  Toledano,  Lee  Norton,  James  J.  Green,  Maxim 
Litvinov,  A.  Badayev,  Joseph  Stalin,  Hugo  Huppert,  Professor  I. 
Minz,  Sergei  N.  Kournakoff,  Hewlett  Johnson,  Maurice  Dobb,  Harry 
F.  Ward,  Andre  Marty,  D.  Z.  Manuilsky,  Edwin  E.  Smith,  Eugene 
Tarle,  Corliss  Lamont,  Marcel  Prenant,  Ivan  P.  Pavlov,  Jonathan 
Kemp,  A.  Landy,  Howard  Selsam,  Jacques  Duclos,  Ralph  Fox,  Max 
Weiss,  John  Williamson,  V.  Adortasky,  F.  M.  Klingeder,  John 
Lewis,  H.  G.  Wells,  W.  H.  Emmett,  E.  Varga,  L.  INIendelsohn,  J. 
Beauchamp,  Jurgen  Kuczvnaki,  T.  A.  Jackson,  William  Gallacher, 
Brian  O'Neill,  L.  Beria,  Ella  Reeve  Bloor,  Henry  Hart,  Ben  Field, 
James  Steele,  Myra  Page,  Edgell  Rickword,  Jack  Lindsay.  Michael 
Gold,  Nicholas  Ostrovski,  Meridel  Le  Sueur,  Sol  Funaroff.  Harry 
Slochower,  Samuel  Sillen,  Alb?rt  Maltz,  Richard  Wright,  Geotlrey 
Trease,  Eric  Lucas,  Alex  Wedding,  and  Langston  Hughes, 

«  See  appendix,  p.  174,  for  exhibit  No.  8. 
"  See  appendix,  p.  174,  for  exhibit  No.  9. 


TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.   STEELE  33 

New  Century  Publishers,  Inc.,  International  Publishers,  and  the 
Workers'  Library  Publishers  distribute  their  own  publications,  as 
well  as  other  literature.  For  this  purpose  book  stores  are  maintained 
in  every  large  city  in  the  country.  The  largest  of  these  stores  are 
as  follows :  Mcdern  Book  Shop,  180  West  Washington  Street,  Chicago, 
111.,  Sam  Hammersmark,  charter  member  of  the  Communist  Party, 
manager;  Tom  Paine  Book  Store,  3539  West  Lawrence  Avenue, 
Chicago;  Community  Book  Store,  1404  East  Fifty-fifth  Street,  Chi- 
cago; Progressive  Book  Shop,  722  West  Sixth  Street,  Los  Angeles; 
People's  Book  Shop,  722  West  Wisconsin  Avenue,  Milwaukee,  AVis. ; 
Workers'  Book  Shop,  50  East  Thirteenth  Street,  New  York  City ;  Jef- 
ferson School  Book  Shop,  575  Sixth  Avenue,  New  York  City ;  Forty- 
fourth  Street  Bookf air,  133  West  Forty-fourth  Street,  New  York  City; 
Russian  Skazka,  277  West  Forty-sixth  Street,  New  York  City ;  Library 
Book  Shop,  321  Kasota  Buildinir,  Minneapolis;  Locust  Book  Shop,, 
209  South  Eleventh  Street,  Philadelphia;  Frontier  Book  Shop,  826 
Prospect  Avenue,  Cleveland;  Intei-national  Book  Store,  1400  Market 
Street,  San  Francisco;  New  World  Book  Shop,  413  Karback  Block, 
Omaha;  Victory  Book  Shop,  515  Southwest  Eleventh  Street,  Port- 
land, Oreg. ;  Modern  Record  and  Book  Shop,  216  Halsey  Street, 
Newark ;  Detroit  Book  Store,  902  Lawyers'  Building,  Detroit ;  Wash- 
ington Cooperative  Book  Shop,  916  Seventeenth  Street  Northwest, 
Washington,  D.  C,  selling  Communist  books,  and  believed  to  be  part 
of  this  system  of  propaganda;  and  Modern  Book  Shop,  1907  North 
Fifth  Avenu\  IVrmingham.  Ala.;  Progressive  Bcok  Distributors, 
305  Herman  Building,  Houston,  Tex.  Other  bcok  shops  located  in 
California  are  the  following :  Maritime  Book  Shop,  15  Embarcadero, 
San  Francisco ;  20th  Century  Book  Sliop.  2475  Bancroft  Way,  Berke- 
ley; 20th  Century  Book  Sliop,  1721  Webster  Street,  Oakland;  Pro- 
gressive Book  Shop,  1002  Seventh  Street,  Sacramento;  Progressive 
Book  Shop,  625  West  Sixth  Street,  Los  Angeles ;  Victory  Book  Store, 
635  E  Street,  San  Diego ;  Maritime  Book  Shop,  266  West  Sixth  Street, 
San  Pedro;  Walt  Whitman  Book  Shop,  277  East  Fourth  Street, 
Long  Beach;  Lincoln  Book  Shop,  1721  North  Highland  Avenue, 
Hollywood;  Modern  Book  Shop,  405  West  De  La  Guerra  Street, 
Santa  Barbara. 

Other  Red  publishing  houses  are  the  Four  Continent  Book  Corpora- 
tion, 253  Fifth  Avenue,  and  Universal  Distributors,  38  Union  Square, 
botli  in  New  York  City.  The  Reds  also  operate  a  book-of-the-month 
club,  known  as  the  Book  Find  Club.  They  have  organized  children's 
book  clubs  and  youth  record  clubs  in  recent  months,  and  Communist 
publications  extensively  advertise  them. 

In  the  field  of  newspapers,  magazines,  and  bulletins,  the  Communists, 
Red  fronts,  and  fellow-travelers  are  well  represented.  Some  122  such 
publications  have  been  unearthed  in  recent  months. 

(Exhibit  No.  10  was  received.)^" 

Mr.  Step-le.  They  include  the  following : 

Daily  Worker,  publislied  by  Freedom  of  the  Press,  Inc.,  50  East 
Thirteenth  Street,  New  York  City.  Benjamin  J.  Davis,  Jr.,  is  presi- 
dent; Howard  Boldt,  secretary-treasurer;  John  Gates,  editor;  Mil- 
ton Howard,  associate  editor;  Alan  Max,  managing  editor;  Robert  F. 

"  See  appendix,  p.  174,  for  exhibit  10. 


34  TESTIMONY  OF  WALTER   S.   STEELE 

Hall,  Washington,  D,  C,  editor;  Bill  Lawrence,  general  manager; 
and  George  C.  Sandy,  assistant  manager.     David  Piatt  is  film  editor. 

The  Worker,  published  only  on  Sunday,  has  the  same  management 
and  publisher  as  the  Daily  Worker. 

New  Masses,  a  weekly  publication,  maintains  offices  at  104  East 
Ninth  Street,  New  York  City.     It  is  published  by  New  Masses,  Inc. 

(Exhibit  No.  11  was  received.)" 

Mr.  Steele.  The  editor  is  Joseph  North;  executive  editor,  A.  B. 
Magil;  managing  editors,  Lloyd  L.  Brown,  Frederick  V.  Field,  and 
John  Stuart;  Washington, D.  C,  editor,  Virginia  Gardner;  art  editor, 
Charles  Humboldt ;  assistant  editors,  Joseph  Fisher  and  Charles  Hum- 
boldt; associate  editors,  James  A.  Allen,  Herbert  Aptheker,  Richard 
Boyer,  Howard  Fast,  William  Gropper.  V.  J.  Jerome,  and  Albert  E. 
Kahn;  editorial  assistant,  Betty  Millard;  business  manager,  Paul 
Kaye;  field  director,  Doretta  Tarmon;  promotion  manager,  Beatrice 
Soskind ;  advertising  manager,  Gertrude  Chase ;  circulation  manager, 
Carmelia  Weinstein;  contributing  editors,  Louis  Aragon,  Nathan 
Ausubel,  Lionel  Berman,  Alvah  Bessie,  Dyson  Carter,  W.  E.  B.  Du- 
Bois,  E.  Palme  Dutt,  Philip  Evergood,  Sender  Garlin,  Barbara  Gilles, 
Robert  Gwathmey,  Rockwell  Kent,  Alfred  Kreymborg,  John  Howard 
Lawson,  Meridel  Le  Sueur,  Vito  Marcantonio,  Pablo  Neruda,  Anton 
Refregier,  Paul  Robeson,  HoWard  Selsam,  Isidor  Schneider,  Sam  Sil- 
len,  James  TurnbuU,  Charles  White,  and  Doxey  Wilkerson. 

Political  Affairs,  a  monthly  publication,  is  published  by  New  Cen- 
tury Publishers,  832  Broadway,  New  York,  N.  Y.  The  editor  is  Max 
Weiss;  associate  editors,  V.  J.  Jerome,  Alex  Bittleman,  and  Abner 
W.  Berry,  and  Jack  Stachel. 

Morning  Freiheit  is  published  daily  by  the  Morning  Freiheit  Asso- 
ciation, Inc.,  35  East  Twelfth  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y.  The  president 
is  Ben  Gold;  treasurer,  J.  Littinski;  secretary,  Alex  Bittleman.  Paul 
Novick  is  editor. 

People's  Daily  World  is  published  by  the  Pacific  Publishing  Foun- 
dation, Inc.,  590  Folsom  Street,  San  Francisco,  Calif.  Branches  are 
located  at  516  Wilcox  Building,  Los  Angeles;  1723  Webster  Street, 
Oakland,  432  F  Street,  room  321,  San  Diego ;  (^02  Third  Avenue,  Seat- 
tle; National  Press  Building,  room  954,  Washington,  D.  C.  The  ex- 
ecutive editor  is  Al  Richmond;  assistant  editor,  Adam  Lapin;  Los 
Angeles  editor,  Sidney  Burke;  business  manager,  Harry  Kramer;  and 
circulation  manager,  Leo  Baroway.  Doug  Ward  is  political  editor. 
Tara  Jean  Pettit  is  the  agent  in  Los  Angeles. 

Soviet  Russia  Today,  a  monthly  magazine,  is  published  by  the  Soviet 
Russia  Today  Publications,  Inc.,  114  East  Thirty-second  Street,  New 
York,  N.  Y.  The  editor  is  Jessica  Smith;  assistant  editor,  Andrew 
Voynow;  business  manager,  Donald  Schoalman;  literary  editor,  Isa- 
dore  Schneider;  editorial  board,  Dorothy  Brewster,  Robert  Dunn, 
Thyra  Edwards,  A.  A.  Heller,  Langston  Hughes,  Dr.  John  Kingsbury, 
Corliss  Lamont,  George  Marshall,  Isobel  Walker  Soule,  and  Maxwell 
S.  Stewart. 

Fraternal  Outlook  is  published  monthly  by  the  International  Work- 
ers Order,  80  Fifth  Avenue,  New  York.  N.  Y.  The  editor  is  Max 
Bedacht;  managing  editor,  Eugene  Konecky;  art  editor,  Phil  Wolfe; 
photographer.  Pail  Eiseman;  staff  writer,  Sam  Roberts;  president, 

"  See  appendix,  p.  174,  for  exhibit  11. 


TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE  35 

Rockwell  Kent;  vice  presidents,  John  E.  Middleton,  Vito  Marcan- 
tonio,  Louise  Thompson,  Boleslaw  Gebert.  and  Rubin  Saltzman; 
secretary,  Max  Bedacht ;  and  treasurer,  Peter  Shipka;  executive  sec- 
retary, Sam  Milgrom ;  and  recording  secretary,  Dave  Green. 

The  Chart,  with  offices  at  35  East  Twelfth  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y.. 
is  issued  by  the  National  Organization  and  Education  Commissions  or 
the  Communist  Party  of  the  United  States.  Jack  Stachel  is  chairman 
of  the  education  commission,  and  Henry  Winston  is  chairman  of  the 
organization  commission. 

Mainstream  is  published  at  832  Broadway,  New  York,  N.  Y.,  by 
Mainstream  Associates,  Inc. ;  the  editor  in  chief  is  Samuel  Sillen.  The 
editors  are  Gwendolyn  Bennett,  Alvah  Bessie,  Milton  Blau,  Arnaud 
D'Usseau,  Howard  Fast,  Mike  Gold,  V.  J.  Jerome,  Howard  Lawson, 
Meridel  LeSeuer,  W.  L.  River,  Dalton  Trumbo,  and  Theodore  Ward. 

People's  Voice  — Glos  Ludowy — with  offices  at  5856  Chene  Street, 
Detroit,  Mich.,  is  a  semimonthly  publication.  It  is  a  foreign-language 
paper,  as  well,  known  as  Glos  Ludowy.  The  editor  is  Thomas  Dom- 
browski;  contributing  editor,  Jan  Kujawa,  San  Francisco;  contribut- 
ing editors,  Cornell  Z.  Zagodzinski,  Casimir  T.  Nowacki,  Irene  Pic- 
trowski,  Grace  Nowacki,  Walter  Bills,  Stanley  Perry,  Blanche  Glin- 
ski,  John  Piorkowski,  Martin  Darvin,  Ted  Pniewski,  Katherine  Gier- 
manski,  Jetka  Dobrzynska,  and  Joseph  S.  Rabowski. 

Railroad  Workers'  Link  is  published  by  the  Communist  Party  at  35 
East  Twelfth  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y.  It  is  a  monthly  publication. 
The  editor  is  Robert  Wood. 

District  Champion  is  published  by  the  city  committee  of  the  Com- 
munist Party  of  the  District  of  Columbia,  with  offices  located  at  527 
Ninth  Street  NW.,  Washington,  D.  C.  It  is  published  monthly. 
The  editor  is  William  C.  Taylor ;  secretary,  Elizabeth  Searle. 

Chicago  Star  is  published  weekly  by  the  Chicago  Star  Publishing 
Co.,  Inc.,  166  West  Washington  Street,  Chicago,  111.  Members  of  the 
board  of  directors  are  Ernest  De  Maio,  Frank  M.  Davis,  William  L. 
Patterson,  Grant  Oakes,  and  William  Sennett.  The  executive  editor 
is  Frank  M.  Davis ;  managing  editor,  Carl  Hirsch ;  and  general  man- 
ager, William  Seiinett.  Howard  Fast  is  a  columnist,  and  Rockwell 
Kent  is  contributing  editor. 

Teeners'  Topics,  published  irregularly,  is  an  American  Youth  for 
Democracv  publication,  with  offices  located  at  150  Nassau  Street,  New 
York,  N.  Y. 

Teen  Life  is  published  by  New  Age  Publishers,  Inc.,  163  Pratt  Street, 
Meriden,  Conn.,  for  American  Youth  for  Democracy. 

Crisis  is  the  newly  published  organ  of  the  East  Pittsburgh  section 
of  the  Communist  Party. 

Jewish  Life,  35  East  Twelfth  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y.,  is  published 
monthly  by  the  Morning  Freiheit  Association,  Inc.  The  editorial 
board  is  composed  of  Alex  Bittleman,  Moses  Miller,  Paul  Novick,  Sam 
Pevzner,  and  Morris  U.  Scha'ppes.  Managing  editor  is  Samuel 
Barron. 

Woman  Power  is  published  monthly  by  the  Congress  of  American 
Women,  55  West  Forty-second  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y.  Members  of 
the  editorial  board  are  Edna  Moss,  Bert  Sigred,  and  Eleanor  Vaughn. 
The  president  is  Gene  Weltfish;  executive  vice  president,  Muriel 
Draper;  treasurer,  Helen  Phillips:  and  secretary,  Josephine  Timms. 


36  TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER  S.   STEELE 

Facts  for  Farmers  is  published  monthly  by  the  Farm  Research,  39 
Cortlandt  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y.     The  editor  is  Charles  J.  Coe. 

Facts  for  Women  is  published  monthly  by  Facts  for  Women,  Box 
5176,  Metropolitan  Station,  Los  Angeles,  Calif.  The  editor  is  Mary 
Inman. 

Bulletin  of  Congress  of  American  Women  is  published  monthly  by 
the  Congress  of  American  Women,  55  West  Forty-second  Street,  New 
York,  N.  Y.  The  editorial  board  is  composed  of  those  on  the  Board  of 
Woman  Power. 

The  Lamp  is  published  monthly  by  the  American  Committee  for 
Protection  of  Foreign  Born,  with  headquarters  at  23  West  Twenty- 
sixth  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y. 

Student  Outlook  is  published  by  the  intercollegiate  division  of 
American  Youth  for  Democarcy  at  150  Nassau  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y. 
It  is  a  monthly  publication.    The  editor  is  Fred  Jaffe. 

Michigan  Herald  is  published  weekly  by  the  People's  Educational 
Publishing  Association,  1419  Grand  River,  Detroit,  Mich.  The  editor 
is  Hugo  Beiswenger;  secretary-treasurer,  Rosalie  Berry.  Beiswenger 
is  also  president  of  the  corporation.  Members  of  the  editorial  board 
are  William  Allen,  Beisweno-er.  Abner  W.  Berry,  Harry  Fainaru, 
Nat  Ganley,  S.  Gordon,  and  Carl  Winter. 

Negro  Digest,  published  weekly  at  5019  South  State  Street,  Chicago, 
111.,  is  published  and  edited  by  John  H.  Johnson.  Contributing  editors 
include  Henrietta  Buckmaster,  Langston  Hughes,  Carey  McWilliams, 
and  Mrs.  Paul  Robeson. 

Our  World,  is  published  monthly  by  John  P.  Davis,  35  West  Forty- 
third  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y.  Contributors  are  Edward  S.  Lewis, 
Alphaeus  Hunton,  Yvonne  Godfrey,  and  Frank  Stanley. 

World  News  and  Views  is  published  monthly  by  H.  Bennett,  16 
King  Street,  Covent  Gardens,  London. 

Economic  Notes  is  published  monthly  by  Labor  Research  Associa- 
tion, 80  East  Eleventh  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y.  The  editor  is  Robert 
Dunn. 

Action  is  published  monthly  by  the  National  Federation  for  Con- 
stitutional Liberties,  802  F  Street  NW.,  Washington,  D.  C. 

News  of  World  Labor  is  published  monthly  by  the  Committee  for 
A.  F.  of  L.  Participation  in  World  Federation  of  Trade  Unions,  101 
Henry  Street,  Brooklyn,  N.  Y.  The  chairman  is  Courtney  D.  Ward; 
secretary-treasurer,  Thomas  Wilson ;  executive  secretary,  Allan  Ross. 

News  on  Spain  is  published  monthly  by  the  Veterans  of  Abraham 
Lincoln  Brigade,  13  Astor  Place,  New  York,  N.  Y.  The  editor  is  David 
McKelvy  White. 

People's  Voice — Harlem — is  published  by  the  Powell-Buchanan 
Publishing  Co.,  Inc.,  210  West  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fifth  Street, 
New  York,  N.  Y.  It:  is  a  daily  publication.  Board  of  directors,  Adam 
Clayton  Powell;  chairman,  Charles  P.  Buchanan;  secretai-y.  Max 
Yergan ;  treasurer,  Hope  Stevens ;  and  Ferdinand  Smith.  The  editor 
in  chief  is  Adam  Clayton  Powell,  Jr.;  general  manager  and  editor, 
Doxey  Wilkerson;  contributing  editor  is  Paul  Robeson. 

Action  for  Today,  is  published  monthly  by  the  Civil  Rights  Con- 
gress of  New  York,"  112  East  Nineteenth  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y. 
^  Reporter,  a  biweekly  publication,  is  published  by  the  National  Coun- 
cil of  American-Soviet  Friendship,  Inc.,  114  East  Thirty-second  Street, 
New  York,  N.  Y.    The  editor  is  William  H.  Melish. 


TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE  37 

Amon^i:  Friends  is  published  monthly  by  Friends  of  the  Abraham 
Lincoln  Brigade,  125  West  Forty-fifth  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y.  The 
editor  is  David  McKelvy  White ;  managing  editor,  Rex  Pitkin.  Con- 
tributors include  Louis  Fischer,  Dorothy  Parker,  Ernest  Hemingway, 
Grace  Field,  Lini  Fuhr,  Sam  Kornblatt,  Milly  Bennett,  and  Herbert 
Hunter. 

Amerasia  is  published  monthly  by  Amerasia,  225  Fifth  Avenue, 
New  York,  N.  Y.     The  editors  are  Philip  Jaffe  and  Kate  L.  Mitchell. 

Congress  View  is  published  monthly  by  the  National  Negro  Con- 
gress, o07  Lenox  Avenue,  New  York,  N.  Y.  The  president  is  Max 
Yergen;  executive  secretary,  Edward  E.  Strong;  treasurer,  Ferdinand 
C.  Smith;  secretary,  Thelma  Dale;  labor  and  legislation  director, 
Dorothy  K.  Funn;  director  of  publicity,  Mayme  Brown;  editorial 
board,  W.  Alphaeus  Hunton,  Frederick  V.  Field,  Mayme  Brown,  and 
Elizabeth  Catlett. 

AYD  in  Action  is  published  monthly  by  the  national  staff  of  Ameri- 
can Youth  for  Democracy,  150  Nassau  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y. 

Youth,  a  bimonthly  publication,  is  published  by  American  Youth  for 
Democracy,  150  Nassau  Street,  New  York. 

The  Independent,  a  bimonthly,  is  published  by  the  Independent 
Citizens  Committee  of  Arts,  Sciences,  and  Professions,  Hotel  Astor, 
New  York.     The  executive  director  is  Hannah  Dorner. 

Soviet  Culture,  issued  irregularly,  is  published  by  the  Committee  of 
the  American  Russian  Institute,  101  Post  Street,  San  Francisco,  Calif. 
The  chairman  is  Louise  R.  Bransten. 

Soviet  Sports,  issued  irregularly,  is  published  by  the  National  Coun- 
cil of  American-Soviet  Friendship,  114  East  Thirty-second  Street, 
New  York.  .  The  editor  is  Eric  A.  Starbuck. 

Salute  is  published  monthly  by  the  Veterans  Publishing  Co.,  19  Park 
Place,  New  York,  N.  Y.  The  publisher  is  Jeremiah  Ingersoll.  The 
executive  director  is  Max  Baird;  managing  editor,  DeWitt  Gilpin; 
circulation  manager,  Ben  Kaufman;  and  treasurer,  Robert  L.  Soler. 

Boston  Chronicle  is  published  weekly  at  794  Tremont  Street,  Boston, 
Mass.     The  editor  is  William  Harrison. 

Report  From  Washington  is  published  monthly  by  the  Independent 
Citizens  Committee  of  Arts,  Sciences,  and  Professions,  Hotel  Astor, 
New  York,  N.  Y. 

Voice  of  Freedom,  112  East  Forty-second  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y., 
is  published  monthly  by  the  International  Coordination  Council.  The 
editor  is  Richard  Storrs  Childs;  associate  editor,  Minette  Kuhn. 

In  Fact,  with  offices  at  280  Lafayette  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y.,  is 
published  weekly.  The  editor  is  George  Seldes;  associate  editor, 
Victor  Weingarten. 

Information  Bulletin,  triweekly,  is  published  by  the  Embassy  of  the 
Union  of  Soviet  Socialist  Republics,  Washington',  D.  C. 

Hollywood  Independent  is  published  monthly  by  the  Hollywood 
Independent  Citizens'  Committee  of  Arts,  Sciences,  and  Professions, 
1585  Crossroads,  Hollywood,  Calif.  The  editor  is  Hollister  Noble. 
The  editorial  committee  is  composed  of  Carey  Mc Williams,  Ann  Dag- 
gett, Louis  Harris,  Robert  Wachsman,  and  John  B.  Hughes. 

Young  Fraternalist  is  published  monthly  by  the  International 
Workers  Order,  80  Fifth  Avenue,  New  York,  N.  Y.  The  editor  is  Sol 
Vail- contributors  include  Bob  Wagshol,  Barbara  Lord,  H.  Bergoffen, 
Joe  Block,  Bert  S.  Mangel,  Anna  Leone,  and  Aive  Etela. 


38  TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE 

New  Times  is  published  semiweekly  by  Mezhdunarodnaya  Kniga, 
Moscow,  Russia.  It  is  distributed  in' the  United  States  by  the  Four 
Continental  Book  Corp.,  1253  Fifth  Avenue,  New  York,  N.  Y. 

Industrial  Journal  is  published  monthly  by  James  J.  Boutselis,  of 
Lowell,  Mass. 

Truth  About  Soviet  Russia  is  published  monthly  by  Contemporary 
Publishers,  165  Selkirk  Avenue,  Winnipeg,  Canada.  The  editors  are 
Sidney  and  Beatrice  Webb  and  Anna  Louis  Strong. 

L'Unita  Del  Popola,  a  foreign  language — Italian — publication,  is 
published  by  Italian- American  People's  Publications,  Inc.,  13  Astor 
Place,  New  York,  N,  Y.  The  editor  is  M.  Salerno;  manager,  G. 
Altieri. 

T  and  T — Trend  and  Times — is  published  monthly  by  Louis 
Adamic,  Milford,  N.  J.    Adamic  is  the  editor  and  publisher. 

New  Africa  is  published  monthly  by  the  Council  on  African  Affairs, 
23  West  Twenty-sixth  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y.  The  chairman  is  Paul 
Robeson;  vice  chairman,  William  Jay  Schieffelin;  executive  direcjtor, 
Max  Yergan;  treasurer,  Edith  C.  Field;  and  educational  director,  W. 
Alphaeus  Hunton. 

Naroclni  Glasnik — foreign  language — ^is  publishied  daily  by  the 
Narodni  Glasnik  Publishing  Co.,  1916  East  Street,  Pittsburgh,  Pa. 

People's  Songs  is  published  monthly  by  People's  Songs,  Inc.,  130 
West  Forty-second  Street,  New  York. "  The  director  is  Peter  Seeger ; 
board  of  directors,  Woody  Guthrie,  John  Hammond,  Jr.,  Lee  Hays, 
Earl  Robinson,  Walter  Lowenfels,  Alan  Lomax,  and  Bill  Wolff;  ex- 
ecutive secretary,  Felix  Landau ;  editor,  Peter  Seeger. 

German-American  is  published  weekly  by  German-American,  Inc., 
305  Broadway,  New  York,  N.  Y.    The  editor  is  Gustav  Faber. 

Volunteer  for  Liberty  is  published  monthly  by  the  Abraham  Lincoln 
Brigade,  New  York,  N.  Y. 

Action  Bulletin,  a  weekly,  is  published  by  the  Civil  Rights  Con- 
gress, 205  East  Forty-second  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y. 

The  Letter  is  published  by  The  Letter,  Inc.,  Denver,  Colo.  The 
editor  is  Phil  Rino;  editorial  advisory  board,  David  J.  Miller,  Reid 
Robinson,  Joseph  C.  Cohen,  and  Isabelle  Gonzalles. 

California  Eagle  is  published  in  Los  Angeles.  The  editor  is  Char- 
lotta  Bass;  Cyril  Briggs,  Communist  official,  is  managing  editor. 

Eteenpain  is  published  weekly  by  the  Eteenpain  Cooperative  So- 
ciety, Worcester,  Mass.     The  manager  is  H.  Paasikivi. 

Health  and  Hygiene  is  published  monthly  at  215  Fourth  Avenue, 
New  York,  N.  Y.  The  editors  are  Carl  Malmberg  and  Peter  Morell. 
Members  of  the  editorial  advisory  board  and  contributors  include 
Edward  K.  Barsky,  Norman  Bethune,  Paul  De  Kruif,  and  Arthur 
Kallet. 

Icor  is  published  monthly  by  the  Association  for  Jewish  Coloniza- 
tion of  the  Soviet  Union,  799  Broadway,  New  York, 

New  World  is  published  monthly  by  the  Free  Press  Publishing 
Corp.,  Seattle,  Wash.  The  officers  are  Hugh  DeLacy,  Terry  Pettus, 
and  Berta  Pettus.  The  incorporators  are  Hugh  DeLacy,  Eugene  V. 
Dennett,  Marion  Carmozzi,  George  Bradley,  Terry  Pettus,  William 
Dobbins,  Irene  Borowski,  and  N.  P.  Atkinson. 

Ny  Tid — foreign  language — is  published  weekly  by  the  Scandi- 
navian Workers  Educational  Society,  930  Belmont  Avenue,  Chicago, 
111. 


TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER  S.    STEELE  39 

Protestant  is  published  montlily  by  Protestant  Digest,  Inc.,  521 
Fifth  Avenue,  New  York,  N.  Y.    The  editor  is  Kenneth  Leslie. 

Headers'  Scope  is  published  monthly  by  Picture  Scope,  Inc.,  114 
East  Thirty-second  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y.  The  officers  are  Arthur 
Bernhard,  Morris  S.  Latzen,  Leverett  S.  Gleason,  A.  E.  Piller,  George 
Kaplow,  and  Marion  Hart. 

Saznanie  is  published  weekly  by  the  Bulgarian  Section  of  the  Com- 
munist Party,  1343  Ferry  Avenue,  Detroit,  Mich. 

Science  ancl  Society,  a  quarterly  is  published  at  30  East  Twentieth 
Street,  New  York.  It  is  edited  by  Bernhard  Stern,  D.  J.  Struik,  Mar- 
garet Schlauch,  and  Edwin  B.  Burgum. 

Report  on  World  Affairs  is  published  monthly  in  New  York  City. 
Its  editor  is  Johannes  Steel. 

Fraternal  Outlook  is  published  monthly  by  the  International  Work- 
ers Order,  80  Fifth  Avenue,  New  York,  N.  Y.  The  editor  is  Max 
Bedacht. 

Bulletin  on  Education,  irregular,  is  published  by  the  educational 
departments  of  the  Communist  Party  in  California. 

Indonesian  Review  is  published  by  the  American  Committee  for 
Free  Indonesia,  8706  Melrose  Street,  Los  Angeles,  Calif.  The  editor 
is  Charles  Bidien ;  circulation  manager,  Peter  Simatoepang. 

Additional  publications  having  definite  radical  characteristics  are 
Contact,  Negro  Affairs,  House  Confabs,  and  Towards  Tomorrow; 
Slav  American,  quarterly,  published  by  the  American  Slav  Congress, 
205  East  Forty-second  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y. ;  Spotlight,  published 
by  Stage  for  Action,  New  York,  N.  Y. ;  Negro  Quarterly,  published  by 
Negro  Publication  Society  of  America,  Inc.,  1  West  One  Hundred  and 
Twenty-fifth  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y.,  editor,  Angelo  Herndon;  man- 
aging editor,  Ralph  Ellison;  contributors,  Langston  Hughes,  Hen- 
rietta Buckmaster,  L.  D.  Reddick,  Alfred  Kreymborg,  Charles  Hum- 
bolt,  Norman  McLeod,  and  Louis  Hara]:) ;  Voice  of  500,  organ  of  the 
Lincoln  Steffens  Lodge,  No.  500,  of  the  International  Workers  Order, 
New  York,  N.  Y. ;  editor,  Simon  Schacter,  founder  of  the  lodge  and 
editor  in  chief  of  Guild  Lawyer — New  York  Lawyer's  Guild;  and 
Germany  Today,  published  in  New  York  City. 

The  following  are  additional  foreign-language  publications :  Mag- 
yar Jove,  Hungarian,  published  in  New  York  and  edited  by  John 
Gyetvai ;  Glas  Naroda.  published  in  New  York,  of  which  Frank  Sakser 
is  president  and  Joseph  Lupsha  is  secretary ;  Russky  Golos,  a  Russian 
daily  published  in  New  York;  Armenian  Herald — Kraper — published 
triweekly  in  New  York ;  Az  Ember — The  Man — published  weekly  in 
New  York  and  edited  by  Ferene  Condos ;  New  Yorke  Listy,  published 
daily  in  New  York ;  Liberacion,  a  weekly  published  in  New  York,  of 
which  Aurelio  Perez  is  editor ;  Bernardo  Veda,  managing  editor ;  and 
Carmen  Meana,  business  manager ;  El  Boricua  is  published  in  Puerto 
Rico  and  circulated  in  the  United  States  exclusively ;  Narodna  Volya — 
People's  Will — Bulgarian  weekly,  5856  Chene  Street,  Detroit,  Mich. ; 
Uj  Elore,  published  in  New  York  by  the  Hungarian  National  Bureau 
of  the  Communist  Party;  Vilnis  Lithuanian — The  Surge — published 
in  Chicago;  Uus  Ilm,  an  Estonian  weekly  published  in  New  York; 
Puerto  Rico  Libre,  a  weekly  circulated  in  the  United  States ;  Radnicki 
Glasnik,  published  in  Chicago  weekly,  of  which  Joseph  Grachen  is 
editor,  and  contributing  editors  are  Bob  Allen,  Marijana  Dobrinee, 
Flash  Dickson,  Peter  Guzvich,  and  Jennie  Rezich ;  Der  Arbeiter,  organ 


40  TESTIMONY  OF  WALTER  S.   STEELE 

of  the  German  Language  Division  of  the  Communist  Party,  published 
in  New  York;  Ukrainian  Daily  News,  published  in  New  York;  Cul- 
tura  Proletaria,  published  in  New  York  and  edited  by  Marcelino 
Garcia;  Hobinmup — Novy  ISIir — Russian  paper  published  in  New 
York ;  L'Unita  Operia,  published  monthly  in  New  York  and  a  foreign- 
language  organ  of  the  Communist  Party ;  Greek-American  Tribune — 
Bhma — published  weekly  in  New  York  and  edited  by  Demetrius 
Christoi^herides ;  New  Life — Nailben — a  Jewish  monthly  published  in 
New  York ;  Hoboe  Bpemr,  published  in  Russia  for  distribution  in  the 
United  States;  Tvomies,  Karpatska  Rus,  Ludovy  Dennik,  Magyar 
Herald,  Slobodna  Rechnoradnawola,  Romanul  American,  published  in 
Detroit  and  edited  by  Harry  Fainaru;  People's  Herald — Croatian — 
published  in  Pittsburgh  and  edited  by  Anton  Majnarie. 

The  organ  of  Local  12  of  the  Comminiist  Party  is  known  as  the 
Roxbury  Voice.    It  is  published  in  Roxbury,  Mass. 

In  addition  to  the  publications  mentioned  herein,  propaganda  dis- 
tributing centers  in  New  York  City,  Chicago,  and  Los  Angeles  carry 
other  Communist  and  Communist  Party  organs  printed  in  foreign 
countries  in  foreign  languages  for  distribution  in  the  United  States. 

Your  World,  a  monthly  magazine,  is  published  in  Toronto,  Canada, 
45  Avenue  Road. 

American  Review  of  Soviet  Medicine,  pnblislied  monthly  at  58  Park 
Avenue,  New  York,  N.  Y.,  is  edited  by  Dr.  Jacob  Heiman. 

The  American  Review  on  the  Soviet,  Russian  Teclmical  Research 
News,  The  Soviet  Union  Today,  The  USSR  in  Construction,  and 
Soviet  Health  Care  are  printed  and  circulated  regularly  in  the  United 
States  by  the  American-Russian  Institute,  58  Park  Avenue,  New  York, 
N.  Y.  Officers  of  the  institute  are  Ernest  J.  Simmons,  chairman; 
Basil  Bass,  secretary ;  jind  John  L.  Curtis,  treasurer.  Members  of  the 
national  board  of  directors  include  Louise  Bransten,  Edward  C.  Car- 
ter, Robert  S.  Lynd,  Samuel  J.  Novick,  Henry  E.  Siegrist,  and  Max- 
well S.  Stewart.    Its  executive  director  is  Fred  Myers. 

Morning  Freiheit  celebrated  its  twenty-fifth  anniversary  a  short 
time  ago  at  a  large  gathering  in  New  York  City.  Speakers  at  the  af- 
fair were  Alexander  Bittleman,  high  up  in  Communist  Party  affairs ; 
William  Z.  Foster,  national  chairman  of  the  Communist  Party ;  Moses 
Miller,  Ben  Gold,  Paul  Novick,  all  Communist  leaders,  some  of  whom 
are  directly  connected  with  Freiheit.  The  Communist  Party  extended 
greetings  to  the  publication  on  the  occasion. 

Communists  are  masters  of  pamphleteering,  and  they  maintain 
scores  of  publishing  houses  and  distributing- centers  through  which  a 
continuous  stream  of  agitational  literature  flows.  Approximately 
23,000,000  pamphlets  are  printed  and  circulated  annually  by  the 
Communist  Agit-Prop  Division.  These  are  in  addition  to  the  Red 
daily,  weekly,  and  monthly  publications. 

Public  Affairs  Committee,  Inc.,  with  offices  at  122  East  Thirty- 
eighth  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y.,  entered  the  pamphleteering  field  sev- 
eral years  ago.  It  issues  higher  quality  pamphlets  on  subjects  related 
to  those  adopted  for  propagation  by  the  Communist  Party.  Maxwell 
S.  Stewart,  former  editor  of  Moscow  News,  and  with  other  front  con- 
nections, is  editor  of  the  pamphlet  service.  Violet  Edwards  is  educa- 
tion and  promotion  director.  Frederick  V.  Field,  of  New  Masses — 
Communist  organ — is  a  member  of  the  board. 


TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE  41 

Ruth  Benedict,  a  member  of  the  East  and  West  Association,  and 
Gene  Weltfish,  a  leader  in  the  Congress  of  the  American  Women,  have 
written  pamphlets  for  the  Public  Affairs  Committee.  One  of  them, 
Eaces  of  Mankind,  was  barred  by  the  War  Department  after  Con- 
gress protested  against  its  use  in  orientation  classes  of  the  Army, 
declaring  that  its  aim  was  to  create  racial  antagonism. 

I  list  herewith  a  few  of  the  pamphlets  issued  by  the  committee: 
Why  Women  Work,  Labor  on  New  Fronts,  Farm  Policies  of  New 
Deal,  How  We  Spend,  How  Can  We  Teach  About  Sex,  Security  or  the 
Dole,  Machines  and  Tomorrow's  World,  Who  Can  Afford  Health, 
Safeguarding  Our  Civil  Liberties,  Read  Your  Labels,  Radio  Is  Yours, 
For  "a  Stronger  Congress,  What  To  Do  About  Immigration,  and  Will 
Negroes  Get  Jobs. 

The  Negro  Publication  Society  of  America,  Inc.,  was  set  up  in 
New  York  on  September  23,  1941,  for  the  purpose  of  issuing  propa- 
ganda for  distribution  among  the  Negroes.  On  its  staff  are  Lawrence 
D.  Reddick,  Arthur  Huff  Fauset,  Maro;aret  Osborn,  Herbert  Apthe- 
ker,  and  Angelo  Herndon,  all  Avidely  active  in  Communist-front  move- 
ments. The  incorporation  papers,^^  a  copy  of  which  I  submit  here- 
with, show  that  the  following  are  the  directors  of  the  society :  Bernhard 
J.  Stern,  Dorothy  Peterson,  Rockwell  Kent,  Harcourt  A.  Tynes,  Alaine 
Locke,  Henrietta  Buckmaster,  Marc  Blitzstein,  Arthur  Huff'  Fauset, 
Lawrence  D.  Reddick,  Margaret  G.  Osborn,  Jean  Muir,  Dashiell  Ham- 
mett,  Angelo  Herndon,  and  Herbert  Aptheker. 

The  Allied  Labor  News  Service  is  an  international  Communist 
service.  It  has  correspondents  in  foreign  countries,  and  it  serves 
Communist  publications.  It  augments,  rather  than  competes  with, 
the  Federated  Press,  which  deals  with  local  and  national  events. 
Correspondents  for  the  ALN  Service  include  William  Peters,  Bob 
Travis,  Remo  Marietta,  and  Israel  Epstein. 

Associated  Magazine  Contributors,  Inc.,  possibly  an  outgrowth  of 
the  Mainstream  Conference,  has  recently  made  its  appearance.  It 
maintains  offices  at  68  West  Forty-fifth  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y. 
It  is  described  as  a  cooperative  enterprise,  and  will  publish,  among 
other  things,  a  pocket-sized  magazine.  The  following  are  officers: 
John  Hersey,  president;  Jerome  Ellison,  vice  president;  William  A. 
Lydgate,  secretary;  and  Maxwell  S.  Stewart,  treasurer.  Directors 
include  Christopher  LaFarge,  Robert  St.  John,  John  D.  Ratcliff, 
and  Mortimer  S.  Edelstein.  Initial  contributors,  in  addition  to  the 
above,  are  John  Steinbeck,  Stuart  Cloete,  Pearl  Buck,  Margaret  Cul- 
kin  Banning,  Clifford  Fadiman,  Robert  Butterfield,  Ernest  K.  Lind- 
ley,  Raymond  Gram  Swing,  Austin  Briggs,  Rene  Robert  Bouche, 
Richard  Sargent,  D wight  Shepler,  Sam  Berman,  Alan  Dunn,  Jack 
Markow,  Gardner  Rea,  Robert  Disraeli,  Andrew  Kertsz,  Herman 
Landshoff,  and  Gjon  Mill. 

I  wish  to  again  refer  to  the  Washington,  D.  C,  Cooperative  Book- 
shop, which  if  not  directly  affiliated  with  the  Communist  book  shops,  is 
doing  party  chores.  Chairman  of  the  board  of  trustees  of  this  book- 
shop is  Joseph  L.  Pierce.  Regardless  of  whether  or  not  it  admits  it 
is  a  link  in  the  chain  of  Communist-controlled  book  shops,  it  is  cooper- 
ating in  the  distribution  of  Communist  and  Soviet  Russian  propa- 
ganda.    Its  current  catalog,  prepared  by  Bessie  Weissman  of  the 

"  See  appendix,  p.  174,  for  exhibit  12. 


42  TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE 

shop,  lists  the  following  as  "selective"  material :  Lenin :  The  Man  and 
His  Works ;  Joseph  Stalin :  Stalin's  Early  Writings  and  Activities ; 
Maxim  Litvinoff ;  Keligion  Today  in  U.  S.  S.  R. ;  Socialized  Medicine 
in  U.  S.  S.  R. ;  Women  in  the  Soviet  East ;  Russian  Youth  and  the  Pres- 
ent Day  World;  Red  Virtue;  The  Great  Conspiracy  Against  Russia; 
We  Can  Do  Business  with  Russia ;  The  Land  of  the  Soviets ;  In  Place 
of  Profit ;  From  Empire  to  Socialism ;  History  of  Communist  Party  of 
the  Soviet;  October  Revolution;  Ten  Days  that  Shook  the  World; 
Soviet  Communism ;  and  New  Civilization. 

Reds  and  Red  fronters  control  many  of  the  publications  circulated 
in  labor  circles.  Their  writers  have  taken  over  the  editorial  columns, 
and  articles  are  contributed  in  many  instances  by  outright  Communists. 
Most  of  these  publications  are  served  by  the  Federated  Press  or  the 
Allied  Labor  News  Service,  both  of  which  have  long  been  infiltrated 
if  not  actually  controlled  by  the  Communists.  A  recent  addition  to 
these  services  is  the  Trade  Union  Service,  Inc.,  with  offices  in  New 
York  City.  This  owns  and  publishes  15  trade  union  papers  for  vari- 
ous CIO  unions.  Officers  of  the  service  include  Corliss  Lamont,  Fred- 
erick V.  Field,  William  Osgood  Field,  and  James  Waterman  Wise. 
Lamont  is  the  head  of  one  of  the  largest  Red  front  organizations  in 
our  country.  Frederick  Field  is  equally  notorious,  and  he  is  on  the 
editorial  board  of  the  Daily  Worker.  Wise  and  William  Field  also 
have  Red  front  backgrounds. 

The  Labor  Research  Association,  80  East  Eleventh  Street,  New 
York,  N.  Y.,  publishes  monthly  the  Economic  News,  sold  and  dis- 
tributed through  Communist  bookshops.  The  Communist  press  fre- 
quently quotes  from  it.  The  association  occasionally  issues  books 
which  are  published  and  distributed  by  the  International  Publishers 
of  New  York,  the  Communist  publishing  house.  Its  releases,  service, 
and  books  are  consistently  along  the  Communist  Party  line,  and  they 
are  as  a  rule  timed  with  the  party's  agitation  and  pressure  moves.  The 
service  is  received  and  widely  read  by  CIO  labor-union  leaders,  since 
it  is  considered  the  key  to  economic  and  labor  issues.  Heading  the 
association  is  Robert  W.  Dunn,  widely  known  in  Communist  ranks. 
He  was  prominent  in  the  International  Labor  Defense,  of  which  he 
was  treasurer  for  many  years.  He  was  also  active  in  the  American 
League  for  Peace  and  Democracy  and  the  Anti-Imperialist  League. 
He  was  connected  with  Soviet  Russia  Today  and  the  Workers'  (Com- 
munist) Schools.  His  wife,  Russian-borii,  has  been  a  columnist  for 
the  Daily  Worker. 

(The  list  of  contributors  to  five  of  the  major  Communist  publica- 
tions is  as  follows:) 

The  following  have  contributed  to  the  Daily  Worker  and  Worker  within  the 
past  few  months : 

George  Marion  Martin  T.  Brown  Milton  Howard 

Art  Shields  Bill  Marko  James  S.  Allen 

Ben  Field  E.  Benson  Gerhart  Eisler 

W.  E.  B.  DuBois  William  Allan  George  Marston 

Harry  Raymond  Abner  W.  Berry  Carl  W.  Scott 

Samuel  Sillen  Michael  Singer  Dyson  Carter 

Frank  Lesser  Joseph  Clark  Olive  Sutton 

David  Piatt  Arnold  Sroog  Michael  Chicureli 

Lester  Rodney  Fred  Vast  Robert  Kelly 

Robert  F.  Hall  John  Hudson  Jones  Louise  Mitchell 

Mike  Lynn  Bernard  Burton  Allan  L.  Fletcher 


TESTIMONY    OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE 


43 


Dan  Rogers 
Moranda  Smith 
Joseph  Starobin 
Ted  Allen 
Bob  Friedman 
John  Pittman 
Aaron  Kramer 
William  Z.  Foster 
Olive  Mosby 
Eugene  Dennis 
Morris  Childs 
Pat  Cush 


Fi-ederick  V.  Field 
Hilda  Weiss 
Merle  Nance 
Otto  Wangerin 
Murray  Chase  • 
Milton  Pokorne 
Charles  Stein 
Mary  Southard 
Ruby  Cooper 
Martha  Millet 
Walter  Lowenfels 
Elizabeth  Gurley  Flynn 


Mike  Gold 
Harold  Hickerson 
Joseph  Leeds 
Peter  J.  Cacchione 
Elizabeth  M.  Bacon 
Jean  R.  Beck 
Barnard  Rubin 
J.  Kepner 
Peter  Stone 
Fred  Vast 
Travis  K.  Hedrick 


The  following  have  been  contributors  to  recent  issues  of  New  Masses ; 


Elizabeth  Lawson 
Elizabeth  Gurley  Flynn 
Ralph  J.  Peters 
Walter  M.  Aiken 
Leon  Josephson 
Millen  Brand 
Vladimir  D.  Kazakevich 
Joseph  North 
Cliarles  Humboldt 


Isidor  Schneider 
Elfriede  Fischer 
Paul  Kaye 
Gertrude  Chase 
Carmelia  Weinsteiu 
Richard  O.  Bover 
A.  B.  Magil 
Claude  Ashford 
Joseph  Foster 


George  Morris 
W.  E.  B.  DuBois 
William  Auer 
Wilma  Shore 
S.  W.  Gerson 
Dirk  Struik 
Eugene  Dennis 
Frederick  V.  Field 


The  following  are  staff  writers  for  People's  Daily  World  : 


George  Morris 
Frank  Mucci 
Max  Gordon 
James  S.  Allen 
Johannes  Steel 
Vivian  McGuckin 
Philip  Evergood 
Dave  Blodgett 
Rol)ert  F.   Hall 
Bill  Mardo 
Eva  Lapin 
Jack  Young 
Hodee  Richards 
Morris  Schappes 
Earl  E.  Payne 
John  Pittman 
Lee  Coe 
C.  L.  Rees 
Zlatko  Balokovic 
Samuel  Sillen 
Jean  R.  Beck 
Elizabeth  M.  Bacon 
Patricia  Killoran 
Tony  Russo 
Emil  Freed 
Sam  Kutniek 
Ruby  Cooper 
Sondra  Gorney 
Mason  Roberson 
Eric  Webber 
William  Z.  Foster 
Max  Gordon 
George  Kauffman 
John  Steuben 
Mary  Hays 
John  Stapp 
Philip  Murray 
A.  F.  Wliitney 
Harry  Raymond 
Sidney  Burke 


Helen  Simon 

Art  Shields 

Joseph  Starobin 

Kathleen  Cronin 

A.  R.  Onda 

William  Allan 

Memmy  Sparks 

John  J.  Abt 

Fred  Vast 

Allan  L.  Fletcher 

Elizabeth  Gurley  Flynn 

Frederick  V.  Field 

Kilen  Taylor' 

Israel  Epstein 

Otto  Wangerin 

John  Hudson  Jones 

Merle  Brodsky 

Woody  Guthrie 

Bill  Whacker 

C.  F.  Frost 

Okey  Giggins 

Sid  Partridge 

Edwin  F.  Ufheil 

Hugh  Bryson 

Anna  Louise  Strong 

Travis  K.  Hedrick 

David  Piatt 

Beruice  Cai'ey 

Louise  Mitchell 

Jack  Stachel 

Marcel  Dubois 

Al  Richmond 

Joseph  Clark 

Robert  Minor 

Jack  Green 

Nat  Low 

Robert  Kobin 

Jane  Gilbert 

Carl  Williams 

Mary  Thomas 


Walter  J.  Stack 
Frank  Pitcairn 
Mirian  Kolkin 
Herb  Tank 
Mike  Quinn 
Mary  Foote 
Wes  Bodkin 
Pettis  Perry 
Sam  Kutniek 
Al  Ross 
Philip  Bock 
Howard  Fast 
Lloyd  Lehman 
Lena  Epstein 
Ken  Howard 
Hildegaard  Level 
Ben  Levine 
Archie  Brown 
Leon  Kaplan 
Eric  Webber 
Esther  Miller 
Walter  Lowenfels 
Lawson  Milford 
Abner  W.  Berry 
Dr.  Holland  Roberts 
George  Marion 
John  Williamson 
Yvonne  Shepherd 
Leon  Lee 
Barbara  Leigh 
Morris  Childs 
Alan  Max 
V.  F.  Coragliotti 
Pete  Edises 
Hazel  Grossman 
Olive  Sutton 
Harry  Fainaru 
Albert  E.  Kahn 
Michael  Bankfort 
Alex  Treskin 


44 


TESTIMONY  OF  WALTER  S.   STEELE 


The  following  have  contributed  in  recent  months  to  Political  Affairs : 


Eugene  Dennis 
John  Williamson 
William  Z.  Foster 
Lillian  Gates 
Joe  Roberts 
Donald  Freeman 
Elizabeth  Gurley  Flynn 
Alpheus  Hunton 
James  S.  Allen 
Abner  W.  Berry 
Alexander  Bittelman 
Jack  Stachel 
George  Phillips 
Nat  Ross 
Joel  Remes 
George  Morris 
John  Gates 
Oleta  O'Connor  Gates 


Dan  Stevens 
Horris  Childs 
Max  Weis^ 
Harry  Haywood 
Joseph  Starobin 
Robert  F.  Hall 
Joseph  Clark 
John  Pittman 
Howard  Jenning 
Hugo  Gellert 
Frederick  V.  Field 
Milton  Howard 
Hal  Simon 
Meir  Vilner 
John  Stuart 
Stanley  Ryerson 
V.  J.  Jerome 
Henry  Winston 


George  Blake  Charney 

Fred  Blair 

James  Keller 

Donald  MacKenzie  Lester 

Anna  Long 

Elizabeth  Curley  Flynn 

Robert  Minor 

Roy  Hudson 

L.  L.  Sharkey 

Adam  Lapin 

Thelma  Dale 

Max  Gordon 

Carl  Winter 

George  Bernstein 

Etienne  Fajon 

William  Weinstone 

Dan  Stevens 

Al  Loew 


Mr.  McDowell.  Mr.  Steele,  when  was  this  front  Tread  On  Me 
campaign  conducted  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  Two  months  ago. 

Mr.  McDowell.  With  all  of  the  advertising,  the  printing,  and  so 
forth,  there  was,  obviously,  a  very  large  amount  of  money  spent. 

Mr.  Steele.  Certainly. 

Mr.  McDowell.  Do  you  have  any  knowledge  of  the  source  of  that 
money  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  I  do  not ;  no. 

Mr.  McDowell.  It  is  my  observation,  as  one  Member  of  Congress, 
that  with  all  of  that  activity,  the  propaganda,  to  berate  the  committee 
and  cause  it  to  be  disbanded,  or  whatever  they  are  trying  to  do,  it  has 
been  almost  a  total  flop,  so  far  as  the  effects  are  visible  here  in  Wash- 
ington. , 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes. 

Mr.  McDowell.  That  would  be  reflected,  if  it  were  reflected,  in  a 
Congressman's  mail.  I  can  recall  no  sudden  upsurge  or  downsurge  in 
my  mail. 

Mr.  Steele.  The  only  thing  I  do  know  about  the  fund-raising  angle 
is  that  each  local  section  was  given  a  quota  of  funds  to  raise,  a  portion 
of  which  quota  was  spent  back  in  that  local's  territory  and  a  portion 
of  which  went  to  the  national  office  for  the  national  campaign. 

For  instance,  here  in  Washingion  the  local  was  given  a  quota. 
A  part  of  that  was  spent  for  advertisements  in  local  newspapers,  and 
I  think  one  broadcast  here,  and  a  portion  of  that  went  to  the  national 
office  for  the  national  campaign. 

I  don't  know  whether  that  was  the  general  plan  or  not,  but  that  was 
the  plan  here  in  Washington.    I  assume  it  was  the  general  plan, 

Mr.  Bonner.  The  list  of  magazine  articles,  the  writings  which  you 
have  just  recently  mentioned,  who  compiled  that  list? 

Mr.  Steele.  Pardon  me? 

Mr.  Bonner.  You  just  mentioned  you  had  how  many — 300 — names 
of  writers? 

Mr.  Steele.  Who  compiled  the  list? 

Mr.  Bonner.  Yes. 

Mr.  Steele.  I  did. 

Mr.  Bonner.  Yourself,  alone? 


TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE  ^  45 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir.  I  obtained  those  from  the  publications,  and 
I  wish  to  exhibit  as  proof  the  front  cover  of  all  the  publications  which 
I  have  listed  there. 

(Exhibit  received.) 

Mr.  Bonner.  I  just  wanted  to  ask  you  one  or  two  questions. 
•  What  did  you  say  about  these  articles  and  writers  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  I  say  that  the  publications  and  the  publishing  houses 
are  Communist,  the  newspapers  and  magazines  I  mentioned  are 
either  directly  Communist  Party  publications  or  are  front  or  party- 
line  publications,  and  I  listed  the  names  of  the  publications,  the  ad- 
dresses of  them,  I  submit  reproduction  of  tlie  front  cover  of  each, 
and  the  names  of  the  staff  writers  in  each  case,  taken  from  the  pub- 
lications. 

Mr.  Bonner.  And  it  is  your  opinion  that  all  of  them  are 
Communist  ? 

Mr.  ISteele.  Communist  or  Communist  front  organs. 

Mr.  Bonner.  Have  you  read  all  of  the  articles  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  Read  all  the  articles,  no;  but  I  have  read  a  sufficient 
number  of  them  to  determine  that. 

Mr.  Bonner.  And  the  purpose  of  the  articles,  then,  is  to  build  up 
sentiment  or  feeling  for  the  party  line  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir ;  for  the  party  line. 

Mr.  Bonner.  Not  having  looked  at  the  list  of  publications,  are  there 
any  outstanding  publications,  such  as  tlie  Saturday  Evening  Post 

Mr.  Steele.  Oh,  no. 

Mr.  Bonner.  Or  Collier's  Weekly  f 

Mr.  Steele.  Oh.  no. 

Mr.  Bonner.  I  don't  mean  those  particular  publications,  but  in  that 
category. 

Mr.  Steele.  No  ;  none  in  that  category ;  no,  sir. 

Mr.  Bonner.  They  are  just  kind  of  fly-by-night  publications? 

Mr.  Steele.  A  good  many  of  them,  yes.  The  Daily  Worker  has 
been  operating  for  many  years,  People's  Daily  World,  Political  Af- 
fairs, New  Masses,  and  so  on.  That  is  the  nature  of  the  publication. 
Not  legitimate — what  I  call  legitimate  publications — or  representa- 
tive American  publications ;  no,  sir. 

Mr.  Bonner.  What  is  your  feeling  of  the  effect  of  these  publica- 
tions? Are  there  a  certain — just  certain  types  or  groups  in  this  coun- 
try that  just  have  to  liave  that  kind  of  literature? 

Mr.  Steele.  That  I  couldn't  tell  you,  Mr.  Congressman.  All  I 
know  is  that  they  are  published  and  they  are  circulated  and  they  are 
on  the  news  stands  in  many  cities,  and  they  are  purchased,  and  what 
the  purpose  of  the  reader  is  in  buying  them  I  couldn't  tell  you,  be- 
cause I  don't  know.    What  influence  it  has  I  don't  know. 

Mr.  McDowell.  Many  of  these  are  publications  in  various  foreign 
languages? 

Mr.  Steele.  Some  of  them  are. 

Mr.  McDowell.  Would  you  have  any  opinion  on  whether  the  for- 
eign-language papers,  fellow-traveler  papers,  have  more  influence  than 
those  written  in  the  English  language? 

Mr.  Steele.  I  would  think  so ;  yes,  sir. 

Mr.  McDo%VELL.  You  would  think  tlvey  have  more  influence  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes;  because  there  are  such  a  few  publications  printed 
in  foreign  languages  that  those  who  like  to  follow  the  news  from  their 


46  TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE 

fatherlands  almost  have  to  get  it  through  these  foreign-language  pub- 
lications, to  a  great  extent. 

Mr.  McDowell.  It  is  my  observation  that  even  with  the  outrageous 
falsehoods  that  are  printed  daily  in  the  Daily  Worker  and  various 
English-written  Communist  papers,  they  are  faint  compared  to  the 
things  written  in  various  foreign  languages,  particularly  in  the  Slavish 
newspapers,  Communist  newspapers.  The  outrageous  utterances  that 
are  fed  to  the  people  of  America  who  are  of  Slavish  descent  in  these 
foreign-language  newspapers  is  just  simply  beyond  belief. 

That  is  all,  Mr.  Chairman. 

The  Chairman.  You  don't  mean  that  all  of  these  foreign-language 
papers 

Mr.  McDowell.  No;  I  am  talking  about  Communist  and  fellow 
traveler  papers.  The  great  majority  of  the  foreign-language  news- 
papers of  America  are  patriotic  American  newspapers  printed  in  a 
foreign  language. 

The  Chairman.  Yes. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Mr.  Steele,  in  making  the  study  of  the  publications 
which  you  have  termed  as  left-wing  or  Communist  publications,  isn't 
is  true  that  every  Commimist-front  organization  has  either  one  or  two, 
sometimes  three  different  publications? 

Mr.  Steele.  That  is  right.  • 

Mr.  Stripling.  And  that  is  the  type  of  publication  you  are  referring 
to  here  and  which  you  have  listed? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir, 

Mr.  Stripling.  Mr.  Chairman,  for  the  benefit  of  the  record,  we  had 
Mr.  Steele  submit  a  list  of  those  publications  which  we  in  turn  sub- 
mitted to  our  research  department.  The  research  department  checked 
them  with  our  files  and  without  a  single  exception  all  of  them  are 
either  official  organs  of  what  the  committee  considers  to  be  a  Com- 
munist front  organization  or  an  outright  Communist  publication. 

Mr.  Chairman,  I  suggest  that  you  let  the  record  show  the  member- 
ship. 

The  Chairman.  The  record  will  show  that  those  present  at  this 
point  are  Mr.  McDowell,  Mr.  Vail,  Mr.  Bonner,  and  Mr.  Thomas. 

Mr.  Bonner.  How  much  staff  do  you  have  to  assist  you  in  compiling 
this  information,  the  data  that  you  bring  before  the  committee? 

Mr.  Steele.  Well,  I  might  say  that  I  did  all  the  work  on  this  per- 
sonally, except  the  collection  of  the  publications.  I  had  one  man  out 
picking  those  up — there  were  a  great  many — and  in  other  places  I  had 
subscribers  to  my  publication,  who  I  have  become  intimately  ac- 
quainted with,  go  into  the  publishing  house  and  get  them  for  me,  or 
some  member  of  a  veterans'  organization — or  various  contacts  that  I 
have  over  the  country.  But  insofar  as  the  study  of-  the  data,  I  made 
the  study  personally,  and  wrote  everything  that  is  in  the  report. 

Propaganda  and  agitation  are  major  instruments  of  the  Communist 
forces.  Consequently,  they  devise  many  tools  for  those  fields.  One 
of  these  is  the  school.  Others  are  pui3lishing  houses,  publications, 
distribution  centers,  and  camps.  Through  all  of  them  the  Commu- 
nists carry  on  these  important  phases  of  activity. 

One  of  the  oldest  of  the  Red  mediums  of  propaganda  is  the  Com- 
munist school  for  the  training  and  orientating  of  new  recruits.  Under 
the  guise  of  espousing  the  cause  of  "workers'  education,"  these  schools, 
located  in  the  principal  cities  of  the  United  States,  have  corralled  not 


TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE  47 

only  the  sons  and  daughters  of  the  workers  in  many  instances,  but 
they  have  also  taken  their  toll  of  those  in  the  middle  and  upper  strata 
of  our  society.  They  have  opened  a  field  of  operation  for  the  leftist 
intelligentsia,  many  of  whom  have  been  shorn  of  their  professorial 
affiliation  with  public  schools,  State,  and  privately  operated  universi- 
ties and  colleges  because  of  their  activities  in  behalf  of  the  Commu- 
nist cause. 

Communist  schools  originally  operated  under  the  name  "Workers' 
schools.''  They  were  directed  as  a  chain  from  New  York  City  by  a 
board  set  up  for  that  purpose  by  the  Communist  Party,  members  of 
which  included  highest  officials  of  the  party.  Starting  in  1940,  these 
schools,  as  did  all  other  Communist  organizations,  underwent  a  series 
of  name-changing,  changes  in  personnel,  and  changes,  to  an  extent, 
in  curriculum.  However,  a  careful  study  shows  that  the  only  major 
changes  occurred  in  the  names  of  the  schools,  and  that  the  purpose  of 
each  remained  the  same.  The  school  faculties  are  manned  with  Com- 
munist functionaries,  widely  known  leaders  in  the  party  ranks,  a 
sprinkling  of  front ers,  and  prominent  members  of  the  CIO.  The 
curriculum  has  been  adjusted  only  to  the  extent  of  the  change  in 
party-line  and  international  policies  of  the  Communists. 

The  largest  of  the  schools  are  the  Jefferson  School  of  Social  Science 
in  New  York  City  and  the  California  Labor  School  in  San  Francisco, 
although  other  Red  schools  of  considerable  size  are  operated  in  Holly- 
wood, Chicago,  Philadelphia,  Boston,  Cleveland,  and  elsewhere. 

More  than  6,000  students  receive  training  at  these  schools  annually. 
I  wish  to  submit  as  proof  at  this  time  the  catalogs  of  those  schools. 

(Exhibits  13,  14,  and  15,  were  received. )^^ 

The  Chairman.  Which  sets  forth  the  topics  and  the  names  of  the 
members  of  the  faculty,  the  purposes  of  the  schools. 

Mr.  Steele.  The  Jefferson  School  of  Social  Science  is  located  at 
575  Avenue  of  the  Americas.  New  York  City.  It  has  branches  at 
108  Watkins  Street,  Brooklyn;  3200  Coney  Island  Avenue,  Brooklyn; 
13  Graham  Avenue,  Brooklyn;  649  Britton  Street,  Bronx;  and  838 
East  One  Hundrecl  and  Eightieth  Street,  Bronx.  The  board  of 
trustees  is  composed  of  the  following:  Lyman  A.  Bradley,  chairman; 
Frederick  V.  Field,  secretary;  Alexander  Trachtenberg,  treasurer; 
Dorothy  Brewster;  William  Howard  Melish;  Harry  Sacher;  Mar- 
garet Schlauch;  Howard  Selsan;  Dirk  J.  Struik;  Doxey  A.  Wilker- 
son;  Max  Yergan;  and  Ruth  Youno-.  Faculty  representatives  are 
Joseph  B.  Furst  and  Myer  Weiss.  The  staff  consists  of  Howard 
Selsen,  director;  David  Goldway,  assistant  director;  Louis  Lerman; 
Harold  Collins,  curriculum;  Benjamin  Paskoff  and  Elizabeth 
Freidus,  annexes.  The  staff  instructor  is  Francis  Franklin;  regis- 
trar, Jette  Alpert;  librarians,  Henry  Black,  Clara  Ostrowsk}^,  and 
Ethel  Soschin;  book  shop,  David  Cohen. 

Officials  of  the  Jefferson  School  of  Social  Science  claim  that  since 
its  opening  under  the  present  name  in  1944,  "some  40.000  persons 
have  taken  its  courses.''  In  one  of  its  documents  the  following  state- 
ment appears: 

The  Jefferson  School  holds  that  the  principles  and  methods  of  scientific  social- 
ism, developed  over  the  past  hundred  years  by  the  great  theoretical  leaders  of 


"  See  appendix,  p.  174,  for  exhibits  13,  14,  and  15. 
65176 — 47 4 


48  TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE 

the  working-class  movement,  give  full  expression  to  the  needs  and  aspirations  of 
all  peoples.  The  application  of  the  scietific  approach  to  the  problems  of  social 
life,  the  school  believes,  makes  possible  the  utilization  of  the  laws  of  social 
development  for  the  achievement  of  a  new  social  order  *  *  *  (Spring,  1947, 
catalog  of  the  Jefferson  School  of  Social  Science,  p.  5.) 

To  further  substantiate  the  claim  that  the  Jefferson  School  is  com- 
munistic, I  call  attention  to  the  announcement  that  it  will  lead  off  in 
the  Nation-wide  leftist  commemoration  this  year  (1947)  of  the  one 
hundredth  anniversary  of  the  Communist  Manifesto.  Howard  Fast, 
Harry  Ward,  Howard  Selsam,  Doxey  Wilkerson,  and  Philip  Foner 
have  been  named  to  play  the  leading  roles  in  the  commemoration. 

This  school  provides  courses  for  children  as  well  as  adults.  It 
also  maintains  a  summer  camp  at  Arrowhead  Lod^e,  Ellenville,  N.  Y. ; 
a  Jefferson  School  Theater  work  shop,  and  a  Jefferson  chorus.  It 
accepts  gifts  and  endowments.  It  has  established  a  scholarship  fund. 
The  chairman  of  the  committee  on  scholarships  is  Doxey  A.  Wilker- 
son, a  member  of  the  national  committee  of  the  Communist  Party, 
and  editor  of  the  (Harlem)  People's  Voice.  The  school  conducts 
forums  through  Seymor  A.  Copstein  and  Alan  Max.  It  claims  that 
over  5,000  people  were  taught  in  its  trade  union  and  extension  divi- 
sion in  1946.  Courses  given  at  the  school  include  the  following: 
"The  Soviet  Union  in  World  Affairs,"  "Principles  of  Marxism," 
"Science  and  Society,"  "History  of  the  Labor  Movement,"  "Political 
Economy,"  "Problems  of  the  Negro  People,"  "Prob'ems  of  the  Jewish 
People,"  "Psychology  and  the  Social  Order,"  "Literature  and  So- 
ciety," and  "History  of  the  Commmiist  Party  of  the  Soviet  Union." 

"Science  and  Society,"  described  as  "an  introduction  to  Marxism," 
is  taught  by  Elisabeth  Lawson,  Harold  Kirschnar,  Isabella  Bailin, 
Howard  E.  Johnson,  Harold  Collins,  David  Goldway,  Albert  Prago, 
Benjamin  Paskoff,  and  Sue  Warren.  The  subject  is  broken  down  into 
the  categories  of  social  systems  and  social  change,  capitalist  society, 
capitalist  democracy,  and  Socialist  revolution. 

Instructors  in  "Principles  of  Marxism"  are  Elisabeth  Barker,  Harold 
Collins,  Sidney  Gluck,  George  Woodard,  Myer  Weise,  Frances  Frank- 
lin, and  David  Goldway.  This  course  deals  with  the  "fundamentals 
of  Marxist-Leninist  theory";  the  "theory  of  proletarian  revolution, 
dictatorship  of  the  proletariat,  and  the  character  and  role  of  a  Marxist- 
Leninist  Party." 

"History  of  the  Communist  Party  of  the  Soviet  Union"  is  taught  by 
David  Goldway.  It  is  described  as  a  study  of  the  "political  lessons 
of  the  history  of  the  Bolshevik  Party  up  to  the  October  revolution." 

"Problems  of  the  Negro  People"  is  taught  by  Dr.  Herbert  Aptheker ; 
"The  United  States  as  a  World  Power,"  by  Dr.  Philip  S.  Foner;  "The 
Soviet  Union"  (nature  of  Socialist  democracy  and  role  of  the  Com- 
munist Party),  by  Vladimir  D.  Kasakevich;  "The  Current  Problems 
of  Jewish  Life,"  by  Morris  H.  Lipschitz;  "Dialactical  and  Historical 
Materialism,"  by  Harry  Martel;  "History  of  Religion"  (which  course 
will  make  a  Marxist  critique  of  religion) ,  by  Frances  Franklin ;  "Phy- 
chology,"  by  Ruth  Burgess  and  Samuel  Coe;  "Psychiatry,"  by  Dr. 
Joseph  B.  Furst  and  Dr.  Joseph  Wortis;  "What  Is  Literature,"  by 
Dr.  Annette  T.  Rubinstein,  Dr.  Russel  Ames,  Seymour  A.  Copstein, 
and  Morris  U.  Schappes.  Among  other  lecturers  are  Abraham  Unger, 
executive  secretary  of  the  New  York  Chapter  of  the  National  Lawyers' 
Guild,  and  Leonard  Leades,  educational  director  of  the  Furriers'  Union 
in  New  York. 


TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER  S.   STEELE  49 

Courses  in  story  writing,  play  writing,  and  the  general  subject  of 
writing  are  conducted  by  Louis  Lerman,  Myra  Page,  Elisabeth  M. 
Bacon,  and  Lajos  Egri.  Music  and  art  are  taught  by  Bernard  Lebow, 
Mary  Menk,  Norman  Casdau,  Gwendolyn  Bennett,  and  Inez  Gerson. 
Waldemar  Hills,  of  People's  Songs,  Inc.,  directs  the  schools,  "People's 
Songs  Work  Shop."  The  Russian  language  is  taught  by  Eashelle 
Fostenberg,  and  Spanish  is  taught  by  Nedda  Broad.  Other  courses 
offered  by  the  school  include  dancing,  acting,  sculpturing,  and 
modeling. 

Instructors  and  guest  lecturers  at  the  Jefferson  School  of  Social 
Science  are  Frances  Adler,  Eussell  Ames,  Rosemary  Arnold,  Herbert 
Aptheker.  Elizabeth  M.  Bacon,  Isabella  Bailin,  Elizabeth  Barker, 
Frances  H.  Bartlett,  Gwendolyn  Bennett,  Cleveland  Bissell,  Beth 
Blyn,  Nedda  Broad,  Ruth  Burgess,  Norman  Cazden,  Lenore  Chapman, 
Samuel  Coe,  Met  a  Cohen,  Harold  Collins,  Seymour  A.  Copstein,  Eva 
Desca,  May  Edel,  Laios  Egri,  Edith  H.  Epstein,  Rashelle  Fastenberg, 
Philip  S.  Foner,  Francis  Franklin,  David  Freundlich,  Joseph  B. 
Furst,  Ines  Garson,  Sidney  Gluck,  Arthur  Goldway,  David  Gold- 
way,  Aaron  J.  Goodelman,  Miriam  Green,  Henry  Hansburg,  Abra- 
ham Harriton,  Syed  Sibtay  Hasan,  Roslyn  Held,  Waldemar  Hille, 
Howard  E.  Johnson,  Vladimir  D.  Kazakevich,  Helen  Kingery,  Billie 
Kirpich,  Harold  Kirshner,  Frank  Kleinholz,  Herbert  Kruckman, 
Elizabeth  Lawson,  Bernard  Lebow,  Ellen  Lebow,  Louis  Lerman, 
Norman  Lewis,  Morris  H.  Lipschitz,  Harry  Martel,  Alan  Max,  Mary 
Menk,  Golde  Minchenberg,  Clara  Ostrowsky,  Myra  Page,  Benjamin 
Paskoff,  Ralph  J.  Peters,  Judy  Peterson,  Albert  Prago,  Louis  Relin, 
Sylvia  Rosenfeld,  Beatrice  Roth,  Betty  Rosa  Bowen,  Annette  T. 
Rubinstein,  Morris  U.  Schappes,  Moss  K.  Schenck,  Henry  Scherer, 
Marcel  Scherer,  Edith  Segal,  Howard  Selsam,  Ethel  Soschin,  Max 
Sparer,  George  Squier,  Dick  J.  Struik,  Elaine  Swenson,  Ruth 
Vinitsky,  Sue  Warren,  Myer  Weise,  Lillian  Wexler,  Doxey  A.  Wil- 
kerson,  Beatrice  Wiseman,  Joseph  Wortis,  and  Dale  Zysman.  In 
addition,  People's  Songs,  Inc.,  supplies  Pete  Seegar,  Bob  Russell, 
and -Woody  Guthrie  as  instructors. 

The  Jefferson  School  of  Social  Science  is  organized  as  a  nonprofit 
institution,  and  it  is  supposed  that  it  is  accordingly  tax  exempt.  It  is 
understood  that  it  enjoys  benefits  of  the  GI  educational  fund  of  the 
Veterans'  Administration.  It  may  be  of  at  least  casual  interest  to 
members  of  this  committee  of  Congress  to  know  that  Dr.  Lewis  Bala- 
muth,  formerly  connected  with  the  Federal  Government's  Manhattan 
atomic  power  project,  has  been  teaching  the  rudiments  of  atomic  power 
at  this  Communist  school.  It  may  also  be  noted  that  Vladimir  D. 
Kazakevich  was  a  member  of  the  Army's  special  training  faculty  at 
Cornell  in  1943. 

Inasmuch  as  all  Communist  schools  are  set  up  and  operated  on  the 
same  pattern  as  the  Jefferson  School  of  Social  Science,  I  will  not  go 
into  detail  in  describing  the  balance  of  the  schools.  I  will  mention 
only  the  names  and  addresses  of  the  schools,  the  officers,  members  of 
the  faculties,  and  any  major  peculiarities  of  the  schools. 

The  George  Washington  Carver  School  is  located  at  57  West  One 
Hundred  and  Twenty-fifth  Street,  New  York  City.  Edward  Strong, 
organizational  director  of  the  National  Negro  Congress,  and  for  many 
years  active  in  the  Young  Communist  League  and  the  Southern  Negro 
Youth  Congress,  is  an  instructor  at  the  school.    Members  of  the  faculty 


50  TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE 

include  Ray  Hansboroiigh,  Henry  Winston,  and  Max  Weiss,  all  Com- 
munist Party  leaders;  Paul  Robeson,  Charles  Burroughs,  who  in 
January  1947  returned  to  this  country  after  a  17-year  sojourn  in- 
Russia ;  Shirley  Graham,  Charles  Loman,  Charles  A.  Collins,  Mayme 
Brown,  Elizabeth  Adams,  Elizabeth  Catlett  White,  Edith  Roberts^. 
Hermie  Dumont,  Norman  Lewis,  Esther  Zolott,  Ernest  Crichlow,  and 
Charles  White.  The  administrative  staff  is  composed  of  Gwendolyn 
Bennett,  director;  Mayme  Brown,  public  relations  secretary;  Eliza- 
beth Adams,  librarian;  Edith  Roberts,  registrar;  Hermie  Dumont,- 
administratj,ve  assistant.  This  school  was  opened  in  Harlem  in  the^ 
fall  of  1943. 

Another  school  which  operates  in  New  York  City  at  13  Astor  Place 
is  the  School  of  Jewish  Studies.  It  was  opened  in  October  1945.  The 
following  are  on  the  board  of  directors :  Frederic  Ewen,  chairman ;. 
Joseph  Chromow,  treasurer ;  Nathan  Ausubel,  Aaron  Bergman,  Rabbi 
Abraham  Bick,  L.  Roy  Blumenthal,  Philip  Cherner,  Abraham  Edel, 
Benjamin  Efron,  I.  Fine,  I.  Goldberg,  Henry  Goodman,  Maurice 
Grubin,  H.  Halpern,  Minnie  Harkavy,  Harry  Kessler,  Samuel  Liebo- 
witz,  Louis  Lozowick,  Dr.  Raphael  Mahler,  Fannie  Mendelson,  Dr. 
Herbert  Morais,  I.  Opockinsky,  Sam  Peysner,  Eli  Picheny,  Rabbi 
Herman  Pollack,  Miriam  Rosen,  Ruth  Rubin,  Ernest  Rymer,  Morris 
U.  Schappes,  Morris  Schneiderman,  Bernard  R.  Segal,  Judith  Spee- 
vak,  George  Starr,  Mildred  Stock,  Chaim  Suller,  Jennie  Truchman,. 
Menashe  Unger,  William  Vulcan,  and  I.  Wofsy.  The  administrative 
staff  is  composed  of  Chaim  Suller,  executive  secretary;  Abraham 
Boxerman,  administrative  secretary;  and  Jean  Hillis,  reg;istrar. 
Sponsors  of  the  school  include  Paul  Novick,  Dr.  Annette  T.  Rubin- 
stein, Rose  Russell,  Rubin  Saltzman,  Howard  Selsam,  Ben  Gold^ 
William  Gropper,  Sam  Jaffe,  Albert  E.  Kahn,  William  S.  Gailmor, 
Dorothy  Brewster,  Joseph  Brainin,  Alexander  Bittelman,  Gwendolyn 
Bennett,  I.  B.  Bailin,  Sholem  Asch,  Michael  Alper,  S.  Amazov,  Joseph 
Bloch,  Herbert  I.  Bloom,  Marc  Chagall,  Abraham  Cronbach,  Philip 
Evergood,  Milton  Goell,  B.  Z.  Goldberg,  Alexander  Goldman,  Max 
Levin,  Kalman  Marmor,  Jesse  Mintus,  Max  Perlow,  Clara  Rabinowitz^ 
Duane  Robinson,  Raphael  Soyer,  Max  Steinberg,  Benjamin  H.  Tu- 
min,  John  J.  Teffer,  Z.  Weinper,  Louis  Weinstock,  Joseph  Wortis, 
Lester  Zirin,  William  Zukerman,  and  Meyor  W.  Weisgal.  Among  the 
instructors  are  Samuel  Barron,  Abraham  Boxerman,  Vain  Hirsch, 
Jacob  B.  Aronoff,  Max  Wiener,  Morris  U.  Schappes,  Herman  Pollack, 
I.  Goldberg,  Pearl  Shapiro,  Reuben  Paige,  Aaron  Bergman,  Herbert 
Ivan  Bloom,  N.  Buchwald,  May  Edel,  Frederick  Ewen,  B.  Z.  Gold- 
berg, Henry  Goodman,  Albert  E.  Kahn,  Harry  Kessler,  Raphael 
Mahler,  Moses  Miller,  Herbert  M.  Morais,  Ruth  Rubin,  Chaim  Suller, 
Mark  Tarail,  Rachel  Wischnitzer,  Lena  Gurr,  Valia  Hirsch,  Frank 
C.  Kirk,  Annam  Kross,  Solomon  Landman,  and  Joseph  H.  Levy. 

The  majority  of  the  students  attending  the  School  of  Jewish  Studies^ 
according  to  the  Daily  Worker  of  April  16,  1946  (p.  6),  "comes  from 
the  trade-unions,  the  International  Workers'  Order,  and  Jewish  organ- 
izations." The  school  has  an  enrollment  of  400  students.  The  school 
offers  courses  on  "The  Jewish  People  under  Capitalism,  Imperialism, 
and  Socialism,"  "The  National  Question  and  the  Jewish  People," 
"Marxism,  the  Jews  and  the  National  Question,"  "History  of  the  Jews 
in  the  American  Labor  Movement,"  "The  Bible,  a  Social  Analysis,^ 
and  "American  Jewish  Life  Today." 


TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE  5-1 

Other  schools  of  lesser  import  located  in  New  York,  yet  schools 
^which  should  receive  mention  herein,  are  the  following : 

Robert  Louis  Stevenson  School,  346  West  Sixtieth  Street,  the  prin- 
cipal of  which  is  Dr.  Annette  T.  Rubinstein,  sponsor  of  the  School  of 
•Jewish  Studies,  and  a  writer  for  New  Masses,  a  Communist  publica- 
tion. It  has  been  reported  that  on  posters  advertising  the  school  which 
are  hung  in  New  York  subways  is  the  notation  that  students  are  ac- 
cepted under  the  GI  educational  plan. 

School  of  Stage  for  Action,  the  faculty  of  which  includes  David 
Pressman  and  John  O'Shaughnessy,  teachers  of  action;  Mary  Grey 
Barnett,  voice;  Helaine  Bok,  dance;  Max  Miller,  radio;  and  Millard 
Lampell,  trade  union  theater. 

Documentary  Film  School,  232  West  Fourteenth  Street;  Downtown 
Music  School,  68  East  Twelfth  Street ;  Downtown  Community  School, 
:235  East  Eleventh  Street.  The  Downtown  Music  School  was  organ- 
ized in  1935.    Max  Blitzein  and  Elie  Siegmeister  are  on  the  faculty. 

The  Walt  Whitman  School  of  Social  Sciences  is  located  at  17 
Williams  Street,  Newark,  N.  J.    Florence  Gerald  is  the  Director. 

The  Philadelphia  School  of  Social  Science  and  Art  was  formerly 
located  at  1704  Walnut  Street.     It  is  now  located  on  South  Twenty- 
:first  Street,  Philadelphia,  Pa.    Among  the  instructors  at  the  school 
are  Sam  Goldberg,  Margaret  Patton  Cabell,  Clara  Clark,  Eva  S. 
Ellis,  Elsie  Levitan,  S.  Waldbaum,  Nedia  Chilkovsky,  Allan  R.  Free- 
Ion,  Nathan  Shrager,  and  Claude  Clark.     Special  courses  are  avail- 
able exclusively  to  members  of  American  Youth  for  Democracy.    The 
directors  are  Madelin  Blitzstein,  Leroy  Comanor,  Barrows  Dunham, 
Arthur  Huff  Fauset,  James  J.  Fitzsimon,  Elizabeth  Fraziei',  Allan 
R.  Freelon,  Donald  Henderson,  Robert  Hodes,  Jules  Link,  Alice 
Xiveright,  Charles  Simon,  Saul  Waldbaum,  and  Francis  J.  White. 
Members  of  the  staff  are  Cortland  Eyer,  director;  Bern  Stambler, 
►executive  secretary;  Mae  Moskowitz,  administrative  secretary;  Saul 
"Waldbaum,  chairman,  board  of  directors;  and  Jules  Link,  treasurer. 

The  Philadelphia  school  was  set  up  under  its  present  name  early 
in  1944.  It  claims  to  have  enrolled  over  2,000  students  in  the  first  2 
years  of  operation.  It  maintained  -two  scholarships — one,  the  Paul 
Robeson  scholarsliip,  and  the  other,  the  Vincente  Lombardo  Toledano 
scholarship.  Additional  instructors  are  Bebe  Alpert,  Marion  M. 
Astley,  Sylvan  Balder,  Paul  Benedict,  Hans  Blumenfeld,  Arthur 
Cohn,  Margaret  DeRonde,  William  Drayton,  Jr. ;  Paula  E.  Ehrlich, 
Cortland  Eyer,  Elizabeth  Finkelstein,  May  Forbes,  Francis  Franklin, 
Marjorie  Gammon,  E.  D.  Gechtoff,  Paulina  Holstein,  Harry  Levitan, 
Wilbur  Lee  Mahaney,  Jr.,  Adele  Margolis,  Mae  Moskowitz,  Sam 
Nempzoff,  Benjamin  Schleifer,  Betty  Schoenfeld,  Elsie  E.  Smith, 
Bern  Stambler,  Libby  Stambler,  Winifred  Stewart,  Malvina  Taiz, 
Ben  Tarin,  and  Mrs.  Ray  Weiner. 

The  Samuel  Adams  School  (a  People's  School  for  Social  Studies) 
is  located  at  37  Province  Street,  Boston,  Mass.  The  board  of  trustees 
is  composed  of  David  Alper,  Alexander  Brin,  Angus  Cameron,  Albert 
Dieffenbach,  George  R.  Faxon,  Rev.  Joseph  Fletcher,  Harrison  L. 
Harley,  William  Franklin,  Stephen  Fritchman,  Sarah  R.  Gordon, 
Margaret  Gilbert,  William  Harrison,  Kenneth  deP.  Hughes,  Norman 
Levinson,  Grace  Lorch,  F.  O.  Matthiessen,  Samuel  Mintz,  John 
Mitchell,  William  Murdock,  Walter  O'Brien,  Francis  O'Connor, 
Mary  E.  Pahner,  F.  Hastings  Smythe,  Dirk  Jan  Struik,  Sol  Vail, 


52  TESTIMONY  OF  WALTER  S.   STEELE 

Colston  Warne,  James  Whitehouse,  Esther  H.  Wilson,  and  Harry 
Winner.  Members  of  the  administrative  staff  are  Harrison  L.  Har- 
ley,  director;  Clive  Knowles  and  Leslie  Arnold,  associate  directors; 
Florence  Castleman,  public  relations ;  Jean  K.  Davis,  publicity ;  Mary 
Knowles,  secretary;  Harry  Winner,  treasurer;  anct  David  Alper, 
associate  treasurer.  The  school  holds  summer  classes  at  Camp 
Annisquam,  July  13  to  August  30,  Gloucester,  Mass.  Courses  offered 
by  the  school  are  similar  to  those  offered  by  Communist  schools 
throughout  the  country — Marxism,  labor,  public  speaking,  philos- 
ophy, plannino^,  writing,  racial  problems,  industrialism,  literature, 
art,  shop  steward  training,  stage,  and  economics.  It  sponsors  an 
amateur  theater  group  which  is  affiliated  with  Stage  for  Action. 
The  associate  director  of  this  is  Leslie  Arnold.  The  faculty  includes 
Harry  Winner,  Joseph  Weinreb,  Clive  Knowles,  Dirk  Jan  Struik, 
Goldie  Silverman,  Rita  Schuman,  Melvin  Rosensaft,  Arthur  Polon- 
sky,  Waldo  Emerson  Palmer,  Mary  E.  Palmer,  Melvin  Maddox, 
Warren  McKenna,  Perry  Miller,  Evelyn  G.  Mitchell  (UERMWA- 
CIO),  John  Michail  (United  Packing  House  Workers,  CIO),  S.  S. 
Olans,  Vincent  Ferrini,  Guy  Albert  D'Amato,  Samuel  Cauman, 
Leslie  Arnold,  Leo  Berman,  Voltairine  Block,  James  E.  Braxton, 
Vangel  L.  Misho,  and  Ernest  Wasser.  The  school  promoted  the 
appearance  of  Paul  Robeson  in  Boston  June  22,  1947,  for  its  fund 
drive. 

The  Abraham  Lincoln  School  in  Chicago  is  located  at  180  West 
Washington  Street.  Faculty  members  are  ISIorris  Backall,  MicMel 
Baker,  Frank  Marshall  Davis,  Horace  Davis,  David  Englestein,  Mor- 
ton Goldsholl,  Pat  Hoverder,  Alfonso  lannelli,  Leon  Katzen,  Ludwig 
Kruhe,  Herschel  Meyer,  Henry  Noyes,  William  L.  Patterson,  Fred 
Ptashne,  Eleanore  Redwin,  Boris  M.  Revsine,  Frank  Sokolik,  William 
Rose,  Herman  Schendel,  Bernice  Targ,  and  Morris  Topchevsky.  A 
notice  appearing  in  a  catalog  of  the  school  stated  that  "prominent 
citizens  participating  in  our  efforts"  include  Paul  Robeson,  Rockwell 
Kent,  Lee  Pressman,  Howard  Fast,  Albert  E.  Kahn,  and  Henrietta 
Buckmaster.  A  South  Side  annex  to  the  school  has  recently  been 
added.  It  is  located  at  4448  South  Michigan  Avenue,  Chicago.  Dr. 
Waiter  S.  Neft'  is  director.  Instructors  include  Albert  George,  Charlie 
Mitchell,  Lester  Fox,  Geraldyne  Lightfoot,  Ishmael  Flory,  David 
Englestein,  Irving  Herman,  Earl  Durham,  Claude  Lightfoot,  and 
Walter  Miller.  Other  annexes  are  at  1225  South  Independence  and 
2409  North  Hoisted. 

The  Summer  Training  Institute  of  tire  Abraham  Lincoln  School 
will  open  on  Jvily  6  and  end  August  24  at  Covert,  Mich.  Instructors 
will  include  Mary  Himoff  (Neff),  Henry  H.  Noyes,  Herman  Schendel, 
and  Walter  S.  Neff.  Schendel  is  now  the  director  of  the  trade-union 
department  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln  School,  and  Pat  Hoverder  is 
assistant  director.  Schendel  is  author  of  some  of  the  school's  study 
courses,  one  of  which.  Why  AVork  for  Nothing?  is  violently  anti- 
American,  militantly  pro-Soviet,  pro-Communist,  and  pro-CIO.  I 
submit  it  herewith  as  evidence. 

The  California  Labor  School,  with  headquarters  at  216  Market 
Street,  San  Francisco,  has  branches  in  Oakland,  2030  Broadway ;  and 
Palo  Alto,  500  Manlo  Drive.  The  school  has  been  known  as  the 
Workers'  School  and  the  Tom  Mooney  School.  It  adopted  its  present 
name  (California  Labor  School)   in  August  1942.     At  that  time  it 


TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE  53 

boasted  of  12  teachers,  15  classes,  and  135  students.  Today  it  has 
75  teachers,  133  cLasses,  and  817  students.  This  school  has  become  one 
of  the  largest  of  its  kind  in  the  country.  It  is  surpassed  only  by  the 
Jefferson  School  in  New  York.  Its  original  location  was  in  a  loft 
located  at  675  Turk  Street,  San  Francisco.  It  now  occupies  a  five-story 
building,  and  it  has  launched  a  $50,000  fund-raising  campaign  with 
the  expectation  of  expanding.  The  staff  is  composed  of  the  following : 
Director,  David  Jenkins;  educational  director,  Holland  Roberts; 
trade-union  director,  Irwin  Elber;  associate  trade-union  director, 
Sylvain  Schnaittacher ;  director,  Oakland  school,  Gordon  Williams; 
trade-union  extension,  George  Hitchcock;  arts,  Giacomo  Patri;  Eng- 
lish, Isobel  Cerney;  music,  Leo  Christiansen;  social  sciences,  Jules 
Carson;  director,  veterans'  activities,  Andrew  Zirpoli;  public  rela- 
tions, Mary  O'Shea;  publicity.  Bill  Turner,  Duncan  Gallery,  Pele 
Edises;  librarians,  Clara  Hanchett,  Betty  Sibbett,  and  Donald 
Thayer;  registrar,  Ethel  Cayton;  student  guidance,  Libby  Gratch 
and  counselors;  financial  secretary.  Mini  Katz;  general  office,  Frances 
Wallcave,  Jean  Werthimer,  and  Betty  Levine.  Members  of  the  board 
of  directors  are  Ed  Reite,  president;  G.  F.  Irvine,  vice  president; 
Paul  Schnur,  secretary;  Ed  Barlow,  Jules  Carson,  Ethel  Cayton, 
Isobel  Cerney,  Leo  Christiansen,  James  Drury,  Irwin  Elber,  Pat 
Fogarty,  Hazey  Grossman,  Bjorne  Hailing,  Clara  Hanchett,  George 
Hardy,  George  Herman,  David  Jenkins,  Mini  Katz,  Armand 
Keosian,  Richard  Lynden,  Jack  Maltester,  Randolph  INIeriwether, 
Giacomo  Patri,  Leonard  Riave.  Holland  Roberts,  Norma  Jean 
Ross,  Donald  Thayer,  and  Gordon  Williams.  The  school  claims 
that  in  1945  and  1946  the  trade-union  extension  division  conducted 
classes  for  9,500  new  union  members,  stewards,  and  officers  of  local 
unions  in  the  CIO  and  AFL.  The  school  assists  in  preparing  union 
publications — leaflets,  pamphlets,  bulletins,  organizational  letters,  and 
union  newspapers.  The  school  is  accredited  for  veterans'  education 
under  the  GI  bill  of  rights,  and  accordingly  "all  tuition,  books,  and 
other  fees  are  paid  by  the  Veterans'  Administration  to  the  school." 

Among  the  courses  offered  by  the  California  Labor  School  are  the 
following :  "Recent  Strike  Struggles :  Strategy  and  Tactics,"  "Labor 
and  Third  Party  Movements,"  "Advanced  Economics :  Economic 
Theories  of  Marx  and  Keynes,"  "What  Is  Coalition,"  "America  as  a 
World  Power  Today,"  "National  and  Colonial  Liberation  Move- 
ments," "Youth  in  Today's  World,"  "Citizenship,"  "Negro  History 
and  Culture,"  "Social  Thinking,"  "Soviet  Union,"  1917-47,  "Psy- 
cholog;y  and  the  Social  Order,"  "Publicity  Workshop  for  Trade 
Unions,"  "Russian  Language,"  "Spanish,"  and  "Labor  Education 
and  Political  Action."  The  school  also  conducts  classes  in  art,  danc- 
ing, theater,  journalism,  public  speaking,  parliamentary  law,  organi- 
zing, shorthand,  bookkeeping,  choral  singing,  sculpture,  photography, 
and  atomic  energy.  The  latter  course  is  conducted  by  Prof.  Frank 
Oppenheimer,  who  was  employed  during  the  last  World  War  on  the 
California  atomic  project. 

The  advisory  council  of  the  school  is  made  up  a  professors  from 
Stanford  University,  University  of  California,  San  Francisco  Junior 
College,  San  Francisco  State  College,  and  the  California  Labor 
School  itself.  Members  of  the  educational  advisory  council  are  Dr. 
Thomas  Addis,  Prof.  Arthur  G.  Brodeur,  Dr.  A.  J.  Cloud,  Prof.  Wil- 
liard  H.  Durham,  Prof.  E.  W.  Gifford,  Prof.  Edward  M.  Hulme, 


54  TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE 

Prof.  A.  M.  Kidd,  Robert  H.  Lowie,  Dr.  Alexander  C.  Roberts,  Hol- 
land Roberts,  Leo  Rogin,  Dr.  Curtis  E.  Warren  (superintendent  of 
schools,  San  Francisco  Board  of  Education),  ancl  Dr.  Baldwin 
Woods.  From  July  19  to  29,  classes  will  be  held  at  Camp  Aselomar. 
Lecturers  will  include  Harry  Bridges,  Sidney  Rogers,  and  Dalton 
Trumbo. 

Sponsoring  organizations  of  the  California  Labor  School  include 
numerous  CIO  locals,  the  American  Veterans'  Committee  of  Cali- 
fornia, National  Association  for  the  Advancement  of  Colored  People, 
CIO  councils,  the  Communist  Party  and  its  various  fronts,  and  local 
leaders  of  the  National  Lawyers  Guild,  and  the  Joint  Anti-Fascist 
Refugee  Committee. 

The  following  are  faculty  members  and  lecturers  at  the  school: 
Leon  Alexander,  instructor  of  play  writing  at  New  Theater  School; 
unit  manager  in  Federal  Theater.  New  York ;  observer  of  labor  move- 
ments in  France,  the  Soviet  Union,  and  Germany;  Mara  Alexander; 
drama  director.  Warehousemen's  Union,  Local  6  (ILWU)  ;  American 
Laboratory  Theater;  Eva  Le Gallienne's Group ;  Robert  Anshen, tech- 
nical director,  Vallejo  Housing  Authority;  Victor  Arnautoff;  Leon 
Bick ;  Eugena  Bielawski ;  Jane  Blackmer ;  Jessie  Elliott  Buck ;  Dudley 
A.  Cameron ;  Jules  Carson,  former  political  action  director,  Alameda 
County  CIO;  Frank  Cerda,  Isobel  Cerney;  Leo  E.  Christiansen; 
Adelyne  Cross ;  Margaret  de  Patta ;  Philip  Eden ;  Irwin  Elber ;  Lincoln 
Fairley ;  Fannie  Garfield ;  Eugenia  Gershol ;  Louise  Gilbert ;  Robert 
Goff ;  Carleton  Goodlet ;  Theoclore  Garbacheff ;  Nick  Gregoric ;  Hazel 
Grossman;  Milton  Halberstadt;  Gladys  Hares;  Gail  Hazard  (directed 
organization  of  Army  newspapers  in  Canada  and  Alaska,  taught  Army 
field  newspaper  technique  of  the  School  for  Special  and  Morale 
Services)  ;  Edith  Kiertzner  Heath ;  Eleanor  Hesthal ;  Joan  Hinchman ; 
George  Hitchcock ;  Hans  Hoffman ;  Charlotte  Howard ;  Marco  Ignacio 
Infante;  David  Jenkins;  Mimi  Kagan;  William  Kauffmann,  press 
department,  Office  of  Coordinator  of  Inter-American  Affairs,  Mexico 
City;  Jack  Kirtley;  Freda  Koblick;  Adam  Lapin,  associate  editor, 
Daily  People's  World  (Communist) ;  Peter  Macchiarini,  Miriam 
Martins;  Helen  Miller;  Keith  Monroe;  Philip  Morton;  Ray  Oechsli; 
Giacomo  Patri ;  Jack  Patton ;  Jo  Pillsbury ;  Paul  Pinslry ;  Edwin  Pope ; 
Evangeline  Powell;  Anton  Refregier;  Al  Richmond,  editor  in  chief, 
Daily  People's  World  (Communist);  Holland  Roberts;  Nora  Lee 
Rohr;  Benjamin  Rosenbluth;  Mildred  Rosenthal;  Sylvain  Schnait- 
tacher,  labor  panel  member,  WLB;  Michael  Shapovalov,  United 
States  Department  of  Agriculture  expert  on  Soviet  agriculture; 
Nathan  Siegel;  Awan  Senario;  Joseph  Stain;  Celeste  Strack;  Donald 
Thayer :  George  Vurek ;  Henry  Wachs ;  Tom  Weber,  formerly  on  the 
staff  of  Friday  magazine ;  Frederick  Welch ;  Margo  Westgaard ;  Gor- 
don Williams;  Ruth  Witt-Diamant ;  and  Andrew  Zirpoli. 

David  Jenkins,  the  $100  a  week  director  of  the  California  Labor 
School,  when  first  accused,  denied  that  he  was  ever  a  Communist. 
He  later  pleaded  a  lapse  of  memory,  after  being  shown  a  transcript 
of  a  New  York  voting  record  which  proved  that  he  had  registered 
as  a  Communist  there.  He  also  admitted  that  he  had  served  a  60-day 
jail  sentence  in  New  York  for  Communist  (riot)  activities.  At  one 
time  Jenkins  was  Norfolk  ( Va.)  agent  for  the  CIO  National  Maritime 
Union,  and  he  was  active  in  circles  which  enlisted  recruits  for  the 
Red  Army  in  the  Spanish  revolution. 


TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE  55 

Hazel  Grossman,  an  instructor  at  the  school,  and  a  member  of  the 
board  of  directors,  admitted  before  a  California  legislative  commit- 
tee that  she  is  the  wife  of  Aubrey  Grossman,  educational  director  of  the 
Commmiist  Party  in  California. 

Holland  Roberts,  educational  director  of  the  school,  admitted  that 
he  is  president  of  the  American-Russian  Institute  in  California. 

The  school  has  received  "loans"  amounting  to  around  $3,000  from  the 
Communist  organ,  Daily  People's  World. 

The  California  State  Federation  of  Labor  (AFL)  on  June  28,  1944^ 
according  to  an  item  which  appeared  on  page  5  of  its  Weekly  News 
Letter,  issued  the  following  statement : 

Reaffirming  its  original  action,  the  executive  council  of  the  California  State 
Federation  of  Labor  unanimously  repudiates  the  California  Labor  School  In 
San  Francisco  and  the  California  Education  Center  of  Los  Angeles  as  not  being 
bona  fide  labor  schools  *  *  *  The  previous  action  taken  by  the  council 
was  in  regard  to  the  Tom  Mooney  Scliool,  which  name  has  now  been  changed  to  the 
present  one,  the  California  Labor  School. 

Recently  (1947)  the  California  Department  of  the  American  Legion 
adopted  a  resolution  calling  on  the  Board  of  Education  to  cancel  the 
approval  of  the  California  Labor  Schools  for  GI  educational  benefits. 

In  referring  to  David  Jenkins,  the  Daily  People's  World  stated  that 
he  warned  Negroes  and  labor  of  America's  rise  to  a  world  power,  and 
emphasized  its  bad  effect  on  them.  The  paper  also  announced  that  Al 
Richmond  and  Adam  Lapin  would  analyze  "capitalism  in  the  United 
States,  its  economic  system  and  foreign  policy,  and  the  effect  on  Amer- 
ican labor."  Speaking  of  Celeste  Strack,  an  instructor  in  the  school^ 
the  paper  said  she  would  "evaluate  socialism  in  tlue  USSR,  its  solu- 
tion of  job  and  security  problems,  and  the  status  of  trade  unions  under 
capitalism  and  socialism."  Noted  speakers  who  have  appeared  before 
classes  in  the  school,  according  to  the  paper,  include  Harry  Bridges^ 
Reid  Robinson,  Vincente  Lombardo  Toledano,  Paul  Robeson,  Orson 
Welles,  I.  F.  Stone,  Max  Lerner  of  PM,  and  Henry  Casidy. 

Instructor  of  atomic  energy  at  the  California  Labor  School  is  Dr. 
Frank  Oppenheimer,  said  to  be  a  brother  of  Dr.  J.  .R.  Oppenheimery 
director  of  the  Los  Alamos,  Calif,,  atomic  project.  The  former  is  a 
scientist  on  the  project. 

Another  prominent  California  school  is  the  People's  Educational 
Center,  located  at  1717  North  Vine  Street,  Hollywood.  The  board 
of  directors  is  made  up  of  Willis  J.  Hill,  president;  Fay  E.  Allen, 
Harry  Brown,  Dr.  Frank  C.  Davis,  Sidney  Davison.  Mrs.  Gertrude 
Flatte,  Dr.  Sanford  Goldner,  Frank  Green,  Dorothy  Healey,  Maurice 
Howard,  John  Howard  Lawson,  G.  T.  Peterson,  Albee  Slade,  and 
William  Wolfe.  Sidney  Davison  is  the  director;  Mildred  Raskin, 
executive  secretary;  and  Martha  Dones,  registrar.  Members  of  the 
advisory  board  are  Helmer  Bergman,  Dr.  Leo  Bigelman,  Ed  Gil- 
bert, Sondra  Gorney,  Robert  Lees,  Frances  Millington,  Herbert  Sor- 
rell,  and  Frank  Tuttle.  The  instructors  are  Jack  Agins,  Minna 
Agins,  who  lectured  widely  on  the  Soviet  Union;  Helen  Alcalay; 
George  Beller;  Helmer  W.  Bergman;  Herbert  Biberman;  Leo 
Bigelman,  formerly  associated  with  the  Workers'  School  of  Los 
Angeles;  Val  Burton,  writer-producer  at  Universal;  Hugh  Camp- 
bell; Joseph  Chabot;  Emma  Lou  Davis,  Sidney  Davison,  director  of 
the  People's  Education  Center,  who  was  in  the  United  States  Navy 
for  4  years;  Frank  C.  Davis,  former  director  of  Education,  People's 


56  TESTIMONY  OF  WALTER   S.   STEELE 

Educational  Center;  Guy  Endore;  Neil  Enochs;  William  B.  Ester- 
man;  Vocha  Fiske,  1946  instructor  for  AFRA's  veteran  refresher 
course;  Hugo  Friedhofer,  composing  and  arranging  for  major 
studios  since  the  inception  of  sound;  Ted  Gilien,  formerly  combat 
artist,  United  States  Army;  Elliott  Grennard,  articles  on  jazz  in 
Music  and  Rhythm,  PM,  and  New  Masses;  Victor Jvaplan,  of  the  law 
firm  of  Katz,  Gallagher  and  Margolis ;  Herbert  Klynn ;  Robert  Lees, 
wh^has  been  actively  writing  in  motion-picture  industry  for  12  years; 
Marjorie  Leonard;  Kenneth  MacGowan,  dramatic  critic  from  1910 
to  1923,  play  producer  from  1925  to  1931,  and  motion  picture  pro- 
ducer since  1932;  Gladys  Magy,  worked  in  office  of  Inter- American 
Affairs;  Rose  N.  Marshall;  Alice  Miles,  Charles  B.  Millholland, 
author  of  stage,  screen,  and  radio  success  Twentieth  Century;  Freda 
Minowitz,  taught  for  Hillel  Foundation  in  New  York,  was  on  faculty 
of  Yiddish  Scientific  Institute,  and  member  of  Jewish  Education  Com- 
mittee of  New  York;  Laurence  Morton,  has  done  orchestrating  for 
major  studios  and  radio  networks,  has  had  articles  in  Hollywood 
Quarterly;  Louis  Quinn,  radio  writer  for  Radio  Hall  of  Fame 
and  Orson  Welles,  2  years  of  writing  and  directing  for  Blue  Net- 
work in  Hollywood;  Paquerette  Pathe;  Frank  Pestana;  Irving 
Pichel,  motion-picture  director;  Stanley  Rubin,  wrote,  directed,  and 
produced  Army  films,  produced  at  Universal,  now  under  contract  at 
Coli^mbia ;  Mildred  Raskin,  executive  secretary,  People's  Educational 
Center;  Lillya  Sabsay,  born  in  the  Crimea,  has  taught  private  classes 
in  Russian;  John  Sanford;  Leon  Saulter;  Wilma  Shore,  short  stories 
published  in  Story,  New  Masses,  McCall's,  Accent,  and  Good  House- 
keeping; Michael  Simmons,  screenwriter,  author  of  20  feature  films; 
Moi  Solotaroff,  artist,  stage  designer,  teacher,  and  lecturer;  Frank 
Thomas;  Milton  Tyre,  firm  of  Katz,  Gallagher  &  Margolis. 

The  People's  Educational  Center  offers  courses  in  public  speaking, 
parliamentary  law,  labor's  key  problems,  medicine,  philosophy,  mo- 
tion-picture directing,  screen  writing,  radio  speech  technique,  creative 
writing,  story  writing,  art,  photography,  dancing,  Russian  and 
Spanish,  and  music. 

For  several  years  the  Communists  have  operated  the  Los  Angeles 
Committee  of  Correspondence.  This  is  a  correspondence  school  and 
specializes  in  letter  campaigns  to  newspaper  editors  for  publication 
in  readers  columns. 

In  Seattle,  Wash.,  the  Reds  operate  the  Seattle  Labor  School.  It 
is  reported  that  it  is  holding  classes  in  the  old  Central  School  Build- 
ing. This  school  is  similar  in  set  up  and  operation  to  all  schools  op- 
erated by  Communists  and  fronters. 

The  Highlander  Folk  School  in  Monteagle,  Tenn.,  unquestionably 
keeps  pretty  close  to  the  party  line.  Its  directors,  James  Dombrowski 
and  Myles  Horton,  are  found  in  the  company  of  Red-f routers.  It  has 
been  a  recipient  of  funds  from  the  Robert  Marshall  Foundation  which 
has  so  lavishly  contributed  to  Friends  of  Democracy,  American  Youth 
Congress,  National  Negro  Congress,  Southern  Negro  Youth  Congress, 
and  other  fronts. 

Members  of  the  executive  council  of  the  Highlander  Folk  School  are 
William  H.  Crawford  of  the  CIO  Steel  workers'  Union,  district  di- 
rector; Edward  F.  Gallaghan,  vice  president  of  the  Hosiery  Workers' 
Union ;  Paul  R.  Christopher,  CIO  regional  director,  Tennessee ;  James 
Dombrowski,  listed  as  secretary  of  the  Southern  Conference  for 


TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE  57 

Human  Welfare;  Charles  Gillman,  CIO  regional  director,  Georgia; 
Carey  Haigler,  CIO  regional  director,  Alabama;  Lucy  Randolph 
Mason,  CIO  public  relations  director;  George  Mitchell,  regional  di- 
rector CIO-PAC :  Hollis  Reid,  legislative  board  of  locomotive  fire- 
jnen;  Thomas  Starling,  director  Region  8,  Auto  Workers'  Union 
(CIO)  ;  Aubrey  Williams,  organizing  director  of  Regional  Farmers' 
Union  and  publisher  of  Southern  Farmer  (Montgomery,  Ala.),  a 
member  of  the  board  of  directors  of  the  Progressive  Citizens'  Asso- 
ciation. 

As  a  guarantee  against  the  possibility  of  "capitalist  poison"  getting 
into  the  veins  of  Russian  youth  living  in  this  country,  the  Soviet 
Union  set  up  its  own  schools  in  the  United  States  at  which  the  off- 
spring of  Russian  diplomats  and  trade  agents  are  educated.  The 
largest  of  these  schools  are  located  at  85  One  Hundred  and  Eighteenth 
Street,  New  York  City;  6  East  Sixty-seventh  Street,  New  York  City; 
and  810  St.  Marks  Street,  Brooklyn,  N.  Y.  Until  recently,  such  a 
school  was  operated  in  Washington,  D.  C,  on  Military  Road. 

Another  angle  of  activity  in  the  educational  field  which  must  not 
be  overlooked  is  the  kit  for  teachers  in  American  schools  prepared 
by  the  American-Russian  Institute  and  the  National  Council  of 
American-Soviet  Friendship,  both  of  which  have  headquarters  in 
New  York  City,  with  branches  in  our  principal  cities.  The  activities 
of  the  latter  organization  wdll  be  dealt  with  later  on  in  this  testimony. 

Mr.  Bonner.  None  of  these  schools  are  State  institutions? 

Mr.  Steele.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  Bonner.  Or  denominational  institutions? 

Mr.  Steele.  No. 

Mr.  Bonner.  They  are  all  privately  operated  schools? 

Mr.  Steele.  That  is  right. 

The  Chairman.  Do  any  of  them  get  assistance  from  any  of  the 
States  or  from  the  Federal  Government? 

Mr.  Steele.  That  is  a  point  that  I  might  mention.  The  only  finan- 
cial assistance  that  I  know  of  that  any  of  these  schools  have  had  is 
the  Jefferson  School  and  the  California  Labor  School,  so-called  labor 
school.  They  have  both  obtained  approvals  for  GI  benefits.  Except 
for  that  I  know  of  no  Federal  finance  that  they  have  had. 

Mr.  Bonner.  Have  thgse  two  institutions  that  you  speak  of  as  being 
on  the  approved  list  for  GI  training 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes. 

Mr.  Bonner.  What  kind  of  courses  do  they  conduct? 

Mr.  Steele.  I  have  gone  into  that  very  thoroughl3^  You  will  find 
them  in  the  catalogs  there.  Courses  on  Marxism,  strike  tactics,  any- 
thing that  goes  with  the  party  activities  and  party  line. 

Mr.  Bonner.  I  mean  like  other  schools,  do  they  conduct  courses  like 
a  university  would  in  the  States?  For  instance,  Princeton,  or  any 
other  school  of  that  kind,  do  they  have  regular  diversified  courses  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  No,  there  is  nothing  listed  in  the  catalogs  that  show 
diversified  courses. 

Mr.  Bonner.  Still  they  are  on  the  approved  list  ? 

IVIr.  Steele.  Yes.  And  I  inquired  of  the  Veterans'  Bureau  about 
that  and  they  gave  me  this  explanation,  and  they  said  the  Veterans' 
Bureau  does  not  get  up  the  approved  list. 

Mr.  Bonner.  I  understand. 


58  TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE 

Mr.  Steele.  That  the  States,  some  division  of  the  State  submits  a 
list  that  has  been  approved  by  the  State,  and  the  Veterans'  Bureau, 
is  obligated  under  the  GI  bill  to  set  aside  that  much  money.  Now,  as 
to  how  many  veterans  have  enrolled  in  the  schools,  I  don't  know,  ex- 
cepting that  87  are  supposed  to  have  been  graduated  from  the  Cali- 
fornia Labor  School  last  week. 

Mr.  Bonner.  What  kind  of  course  did  they  graduate  from  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  That  I  don't  know.  The  information  that  came  to  me 
was  by  wire  and  that  part  of  the  information  was  not  included,  as. 
to  what  they  graduated  in. 

Mr.  Bonner.  How  could  this  committee  go  about  finding  out  I 

The  Chairman.  Will  the  gentleman  yield? 

Mr.  Bonner.  Yes. 

The  Chairman.  In  this  pamphlet,  put  out  by  the  Jefferson  School',, 
and  it  is  dated  June  1947,  is  included,  among  the  courses  Principle& 
of  Marxism  No.  1,  Principles  of  Marxism  No.  2,  Political  Economy, 
Imperialism,  History  of  the  Communist  Party  of  the  Soviet  Union,. 
Development  of  Modern  Economic  Thought,  and  so  on.  Soviet 
Union  Today,  World  Today,  and  History  of  the  American  Labor 
Movement. 

Mr.  Bonner.  They  have  no  courses  in  the  professions  or  the  trades. 

Mr.  Stripling.  In  the  case  of  the  California  Labor  College,  there 
has  been  considerable  controversy  in  the  State  of  California  and  also 
in  the  Veterans'  Administration  for  the  last  year  and  a  half  over  the 
fact  that  it  is  on  the  approved  list.  Do  you  have  any  information  on 
that,  Mr.  Steele? 

Mr.  Steele.  I  know  there  has  been  a  lot  of  criticism  and,  as  I  stated,. 
I  took  it  up  with  the  Veterans'  Bureau  and  they  informed  me  that  it 
was  approved  by  some  bureau  of  the  State;  they  were  under  obliga- 
tion, under  the  act,  to  finance  it  on  that  account. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Mr.  Steele,  I  noticed  in  your  testimony  that  you  say 
officials  of  the  Jefferson  School  on  Social  Science  claim  that,  since  its 
opening  under  the  present  name  in  1944,  some  40,000  persons  have 
taken  its  courses. 

Mr.  Steele.  That  is  right. 

Mr.  Stripling.  For  the  committee's  information,  Doxey  Wilkerson 
was  the  individual  mentioned  by  J.  Edgar  Hoover  when  he  testified 
in  March  as  being  a  Government  employee  employed  in  the  office  of 
OPA,  whom  he  insisted  should  be  fired  for  being  incompetent,  and 
they  refused  to  fire  him,  and  later  Doxey  Wilkerson  resigned  from  the 
OPA,  stating  that  he  was  going  with  the  National  Committee  of  the 
Communist  Party  and  that  he  was  a  Communist.  That  is  just  for  the 
purpose  of  identification  for  the  record. 

Mr.  Steele.  I  might  also  state  at  this  time  that  another  former  atom 
scientist,  by  the  name  of  Frank  Oppenheimer,  who  was  on  the  Cali- 
fornia atom  project,  has  been  a  teacher  at  the  California  Communist 
school,  teaching  atomic  energy. 

The  Chairman.  He  is  out  al  the  University  of  Minnesota  now. 

Mr.  Steele.  He  is  now  there.  Up  until  6  months  ago,  I  believe  it 
was,  he  was  teaching  at  the  school  in  California. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Steele,  have  you  been  able  to  get  copies  of  the. 
texts  used  in  these  courses? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes;  some. 


TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER-S.    STEELE  59 

The  Chairman.  Have  you  been  able  to  get  copies  of  the  texts  used 
in  the  atomic  energy  courses? 

Mr.  Steele.  No  ;  I  have  not. 

If  I  may  digress  a  little  bit,  I  might  refer  at  this  time  to  Balamuth, 
"who  is  instructor  at  the  New  York  school.  He  was,  in  September 
1942, 1  believe  it  was,  referred  to  as  having  been  the  head  of  the  cell  of 
the  Communist  Party.    I  read  the  following: 

Named  in  New  York  legislative  committee  report  following  investigation  of 
■Communists  in  State  colleges  and  universities,  as  an  active  member  and  leader 
in  tlie  teachers'  cell  operating  chiefly  out  of.  City  College  of  New  York.  The 
report  states  that  he  wrote  the  material  appearing  in  the  Teacher-Woi'ker  organ 
•of  the  teachers'  cell  of  the  Communist  Party  in  New  York.  That  Balamuth 
was  so  careful  in  guarding  his  connection  that  hg  wore  gloves  when  preparing 
Communist  material  for  mailing,  so  as  to  cover  up  any  possibility  of  fingerprint 
evidence  against  himself.  That  he  also  had  his  private  library  walls  paneled, 
"With  a  few  sliding  panels,  back  of  which  he  kept  his  Communist  material,  so  as 
to  hide  such  from  any  possible  unfriendly  visitor. 

The  Chairman.  This  is  from  the  report  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  This  is  from  the  report. 

Balamuth  was  also  active  in  American  Student  Union  circles,  and 
was  on  the  faculty  and  an  instructor  at  the  School  for  Democracy  in 
1942,  instructing  in  science,  the  school  was  with  the  Workers'  School,  a 
forerunner  of  the  present  Jefferson  School  in  New  York  City.  The 
organization  committee  of  School  for  Democracy  included  on  it  Fred- 
crick  J.  Fields,  A.  A.  Heller,  Alexander  Trachtenberg,  and  others. 
The  school  was  set  up  particularly  to  make  positions  for  the  scores  of 
professors  and  teachers  who  were  dismissed  in  a  wholesale  clean-up 
following  the  above  investigation. 

An  interesting  sidelight  on  this  angle  is  that  Arthur  Steinberg, 
who  was  mentioned  as  "Berger"  in  the  Canadian  report  on  atom  spy 
ring,  is  now  teaching  at  a  college  in  Ohio — not  a  Communist  college, 
lout  a  legitimate  college. 

Mr.  McDowell.  Do  you  know  what  college  it  is  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  It  is  Oberlin  College — it  is  Antioch  College.  He  is 
listed  in  the  directory. 

Mr.  Stripling.  What  subject  is  he  teaching? 

Mr.  Steele.  I  haven't  gone  into  that,  but  he  is  listed  here  as  a  mem- 
ber of  their  teaching  staff. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Suppose  you  check  that  during  the  lunch  hour,  Mr. 
■Steele. 

Mr.  McDo^vELL.  To  keep  the  record  straight,  you  said  Oberlin 

Mr.  Steele.  I  want  to  change  that. 

Mr.  McDowell.  It  is  not  Oberlin? 

Mr.  Steele.  No,  sir.  There  are  two  colleges  there  and  I  get  the  two 
-confused.    This  is  Antioch  College. 

Mr.  Stripling.  This  union  in  New  York  of  which  Louis  Balamuth 
was  a  member,  is  that  local  5  of  the  American  Federation  of  Teachers? 

Mr.  Steele.  I  wouldn't  say  positively  about  that,  Mr.  Stripling.  I 
think  that  is  it,  but  I  am  not  certain  about  that. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Mr.  Chairman,  that  is  the  local  of  the  A.  F.  of  L. 
which  was  later  expelled  by  the  American  Federation  of  Labor  because 
of  Communist  activity  within  the  local. 

Mr.  Steele.  At  this  same  college  there  is  a  Lewis  Corey  on  the  fac- 
ulty, whom  I  have  been  told  is  Louis  Corey  Fraini,  one  of  the  charter 
anembers  of  the  Communist  Party  and  former  editor  of  two  Com- 


60  TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE 

munist  organs.  I  think  we  will  all  commend  the  Government  for  what 
little  it  has  done,  but  I  believe  the  public  would  feel  more  secure  if  the 
•question  of  some  of  the  high-ups  of  this  about  140  that  were  hooked 
up  in  that  Canadian  spy  ring  were  apprehended  and  tried  and  the 
record  cleared  up  somewhat. 

In  other  words,  I  understand  that  our  Government  was  given  a 
list  of  140  people  in  this  country,  which  included  Berger,  or  Steinbergs 
who  was  under  the  name  of  Berger,  who  were  in  some  way  hooked 
up  with  the  Canadian  spy  ring.  So  far  as  I  know,  I  mean,  so  far  as 
the  public  knows,  there  has  -been  nothing  done  about  any  of  those 
individuals. 

Mr.  Stripling,  Mr.  Steele,  would  you  care  to  give  in  open  session 
the  source  of  your  information  as  to  this  140  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  I  prefer  not  to.  I  prefer  to  give  it  in  closed  session  if 
permissible. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Do  you  consider  it  a  reliable  source  of  information? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  very  reliable. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Very  reliable  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Would  you  say  it  was  official  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  It  was  ex-official.     I  will  say  it  that  way. 

Mr.  Bonner.  What  type  of  school  is  Antioch  College  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  Well,  I  think  it  gives  sort  of  a  general  educational 
course.  Congressman. 

Mr.  Bonner.  Is  it  a  State  institution? 

Mr.  SiTiELE.  No ;  it  is  private. 

Mr.  Bonner.  Private  institution  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Bonner.  I  see. 

Mr.  McDowell.  Wasn't  it  originally  created  to  educate  freemen? 

Mr.  Steele.  I  am  not  certain. 

Mr.  Bonner.  Who  ? 

Mr.  McDowell.  Freemen. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Would  you  mind  passing  the  catalog  up  to  the 

committee?  i  •      , 

Mr.  Steele.  Be  glad  to.     The  whole  history  of  the  school  is  there 

in  the  catalog. 

Mr.  Bonner.  What  do  you  mean,  freemen  ? 

Mr.  McDowell.  If  I  recall  rightly,  it  was  started  to  educate  new 

Neirro  citizens  after  they  were  freed  'in  1860.    I  may  be  mistaken. 
Mr.  Bonner.  Like  Howard  University?  ^  ^4 

Mr.  McDowell.  I  would  say  similar.    I  may  be  mistaken.    One  of 

those  colleges  over  there  was  organized  for  that  purpose. 

The  Chairman.  We  want  to  be  certain.  ^ 

Mr  Steele.  I  wouldn't  want  to  testify  as  to  that  because  I  haven  t 

studied  the  nature  of  the  college.     I  do  know  there  are  some  very 

fine  people  on  their  board  of  trustees. 

Mr.  McDowell.  Antioch  is  at  Yellow  Springs,  Ohio. 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes.  .   .  n  -x* 

Mr.  Stripling.  Mr.  Steele,  the  name  Frami,  would  you  spell  it? 

Mr.  Steele.  F-r-a-i-n-i.  . 

Mr.  Stripling.  And  what  did  you  say  the  person's  real  name  is  ? 


TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE  61 

Mr.  Steele.  I  say  he  is  going;  by  the  name  of  Lewis  Corey  in  the 
catalog.  1  am  told  by  a  representative  of  one  of  the  trustees  of  the 
scliool  that  his  real  name  is  Louis  Corey  Friani. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Spell  Corey. 

Mr.  Steele.  C-o-r-e-y. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Thank  you. 

The  Chairman.  I  will  say  that  Antioch  College  is  one  of  the  most 
respectable  colleges  in  the  country.  I  think  someone  said  it  was  a 
Negro  college.    I  disagree.    I  don't  think  it  is. 

Mr.  Sit:ele.  It  is  not. 

The  Chairman.  Furthermore,  anything  said  here  shouldn't  cast 
any  reflection  on  Antioch  College. 

Gentlemen,  it  is  12 :  30.  Without  objection  we  will  recess  to  convene 
at  2  o'clock. 

(Whereupon,  at  12 :  30  p.  m.,  a  recess  was  taken  until  2  p.  m.  of  the 
same  day.) 

AFTERNOON  SESSION 

^  The  Chairman.  The  meeting  will  come  to  order.    Mr.  Steele,  please 
resume. 

TESTIMONY  OF  WAITER  S.  STEELE— Eesumed 

Mr.  Steele.  Mr.  Chairman  and  gentlemen,  I  wish  to  now  go  into  a 
certain  phase  of  the  Communist  plan  of  propaganda  that  is  reaching 
into  our  colleges  and  universities — that  is,  not  Communist  colleges 
and  universities  but  the  private  colleges  and  State  institutions.  In 
this  respect,  it  will  be  recalled  that  back  in  1936  there  was  an  organiza- 
tion set  up  in  our  country  in  cooperation  with  certain  Russian  travel 
bureaus  functioning  here.  This  organization  made  it  its  special  busi- 
ness to  recruit  professors  and  teachers,  and  often  advanced  students, 
for  what  was  called  the  American-Soviet  Summer  Institute  of  Mos- 
cow. At  the  institute  American  educators  and  students  learned  all 
about  the  so-called  glories  ot  the  Communist  system  of  government 
and  of  the  "great"  leaders  of  communism.  Dr.  W.  W.  Charters  of 
Ohio  University  was  at  one  time  leader  of  the  movement  in  this 
country.  The  activities  of  this  institute  were  exposed  several  years 
ago. 

Our  Government  has  lately  attempted,  I  believe  with  little  success 
and  at  great  expense,  to  present  to  the  people  of  Russia,  via  short 
wave,  a  description  of  our  form  of  government  and  its  method  of 
operation.  We  do  not  attempt,  of  course,  to  send  representatives 
from  America  into  Russia  to  explain  in  detail  the  manner  in  which 
our  Government  functions,  and  we  did  not  promote  excursions  of 
Russians  to  this  country  to  propagandize  them.  We  do  not  attempt 
to  set  up  a  chain  of  American  agitational  and  propaganda  schools 
in  Russia,  as  have  the  Russians  here.  We  do  not  organize  a  myriad 
of  front  movements  on  Russian  soil  to  continuously^  propagandize  in 
behalf  of  the  United  States  and  against  the  Communist  system  of 
Russia.  We  do  not  establish  in  Russia  a  string  of  newspapers  and 
magazines,  and  we  do  not  set  up  publishing  houses  which  would  turn 
out  millions  of  pieces  of  literature  in  an  attempt  to  undermine  the 
Communist    system    of    Russia    and    advance    our    ideologies.      We 


62  TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.   STEELE  • 

would  not  be  permitted  such  liberties,  of  course,  and  we  have  not 
been  able,  to  any  extent,  to  reach  the  Russian  people  even  via  short 
wave.  Why,  then,  should  they  assume  that  they  have  a  legal  and 
moral  right  to  put  into  operation  in  the  United  States  the  most  power- 
ful propaganda  machine  in  behalf  of  Russia  and  the  Communist 
system  of  government  ever  conceived  ?  Why  should  they  be  permitted 
to  deride  our  system  of  government  and  to  advocate  the  destruction 
of  this  system  and  the  ultimate  setting  up  of  a  Soviet  America  ? 

This  field  of  propaganda  has  been  extended  lately  by  bringing  the 
teachings  of  the  Moscow  University,  so  to  speak,  to  the  instructors  in 
our  own  schools  and  colleges.  This  angle  is  being  handled  by  the 
National  Council  of  American-Soviet  Friendship,  which  maintains 
headquarters  at  114  East  Thirty-second  Street,  New  York  City.  Some 
of  the  leaders  of  this  outfit  were  cited  for  contempt  by  this  committee 
for  refusing  to  furnish  ifhe  committee  with  pertinent  data  regarding 
its  activities. 

The  National  Council  of  American-Soviet  Friendship,  within  recent 
months,  has  added  many  side  shows  to  its  pro-Soviet  and,  accordingly, 
pro-Communist  propaganda  machine.  One  of  them  is  known  as  the 
committee  on  education  of  the  National  Council  of  American-Soviet 
Friendship.  This  committee  is  under  the  direction  of  Dr.  Herbert 
Davis.  I  know  nothing  of  the  additional  connections  of  Davis. 
Neither  do  I  know  anything  with  regard  to  his  qualifications,  if  any, 
as  an  educator,  or  his  knowledge  concerning  Russia  and  communism. 
Working  with  him  is  Elizabeth  Moos,  a  former  Bronx  teacher,  on 
whom  this  committee  undoubtedly  has  a  background  in  connection 
with  her  activities  in  other  fields.  She  is  the  executive  secretary  of  the 
committee  on  education,  and  I  am  informed  it  is  she  who  dpes  the 
actual  work  of  the  committee.  Among  the  vice  chairmen  of  the 
committee  are  Frank  E.  Baker  of  the  Milwaukee  State  Teachers'  Col- 
lege, Heniy  Pratt  Fairchild  of  New  York  University,  A.  D.  Henderson 
of  Antioch  College,  Ernest  O.  Melby  of  the  University  of  Montana, 
Holland  Roberts  of  the  California  Labor  School  (Communist)  and 
Stanford  University,  and  W.  Carson  Ryan  of  the  University  of  North 
Carolina.  Included  in  the  sponsors  of  the  committee  on  education  are 
the  usual  run  of  fronters,  such  as  Max  Yergan,  Corliss  Lamont,  and 
H.  W.  L.  Dana,  together  with  the  customary  few  unsuspecting. 

The  plan  through  which  the  committee  of  education  is  now  penetrat- 
ing our  schools  involves  the  distribution  of  Kits  of  Teaching  Ma- 
terials on  the  Soviet  Union.  These  "kits,"  as  they  are  called  include 
a  great  deal  of  the  propaganda  pamphlet  material  issued  by  the  Na- 
tional Council  of  American-Soviet  Friendship.  Other  materials  used 
in  the  "kits"  are  issued  by  the  American-Russian  Institute,  the  Insti- 
tute of  Pacific  Relations,  and  similar  outfits.  The  material  includes 
such  pro-Soviet  publications  as  Soviet  Russia  Today  and  Survey 
Graphic. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Pardon  me,  Mr.  Steele.  Do  you  have  any  samples 
of  the  kit  that  you  are  referring  to  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  I  have.  However,  I  don't  have  them  with  me.  It  was 
such  a  big  quantity  of  material  that  I  didn't  bring  them  with  me, 
but  I  will  be  very  glad  to  submit  one  of  the  kits  to  the  committee,  if 
you  wish. 

The  Chairman.  Do  that,  please. 


Tf:STIMONY  OF  WALTER  S.   STEELE  63 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir.  The  kits  contain  material  for  visual  educa- 
tion for  students,  together  with  water  colors  by  Soviet  children,  book 
illustrations  by  Soviet  artists,  sets  of  children's  books  printed  in  the 
Soviet  Union,  charts  of  various  kinds,  slides  for  projectors,  and  pam- 
phlets on  Soviet  farming,  child  care,  sports,  labor,  and  other  subjects. 
The  American-Russian  Institute  and  the  East  and  West  Association 
are  named  as  sources  of  additional  material. 

A  rather  extensive  Bibliography  on  the  Soviet  Union  for  teachers, 
issued  in  connection  with  the  committee  of  education's  school-infiltra- 
tion plan,  contains  List  Sources  and  Supplementary  Teaching  Mate- 
rials. Therein  are  named,  as  further  sources,  the  Soviet  Information 
Bureau  and  the  Russian  War  Relief.  Listed  as  source  material  are 
the  following  books :  Soviet  Communism,  The  Truth  About  Russia,  The 
Russians,  Soviet  Power,  The  Secret  of  Soviet  Strength,  Mother  Russia, 
U.  S.  S.  R.,  Russia  Is  No  Riddle,  Women  of  Soviet  Russia,  Changing 
Man,  The  Educational  System  of  the  U.  S.  S.  R.,  Soviet  Economy  and 
the  War,  Soviet  Spirit,  Socialized  Medicine,  Twentieth  Century  Phi- 
losophy, Seven  Soviet  Plans,  I  Saw  the  Russian  People,  The  Great 
Conspiracy  Against  Russia,  Religion  in  the  U.  S.  S.  R.,  Lenin,  That 
Boy  Nikolka,  Russia's  Story,  The  People  of  Russia,  Short  History  of 
Russia,  The  War  of  Liberation,  Leninism,  History  of  the  Communist 
Party  of  Russia,  The  Baltic  Riddle.  Maxim  Litvinoff,  Against  Aggres- 
sion, New  Poland,  Red  Army,  Last  Days  of  Sevastopol,  Twelve  Months 
That  Changed  the  World,  An  Outline  of  Russian  Literature,  Land  of 
the  Soviets,  Russia's  New  Primer,  Heroes  of  the  War,  Young  America 
Looks  at  Russia,  Building  America,  and  How  Man  Became  a  Giant 
(Evolution).  The  authors  of  these  books  include  H.  W;  L,  Dana,  a 
former  teacher  in  a  Communist  school  in  Boston;  Ella  Winters, 
widely  known  f router;  Anna  Louise  Strong,  former  editor  of  the 
Moscow  News;  Corliss  Lamont;  Victor  Yakhontoff ;  Albert  E.  Kahn, 
])arty  functionary ;  Rev.  William  Howard  Melish ;  Beatrice  and  Sidney 
Webb,  British  Reds ;  Albert  Rhys  Williams ;  Hewlett  Johnson ;  Walter 
Duranty;  Vilhjalmur  Stefansson;  Edmund  Stevens;  Harry  F.  Ward; 
Henry  E.  Segerist,  leader  in  the  socialized-medicine  campaign ;  Edwin 
S.  Smith,  of  the  Progressive  Citizens'  Association  and  the  National 
Council  of  American-Soviet  Friendship ;  Rose  Maurer ;  Eric  Starbuck; 
Leo  Gruliow;  Joseph  Stalin;  Arthur  Upham  Pope;  Maxim  Litvinoff; 
Boleslaw  Gebert;  I.  Mintz;  Erskine  Caldwell;  Vera  Micheles  Dean; 
Ernest  J.  Simmons;  Wanda  Wasilewska;  Maxwell  Stewart;  M.  Ilin; 
and  scores  of  other  left-wing  Americans  and  Russian  leaders. 

Mr.  McDowell.  Can  you  tell  me  the  author  of  Mother  Russia  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  Let  me  see  if  I  can,  sir. 

Mr.  Striplixg.  Maurice  Hindus,  I  believe. 

Mr.  Steele.  No.    I  have  that  in  the  exhibits  here,  however. 

Mr.  McDowell.  All  right. 

Mr.  Steele.  Building  America  is  also  endorsed  as  excellent  source 
material  by  the  committee  on  education.  It  is  suggested  that  it  be 
used  by  the  teachers  and  professors  in  our  educational  institutions.  I 
might  add  here  that  this  book  has  created  a  State-wide  controversy  in 
California,  where  the  Sons  of  the  American  Revolution  finally  suc- 
ceeded in  having  the  book  banned  in  some  of  the  schools.  I  under- 
stand that  the  State  legislature,  through  a  special  committee,  is  hold- 

65176—47 5 


64  TESTIMONY  OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE 

ing  hearings  on  the  book,  and  it  is  expected  that  its  findings  will 
result  in  the  barring  of  the  book  from  all  State  institutions. 

At  this  point,  I  will  turn  over  to  this  committee  for  its  own  informa- 
tion the  comphaint  of  the  Sons  of  the  American  Revolution,  addressed 
to  tlie  Lieutenant  Governor  of  California,  the  speaker  of  the  state 
assembly,  and  to  the  special  committee  of  the  senate  of  California,  in 
which  is  set  forth  the  charges  against  this  book.  I  will' submit  all  in 
a  bunch  here,  if  you  don't  mind. 

Mr.  Stripling.  All  right. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Steele,  go  back  just  a  little  bit.  It  is  not  clear 
to  me  just  what  the  connection  is  between  the  committee  on  educa- 
tion and  the  American-Russian  Institute. 

Mr.  Steele.  The  committee  on  education,  in  their  kits,  has  propa- 
ganda material  on  the  Soviet  Union  which  is  issued  by  the  American- 
Russian  Institute.  They  also  list  that  in  the  documents  that  I  am  sub- 
mitting here  as  further  sources  of  material. 

The  Chairman.  And  have  you  told  the  committee  what  the 
American-Russian  Institute  is? 

Mr.  Steele.  No.  I  am  getting  to  that  shortly,  though,  Mr.  Chair- 
man. 

Records  and  slides  circulated  by  the  committee  on  education  of  the 
National  Council  of  American-Soviet  Friendship  were  made  by  Paul 
Robeson  (who  records  among  others  the  Soviet  Anthem),  Richard 
Dyer  Bennett,  Sam  Morganstern,  and  others.  Ke3^stone  Recordings, 
(Communist  recorders)  produce  the  records.  Soviet  posters  are  also 
included  in  the  kits  for  American  teachers  and  professors. 

One  of  the  bulletins  issued  by  the  committee  on  education  an- 
nounces that  summer  courses  have  already  been  instituted  at  Boston 
University,  William  and  Mary,  Columbia,  Cornell,  Emery,  Middle- 
bury,  Pomona,  Buffalo,  Minnesota,  Pennsylvania,  and  Pittsburgh 
Universities,  and  at  the  Connecticut  and  Mary  Washington  Colleges. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Pardon  me,  Mr.  Steele.  You  stated  Keystone  Re- 
cordings. 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes. 

Mr.  Stripling.  According  to  your  memorandum,  it  is  Keynote, 
Recordings. 

Mr.  Steele.  Keynote. 

Mr.  Stripling.  It  is  Keynote  and  not  Keystone. 

Mr.  Steele.  Keynote  is  proper;  yes. 

Mr.  Stripling.  All  right. 

Mr.  Steele.  An  ex])lanation  is  made  to  the  effect  that  "space  does 
not  permit  listing  Russian  studies  planned  next  fall."  The  bulletin 
also  states  that  "social"  conferences  and  institutes  have  been  held  at 
the  University  of  Colorado,  University  of  AVyoming,  University  of 
Washington,  and  the  University  of  Utah,  and  that  Institutes  of  Inter- 
national Relations  have  offered  discussion  on  the  Soviet  Union  at  Mills 
College,  with  Dr.  Holland  Roberts  of  the  Communist  California  Labor 
School  and  Miss  Rose  Maurer  of  the  committee  serving  as  members 
of  the  statT.  Miss  Maurer  was  also  on  the  staff  of  the  Northwest  In- 
stitute held  at  Reed  College  (Washing-ton  State).  Other  Institutes 
were  held  at  Antioch  College  and  Friends  University  (Wichita). 
Workshops  and  conferences  have  been  held  by  the  committee  at  which 
the  extension  of  this  program  in  our  schools  was  discussed.     One  con- 


TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE  65 

ference,  held  in  Philadelphia,  had  as  its  chief  speakers  Corliss  Lamont 
of  the  council  and  Orest  Shevtsov,  head  of  the  Young  Communist 
movement  in  Russia.  Another  conference  was  held  in  New  York,  in 
which  Arthur  Upham  Pope,  Howard  Wilson,  Robert  S.  Lynd,  and 
Frank  E.  Baker  participated.  In  attendance  were  approximately  500 
teachers  and  school  administrators. 

The  Chairman.  When  were  these  conferences  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  These  were  held  last  fall.  A  third  conference  was  held 
in  Boston.  Herbert  Davis,  Corliss  Lamont,  Howard  Wilson,  and 
Dirk  Struik  were  among  the  speakers.  Dr.  Vladimir  Kazakevich  and 
George  Vernadsky  took  part  in  a  conference  held  in  Cleveland. 

The  National  Council  of  American-Soviet  Friendship  was  originally 
known  as  Friends  of  the  Soviet  Union.  It  was  organized  as  a  branch 
of  the  International  Friends  of  the  Soviet  Union,  the  headquarters  of 
which  were  located  in  Moscow.  The  original  purposes  of  the  Friends 
of  the  Soviet  Union  were  set  forth  in  a  booklet  entitled  "Tasks  and 
Activities  of  the  Friends  of  the  Soviet  Union,"  from  which  I  quote: 

To  mobilize  the  masses  for  militant  action  against  war  and  in  defense  of  the 
Soviet  socialist  state  through  street  meetings,  demonstrations,  factory-gate  meet- 
ings, and  the  organization  of  the  Friends  of  the  Soviet  Union  anti-war  commit- 
tees in  all  basic  industries  *  *.  *.  The  attacks  on  militant  workers  on  hours, 
wages,  standard  of  living,  and  the  attacks  on  the  Soviet  Union  are  parts  of  one 
whole,  of  the  capitalists'  attacks  against  the  working  class     *     *     *. 

As  a  part  of  this  policy  of  workers'  solidarity,  the  Friends  of  the  Soviet  Union 
sends  delegations  of  American  workers  to  the  Soviet  Union  to  participate  in  the 
May  Day  and  November  7  anniversary  celebrations.  In  the  campaigns  for  such 
delegates,  the  Friends  of  the  Soviet  Union  enters  into  close  contact  with  progres- 
sive and  revolutionary  trade-unions     *     *     *. 

Originally,  the  officers  and  members  of  the  boards  of  the  National 
Council  of  American-Soviet  Friendship  (Friends  of  the  Soviet  Union) 
were  all  openly  Communist  Party  leaders.  After  a  series  of  nairte 
changing,  which  included  the  American  Council  on  Soviet  Relations, 
in  January  1943,  the  final  corporation  papers  were  filed,  establishing 
it  under  its  present  name,  the  National  Council  of  American-Soviet 
Friendship,  Inc.  The  corporation  papers  state  that  the  purposes  of 
the  council  shall  be  "scientific,  educational,  and  charitable";  that  it 
shall  distribute  literature,  hold  meetings,  lectures,  and  broadcasts; 
that  it  shall  give  aid  to  other  organizations  or  individuals  to  carry 
on  similar  activities;  that  it  shall  take  by  bequests,  gifts,  purchase, 
or  lease  property,  real,  personal,  and  mixed,  without  limitation  as  to 
value;  that  it  shall  invest  any  principal  and  expend  any  income  for 
the  above  purposes;  and  that  it  shall  accept  membership. 

The  incorporators,  as  listed  in  the  incorporation  papers,  are  Corliss 
Lamont,  George  Marshall,  William  Morris,  Jr.,  Dr.  Harry  Grund- 
fest,  and  William  Howard  Melish,  who  are  also  named  as  directors 
of  the  organization.  The  incorporation  papers  provide  that  at  least 
two-thirds  of  the  directors  shall  be  citizens  of  the  United  States. 
Harold  I.  Cammer  acted  as  attorney  for  the  incorporators. 

I  wish  at  this  time  to  file  the  incorporation  papers,  as  well  as  other 
material  pertaining  to  the  committee  on  education,  as  evidence. 

The  Chairman.  We  will  accept  them  as  exhibit  No.  16. 

Mr.  Stripling.  The  incorporation  papers  will  start  with  16. 

(Exhibit  16  was  received.)  ^"* 

"  See  appendix,  p.  174,  for  exhibit  16. 


66  TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE 

Mr.  Steele.  The  National  Council  of  American-Soviet  Friendship 
has  set  up  numerous  affiliates.  These  reach  into  many  fields — the 
American-Soviet  Science  Society,  headed  by  Dr.  L.  C.  Dunn ;  building 
industry  committee,  Harvey  Wiley  Corbett,  chairman;  committee  of 
•women,  Muriel  Draper,  chairman;  committee  on  education.  Dr.  Her- 
bert Davis,  chairman ;  dance  committee,  Aanes  de  Mille,  chairman ; 
religious  committee,  Rev.  William  Howard  Melish,  chairman;  theater 
committee,  Margaret  Webster,  chairman;  and  a  medical  committee 
of  which  Robert  Leslie  is  chairman. 

The  following  are  the  local  councils  of  the  National  Council  of 
American-Soviet  Friendship : 

Alabama :  Dr.  Herbert  P.  McDonald,  chairman,  Mobile  Council  of  American- 
Soviet  Friendship,  66  North  Monterey  Street,  Mobile.  Ala. 

California :  Dr.  M.  Shapovalov,  chairman.  Peninsula  Council  of  American- 
Soviet  Friendship,  740  Creek  Drive,  Menlo  Park,  Calif. 

Colorado :  Mrs  Herbert  D.  Ulraer,  executive  secretary,  Denver  Council  of 
American-Soviet  Friendship,  667  South  Downing  Street,  Denver,  Colo. 

Florida :  Dr.  Karl  G.  Knoche,  chairman,  Jacksonville  Council  of  American- 
Soviet  Friendship,  514  Professional  Building,  Jacksonville,  Fla.  Rev.  A.  B.  Rol- 
lins, director,  Miami  Council  of  American  Soviet  Friendship,  121  Soutlieast  First 
Street,  Miami  32,  Fla.  Mr.  Alfredo  Rodriguez,  chairman,  Tampa  Council  of 
American-Soviet  Friend.ship,  1614  Eighth  Avenue,  Tampa,  Fla. 

Illinois :  Dr.  William  Card,  executive  director,  Chicago  Council  of  American- 
Soviet  Friendship,  135  South  La  Salle  Street,  Chicago,  111. 

Louisiana :  Prof.  Robert  D.  Feild,  chairman.  New  Orleans  Council  of  American- 
Soviet  Friendship,  1212  Broadway,  New  Orleans,  La. 

Maine :  Mr.  Raymond  H.  Galley,  Maine  Council  of  American-Soviet  Friendship, 
12  Providence  Avenue,  South  Portland,  Me. 

Massachusetts  :  Mrs.  Nan  Hunter  Halperin,  Massachusetts  Council  of  American- 
Soviet  Friendship,  35  Newbury  Street,  Boston,  Mass. 

Minnesota :  Mrs.  H.  B.  Wiesner,  executive  secretary,  Minneapolis  Council  of 
American-Soviet  P^riendship,  1011  East  River  Road,  Minneapolis,  Minn. 

New  Jersey :  Mrs.  Reva  Finkel,  regional  secretary,  New  Jersey  regional  office, 
310  Washington  Street,  Newark,  N.  J. 

Ohio :  Mr.  Russell  M.  Chase,  Union  Trust  Building,  Cleveland,  Ohio. 

Pennsylvania :  Miss  Adele  Pollock,  regional  secretary,  Pennsylvania  regional 
office,  1831  Chestnut  Street,  Philadelphia,  Pa.  Miss  Reba  D.  Altman,  executive 
secretary,  Philadelphia  Council  of  American-Soviet  Friendship,  1831  Chestnut 
Street,  Philadelphia,  Pa.  Rev.  Irving  Murray,  Pittsburgh  Council  of  American- 
Soviet  Ffiendsliip,  Ellsworth  and  Morewood  Avenues,  Pittsburgh,  Pa. 

Wisconsin:  Mrs.  Paul  Link,  Madison  Council  of  American-Soviet  Friendship, 
Route  No.  2,  Madison,  Wis.  Mr.  Henry  C.  Friend,  Milwaukee  Council  of  Ameri- 
can-Soviet Friendship,  6185  Plankinton  Building,  Milwaukee,  Wis. 

The  Chairman.  At  this  point  the  record  will  show  that  the  follow- 
ing members  of  the  committee  are  present :  Mr.  Vail,  Mr.  McDowell, 
Mr.  Nixon,  and  Mr.  Thomas. 

Mr.  Steele.  Officers  of  the  National  Council  of  American-Soviet 
Friendship,  Inc.,  are:  Corliss  Lamont,  chairman;  Arthur  Upham 
Pope,  William  Morris,  Jr.,  and  Rev.  William  Howard  Melish,  vice 
chainnen;  Prof.  Henry  Pratt  Fairchild,  secretary-treasurer;  and 
Richard  Morford,  executive  director.  Members  of  the  board  of  di- 
rectors are:  Harland  Allen,  Zlatko  Balokovic,  Cyril  Bath,  Mary 
McLeod  Bethune,  Harvey  Wiley  Corbett,  John  O.  Crane,  Dorothy 
Douglas,  Leslie  C.  Dunn,  B.  Z.  Goldberg,  Thomas  L.  Harris,  Raymond 
C.  Ingersoll,  Philip  J.  Jaffe,  Leon  Kroll,  Samuel  B.  Leavin,  Howard 
McKenzie,  George  Marshall,  William  L.  McFetridge,  William  Howard 
Melish,  John  Middleton,  Emily  Pierson,  Adam  Clayton  Powell, 
Joseph  P.  Selly,  M.  B.  Sherman,  Herman  Shumlin,  Henry  E.  Sigerist, 
Vilhjalmur  Stefansson,  and  Hudson  Walker.    Thomas  L.  Harris,  a 


TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE  67 

member  of  the  board,  is  executive  secretary  of  the  American  Russian 
Institute.  Over  a  period  of  years  he  has  held  prominent  positions  in 
various  other  fronts.  John  Middleton,  another  member  of  the  board, 
is  vice  president  of  the  International  Workers'  Order. 

I  will  discuss  the  IWO  to  greater  extent  later  on  in  my  testimony. 
However,  it  is  pertinent  to  mention  at  this  point  the  fact  tliat  members 
of  the  IWO  served  as  delegates  to  the  national  convention  of  the 
National  Council  of  the  American-Soviet  Friendship.  It  is  customary 
for  the  IWO  to  send  100  delegates  to  the  national  conventions  of  the 
council.    I  submit  herewith  three  letters  as  evidence  in  this  respect. 

(Exhibits  IT  to  25  were  received.)  ^^ 

Mr.  Steele.  Now,  on  the  youth  movement,  please.  The  bkmt  frank- 
ness with  which  national  leaders  of  the  American  Youth  for  Democ- 
racy movement  openly  admit  the  Red  connections  of  their  organiza- 
tion, yet  deny  communism  when  they  get  in  a  tight  pinch,  and  the 
boldness  with  which  AYD  is  setting  up  housekeeping  on  the  campuses 
of  both  private  and  tax-supported  institutions  of  higher  learning 
throughout  the  United  States  is  alarming. 

American  Youth  for  Democracy  is  waging  a  vigorous  campaign  for 
campus  recognition  in  principal  universities  and  colleges,  and  where 
it  is  unable  to  gain  this  recognition  it  starts  secret  "boring  from 
within"  of  other  campus  societies.  The  American  Youth  for  Democ- 
racy organization  is  nothing  more  than  the  old  Young  Communist 
League  with  an  application  of  cosmetics  to  conceal  the  ugly  features 
of  the  old  atheistic  Red  movement,  as  originally  designed  by  Moscow 
for  our  youth.  Loyal  Americans  are  tired  of  being  duped  by  Stalinist 
agents  who  wrap  themselves  up  in  high-sounding  names  while  spread- 
ing their  poison  across  the  land.  Repeated  warnings  have  been 
sounded  against  American  Youth  for  Democracy,  every  step  of  which 
is  plotted  hj  former  chiefs  of  the  Young  Communist  League. 

Several  years  ago  the  Young  Communist  League  issued  a  pamphlet 
called  "\^'liat  Are  the  Young  Communists,  in  which  the  principles  of 
the  League  were  clearly  outlined.  I  quote  herewith  from  the 
pamphlet : 

The  Young  Communist  League  is  the  organization  of  young  workers  that  leads 
their  fight  against  the  clanger  of  another  bosses'  war  and  for  the  defense  of  the 
Soviet  Union.  The  Y^oung  Communist  League  is  not  a  pacifist  organization.  It 
organizes  and  mobilizes  the  young  worliers  to  fight  against  war  before  war  has 
started.  It  also  fights  for  the  immediate  needs  of  the  soldiers  and  sailors,  and 
calls  upon  these  young  workers  in  the  armed  forces  to  unite  with  the  rest  of 
the  workers     •     *     * 

The  Y'oung  Communist  League,  while  fighting  against  war,  realizes  that  wars 
are  part  of  the  present  capitalist  system,  and  caimot  be  abolished  without  the 
overthrow  of  capitalism.  It  teaches  the  young  workers  that  when  war  is  de- 
clared, they  must  turn  their  guns  against  their  only  enemy,  the  boss  class.    *    *  * 

Tl'.e  Young  Communist  League  joins  hands  with  the  Communist  youth  of  all 
lands  through  aflBliation  in  that  mighty  revolutionary  youth  organization,  the 
Young  Communist  International. 

The  Young  Communist  outfit  joined  in  the  strikes  and  other  unrest 
which  prevailed  immediately  before  the  recent  World  War,  and  when 
the  Chameleon  changed  its  color,  even  though  it  remained  red,  it  fol- 
lowed the  same  tactics  operating  under  the  name  American  Youth  for 
Democracy.  Now  that  it  is  under  fire,  the  AYD  shouts  from  the 
housetops  that  it  is  not  a  Communist  organization  and  holds  no  rela- 

"  See  appendix,  p.  174,  for  exhibits  17  to  25. 


68  TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE 

tion  to  the  Moscow  household.    History — the  written  record  of  Amer- 
ican Communists  themselves — proves  this  assertion  false. 

Anyone  interested  in  the  background  of  the  A  YD  merely  needs  to 
refer  to  the  official  organ  of  the  Communist  Party,  the  Daily  Worker, 
for  the  facts.  On  the  front  page  of  the  October  16,  1943,  issue  of  this 
Red  mouthpiece  is  a  report  under  the  heading:  "Five  thousand  jam 
opening  of  YCL  convention."    It  reads  in  part : 

Over  5,000  young  Americans,  many  coming  from  various  parts  of  the  Nation, 
packed  two  halls  at  Manhattan  Center  (N.  Y.)  last  night  despite  a  driving  rain 
as  the  Young  Communist  League  opened  its  historical  national  convention  to 
consider  Its  own  dissolution  and  the  building  of  a  new  national  anti-Fascist  or- 
ganization of  youth. 

Earl  Browder,  then  national  head  of  the  Communist  Party,  ad- 
dressed the  meeting,  as  did  Max  Weiss,  then  president  of  the  Young 
Communist  League;  and  Bob  Thompson,  vice  president  of  the  same 
organization  and  now  New  York  State  chairman  of  the  Communist 
Party.  Oddly  enough,  despite  all  claims  of  the  AYD  crowd  that  it  is 
not  contaminated  with  Red  blood,  the  guiding  lights  of  the  defunct 
Young  Communist  League  immediately  became  the  big  shots  of  Amer- 
ican Youth  for  Democracy. 

On  October  18,  1943,  the  Daily  Worker  featured  another  page  1 
story  on  the  subject,  under  the  heading  "Form  American  Youth  for 
Democracy  at  parley  here."    The  paper  reported  as  follows: 

A  new  American  anti-Fascist  youth  organization  was  born  at  Mecca  Temple 
yesterday  [October  17,  1943]  as  332  delegates,  representing  190  community  clubs 
and  150  guests  and  observers,  ended  an  organization  convention  initiated  by 
the  Young  Communist  League.  The  convention  was  called  into  session  Satur- 
day [October  16,  1943]  evening  immediately  following  the  decision  of  the  Young 
Communist  League  to  disband  that  body.  *  *  *  Yesterday  the  new  conven- 
tion decided  to  name  the  new  organization  "American  Youth  for  Democracy." 
■  *  *  *  Elected  as  cochairman  of  the  new  organization  were  Kobert  Thompson 
and  Naomi  Ellison.  *  *  *  Chosen  executive  secretary  was  Carl  Ross,  who 
was  chairman  of  the  New  York  State  committee  of  the  Young  Communist 
League.  *  *  *  Leaders  of  the  convention  paid  tribute  to  Max  Weiss,  national 
president  of  the  Young  Communist  League  and  delegate  to  the  American  Youth 
for  Democracy  convention.  Weiss  explained  that  he  had  not  accepted  the  nomi- 
nation for  office  in  the  new  organization  because  he  plans  to  retire  from  activity 
in  the  youth  field. 

Weiss  became  active  immediately  in  the  adult  ranks  of  the  Com- 
munist Party.  But  he  certainly  left  no  doubts  about  American  Youth 
for  Democracy  being  of  Young  Communist  League  ]iarentage.  Just 
prior  to  the  dual  convention — the  one  dissolving  YCL  and  the  other 
giving  birth  to  AYD — Weiss  wrote  an  article  in  the  Communist 
(September  1943),  another  Communist  Party  organ,  which  identifies 
itself  as  "a  magazine  of  the  theory  and  practice  of  Marxism-Len- 
inism." At  the  time  Earl  Browder,  the  head  of  the  Communist  Party 
and  now  No.  1  book  peddler  for  Russia,  was  editor.  The  publication, 
which,  like  all  other  Red  agencies,  has  since  changed  its  name,  is  now 
known  as  Political  Affairs,  but  still  admits  that  it  is  "a  magazine  de- 
voted to  the  theory  and  practice  of  Mixrxism-Leninism."  Weiss  is 
editor  of  Political  Affairs  at  the  present  time.  The  article  by  Weiss 
was  entitled  "Toward  a  New  Anti-Fascist  Youth  Organization."  He 
began  the  article  by  saying : 

Flowing  directly  from  the  desire  of  the  Young  Communist  League  to  make  its 
maximum  contribution  to  the  mobilization  of  the  masses  of  youth  for  the  fulfill- 
ment of  these  tasks,  the  convention  will  consider  a  proposal  of  outstanding  im- 


TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE  69 

portance,  a  proposal  *  *  *  to  cliange  the  program  and  name  of  the  YCL  and 
to  broaden  its  leadership  in  order  to  help  create  a  new  united  anti-Fascist  youth 
organization. 

Buried  deep  in  the  14  pages  of  fine  print  expounding  the  future  of 
the  new  organization,  "Comrade"  Weiss  unintentionally  reveals,  in 
advance,  the  Red  conception  of  American  Youth  for  Democracy.  He 
continues : 

The  proposals  which  are  advanced  for  consideration  of  the  convention  are 
such  as  will  speed  up  the  process  already  under  way  in  the  YCL  for  many 
years,  advance  it  to  a  higher  stage,  and  thus  help  to  bring  into  existence  something 
qualitatively  new. 

For  that  is  what  will  be  the  political  result  of  making  such  fundamental  changes 
as  those  that  ai'e  proposed.  We  will  actually  have,  as  a  result,  the  beginnings  of 
a  new  organization,  and  not  merely  the  old  organization  with  some  slight  modifica- 
tions. 'I Ills  does  not  mean  that  it  will  be  a  new  organization  that  will  spring 
"full-fashioned  from  the  brow  of  Jove."    Not  at  all. 

Officiating  as  midwife  at  the  birth  of  the  American  Youth  for 
Democracy  and  being  its  parent  by  virtue  of  being  president  of  YCL, 
there  should  certainly  be  no  reason  for  blood  tests  to  determine  lineage 
after  Weiss  speaks.     He  said : 

It  is  the  YCL  as  it  exists  today  which  is  transforming  itself  into  a  new 
organization. 

Of  course,  the  author  tries  to  cushion  the  blow  by  claiming  that  the 
Young  Communist  League  was  an  "independent"  organization,  but 
in  the  next  breath  he  boasts  that : 

It  is  certainly  true  that  thousands  of  youth  who  joined  the  YCL  later  joined 
the  Comnmnist  Party,  and  that  many  of  them  became  able  leaders  of  the  Com- 
munist Party. 

Those  who  are  carried  away  with  the  oily  words  of  the  defenders 
of  American  Youth  for  Democracy  as  not  being  a  Red  scheme  for  the 
enticement  of  young  men  and  women  of  the  United  States  into  the 
revolutionary  forces  will  get  a  rude  awakening  when  advised  that  in 
this  report  by  Communist  Editor  Weiss  and  former  head  of  the  Young 
Communist  League,  he  said : 

AH  Communists  will  naturally  hope  that  thousands  of  youth  who  joined  the 
new  organization  (AYD)  will  also  later  join  the  Communist  Party,  and  that  many 
M'ill  become  leaders  of  the  Communist  Party. 

Lamenting  the  handicap  the  Young  Communist  League  experienced 
with  its  Red  appellation,  Weiss  said : 

The  changes  that  are  proposed  for  the  convention  will  help  to  remove  certain 
obstacles  which  have,  hitherto,  impeded  the  building  of  a  broad  anti-Fascist  youth 
organization.  There  can  be  no  question  of  the  fact  that  the  name  and  program 
of  the  YCL  were  such  as  to  imply  that  membership  in  the  organization  auto- 
matically committed  one  to  acceptance  of  the  immediate  and  ultimate  program 
■  of  the  Communist  Party  and  that  they  therefore  operated  to  prevent  from  joining 
it  thousands  of  youth  who  supported  its  immediate  program  and  activity. 

The  report  points  to  the  fact  that  in  the  new  organization  (AYD) 
"there  will  be  full  freedom  of  all  youth  within  the  organization  who 
desire  to  study  Marxism  and  the  Marxist  theory,"  and  looks  for  the 
brilliant  Red  lining,  saying : 

Communists  believe  that  ever  larger  and  increasing  numbers  of  young  people 
:and,  in  the  long  run,  a  majority  of  American  youth  will  ultimately  see  that  only 
by  equipping  itself  with  the  science  of  Marxism  can  the  American  working  class 
find  its  proper  path  to  a  final  solution  of  all  problems 


70  TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE 

YCL  required  party  loyalty. 

By  the  time  its  June  1946  convention  in  New  York  City  was  held, 
the  AYD  claimed  clubs  on  63  college  and  university  campuses  and  in 
19  States,  with  432  delegates  in  attendance.  It  was  at  this  Congress 
that  it  took  a  militant  stand  against  military  training  for  the  Amer- 
ican Army  and  for  unlimited  appeasement  of  Russia  and  its  satellite 
countries.  Greetings  were  received  from  William  Z.  Foster,  head  of 
the  Communist  Party;  Ben  Gold,  Communist  board  member  and  CIO 
union  official ;  Senator  Pepper,  Hugh  De  Lacy,  and  other  Communists 
or  fronters,  as  well  as  from  Soviet  Russia. 

It  is  not  necessary  to  have  any  superknowledge  to  analyze  the  facts 
and  determine  that  the  American  Youth  for  Democracy  movement 
was  bred,  born,  and  nursed  by  the  Communist  leaders,  for  the  birth 
records  prove  the  nativity. 

1.  October  17,  1943,  the  Young  Communist  League  opened  "its  his- 
toric national  convention  to  consider  its  own  dissolution  and  the 
building  of  a  new  national  anti-Fascist  organization  of  youth."  (The 
quotes  are  from  the  Daily  Worker. ) 

2.  October  18,  1943,  "A  new  American  anti-Fascist  youth  organiza- 
tion was  born"  at  a  "convention  initiated  by  the  Young  Communist 
League."  This  turned  out  to  be  the  American  Youth  for  Democracy. 
(Again  I  quote  from  the  Daily  Worker.) 

3.  Max  Weiss,  national  president  of  the  Young  Communist  League, 
was  offered  the  nomination  for  president  of  the  AYD,  but,  according 
to  the  Daily  Worker,  he  "explained  that  he  had  not  accepted  the  nom- 
ination for  office  in  the  new  organization  because  he  plans  to  retire  from 
activity  in  the  youth  field." 

4.  Robert  Thompson,  who  presided  over  the  ninth  convention  of  the 
Young  Communist  League,  and  who  served  as  secretary  of  the  Ohio 
State  Young  Communist  League,  and  in  1946  w^as  the  Communist 
Party  candidate  for  Governor  of  New  York,  was  elected  cochairman 
of  the  AYD.  He  is  now  State  chairman  of  the  Communist  Party  of 
New  York. 

5.  Carl  Ross,  executive  secretary  of  the  Young  Communist  League 
of  the  LTnited  States  of  America  and  president  of  the  New  York  State 
Young  Communist  League,  was  elected  executive  secretary  and  to  the 
national  board  of  American  Youth  for  Democracy. 

6.  Naomi  Ellison,  a  member  of  the  editorial  board  of  Spotlight,  a 
magazine  early  identified  as  the  organ  of  the  Young  Communists,  was 
elected  cochairman  with  Thompson,  and  to  AYD's  national  board. 
Miss  Ellison,  whose  native  State  is  Washington,  has  been  chairman  of 
the  National  Industrial  Council  of  the  YWCA.  She  was  sponsor 
of  the  Red  "Peace  Mobilization"  which  later  became  the  American 
Peace  Mobilization,  an  organization  on  the  Attorney  General's  list  of 
subversive  Communist  groups.  She  also  directed  the  AYD  "Sweet- 
hearts of  Service  Men's  Clubs,"  organized  by  the  Reds  during  the  war 
near  training  camps  as  a  means  through  which  they  might  entice 
servicemen. 

7.  Claudia  Jones,  former  editor  of  the  organ  of  the  Young  Com- 
munist League,  the  Weekly  Review,  and  a  member  of  the  national 
council  of  the  Young  Communist  League,  as  well  as  State  educational 
director  of  the  New  York  Young  Communist  League,  was  elected  to 
AYD's  national  board  and  editor  of  its  official  organ,  Spotlight. 


TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER  S.    STEELE  71 

8.  Lillian  Eoss  and  Fay  Caller,  members  of  the  so-called  national 
war  service  committee  of  the  Young  Communist  League,  were  elected 
to  the  national  board  of  the  AYD. 

9.  Earl  Browder,  former  head  of  the  Communist  F'arty,  who  ad- 
dressed the  dissolution  convention  of  the  Young  Communist  League, 
which  proved  to  be  merely  a  name-changing  affair,  said  in  the  course 
of  his  speech : 

It  will  consider  a  proposal  calling  for  the  dissolution  of  the  Young  Communist 
League  as  the  first  step  toward  the  establishment  of  a  Nation-wide,  nonpartisan, 
auti-Fascist  youth  organization. 

10.  Spotlight,  official  organ  of  the  AYP,  is  published  by  New  Age 
Publishers,  Inc.,  which  was  the  publishing  company  of  the  organ  of 
the  Young  Communist  League,  Weekly  Review.  Writers  for  Spot- 
light, as  for  Weekly  Review,  included  many  of  the  Nation's  best- 
known  Communists  and  Communist-front  leaders.  The  editorial 
management  of  Spotlight  is  composed  by  the  majority  of  those  who 
served  on  the  Weekly  Review. 

11.  AYD,  like  its  predecessor,  the  Young  Communist  League,  has 
international  affiliations.  YCL  was  an  affiliate  of  the  Young  Com- 
munist International  at  Moscow.  AYD  is  an  affiliate  of  the  World 
Federation  for  Democratic  Youth,  organized  at  a  World  Congress  of 
Anti-Fascist  Youth  held  in  London  in  1946  at  the  instance  of  the 
Soviet  Anti-Fascist  Youth  Committee,  composed  of  members  of  the 
organization  of  the  Young  Communist  International,  which  was  cen- 
tered in  Moscow. 

12.  Vincent  Fieri,  director  of  the  teen-age  clubs  of  AYD,  is  a,  Penn- 
sylvanian,  and  was  formerly  head  of  the  Tom  Mooney  club  of  the 
Young  Communist  League  in  Philadelphia. 

13.  Vivian  Levin,  director  of  the  intercollegiate  section  of  AYD, 
was  formerly  student  organizer  of  the  southern  California  section  of 
the  Young  Communist  League.  Vice  presidents  include  Louis  Burn- 
ham,  of  Alabama,  head  of  the  Young  Communist  League's  Paul  Revere 
chapter  in  New  York  City,  leader  of  the  City  College  of  New  York 
student  strike  in  1937,  and  at  present  head  of  the  youth  section  of  the 
(Communist)  National  Negro  Congress  and  the  Southern  Negro  Youth 
Congress. 

14.  Mollie  Leiber,  active  in  young  Red  circles,  is  Midwest  chairman ; 
and  Muriel  Friedman,  former  Young  Communist  League  member  and 
among  its  foremost  leaders  in  California,  has  been  appointed  to  Cali- 
fornia leadership  of  AYD,  Ruth  Jett  of  New  York  City  is  another 
vice  chairman  of  AYD,  and  has  been  active  in  leadership  of  a  Com- 
munist front  among  Harlem  Negroes.  Leiber  presented  the  AYD  with 
a  gift  from  Russia  in  1946. 

Thus  it  is  conclusively  shown  that  the  germ  cells  were  of  outright 
Communist  concoction.  The  egg  was  laid  by  Communists,  hatched  by 
Communists,  and  the  offspring  has  been  constantly  mothered  by  Com- 
munists. 

The  genealogy  of  American  Youth  for  Democracy  extends  back 
through  several  Red  ancestors  to  the  Young  Workers'  League,  which 
was  formed  in  1922  and  was  one  of  the  beneficiaries  of  the  American 
Fund  for  Public  Service,  more  commonly  known  as  the  Garland  (Red) 
Fund.     The  first  national  convention  of  the  organization  was  held 


72  TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE 

May  13-15,  1922.  Prior  to  that  time  numerous  local  Communist  or- 
ganizations had  been  using  the  name  Young  Workers'  League,  and 
the  convention  adopted  the  title.  The  third  national  convention  of  the 
Red  Youth  was  held  in  October  1925,  when  a  revised  constitution  was- 
adopted  and  the  name  slightly  changed  to  Young  Workers'  (Connnun- 
ist)  League.  Communist  youngsters  adopted  the  name  Communist 
Youth  League  for  a.  brief  period  in  1929. 

The  use  of  the  name  Young  Communist  League  began  with  the 
August  1,  1939  edition  of  the  Young  Worker, -its  official  organ  at  the 
time.  That  name  continued  until  the  invention  of  the  latest  booby- 
trap,  the  American  Youth  for  Democracy.  At  the  time  of  the  trans- 
formation. Communists  said : 

All  Communists  will  naturally  hope  that  thousands  of  youth  who  Will  join  the 
new  organization  will  later  join  the  Communist  Party. 

Red  leaders  hope  for  the  same  success  on  the  campuses  of  American 
colleges  and  universities  as  they  had  in  their  American  Youth  Con- 
gress in  1931.  Of  that  venture  the  secretariat  of  the  Communist  Inter- 
national said  at  a  speech  before  the  Seventh  World  Congress  of  that 
organization  at  Moscow  in  1935  : 

Comrades,  the  Young  Communist  League  of  the  United  States,  headed  by  Com- 
rade Green,  went  to  the  American  Youth  Congress  and  achieved  great  success. 
The  Congress  was  transformed  into  a  great  united  front  of  radical  youth,  and 
when  somewhat  later  a  second  general  youth  congress  was  held,  our  young  com- 
rades already  enjoyed  a  position  of  authority  in  it. 

In  the  May  1922  issue  of  Young  Worker,  then  the  official  organ  of 
the  Young  Communist  League,  the  following  statement  appeared : 

We  hear  the  tramp  of  the  young  as  they  come  in  ever  larger  masses  to  the 
banner  of  the  revolutionists.  Soon  they  will  conquer.  Meanwhile  as  we  view 
the  intolerable  situation  forced  upon  us  by  the  master  class,  let  this  be  our  slogan 
till  that  happy  May  Day  comes  when  we  have  won  for  ourselves  a  workers'  re- 
public :  "We  have  loved  enough ;  now  let  us  hate." 

This  steady  tramp,  tramp,  tramp  of  the  young  is  now  echoing  with 
more  resounding  thuds  as  the  clever  masters  of  propaganda  in  the 
Communist  organizations  bore  their  way  into  our  American  schools 
and  colleges  and  bit  by  bit  tear  down  the  principles  of  American  Gov- 
ernment and  the  foundations  of  American  institutions. 

Recently  in  the  Pacific  Northwest,  Reds  were  found  enticing  Wash- 
ington high-school  students  to  AYD  headquarters,  using  dances  and 
free  athletic  equipment  as  bait.  Once  inside  the  headquarters  the 
youngsters  were  confronted  with  a  large-sized  picture  of  Stalin  and 
were  fed  Communist  literature.  In  the  Nation's  Capital  one  of  the 
AYD  clubs  has  the  nerve  to  call  itself  the  George  Washington  Chap- 
ter. It  was  formerly  the  Seco  Club.  Another  unit  in  the  District  of 
Columbia  is  known  as  the  Sam  Banks  Youth  Club. 

In  a  document  issued  late  last  year  by  the  New  York  headquarters' 
of  American  Youth  for  Democracy,  it  is  declared  that : 

AYD  has  clubs  in  20  States,  dotting  the  country  from  coast  to  coast.  This 
means  that  a  member  of  AYD  is  part  of  something  bigger  than  himself.  His 
strength  is  multiplied,  because  he  is  working  with  thousands  of  other  young  fel- 
lows and  girls  who  believe  In  the  same  thing  he  does. 

Of  college  activity  the  document  boasts :  "In  colleges  all  over  the 
country  you  will  find  AYD  fighting  for  expanded  educational  facili- 


TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE  73 

ties  and  democracy  on  the  campus."    Of  teen-agers  it  reflects  the  man- 
ner in  which  they  entice  the  youth.    It  says : 

Young  people  of  high-school  age  like  to  get  together  and  have  a  good  time.  They 
like  to  dance,  to  sing,  to  go  on  hikes,  to  dress  up  Saturday  nights,  to  see  shows,  to 
participate  in  sports.  *  *  *  AYD  meets  this  problem  directly.  To  put  it 
as  simply  as  it  actually  is,  AYD  provides  a  home  for  teen-agers. 

Then  the  document  elaborates  on  some  of  the  accomplishments  of 
these  teen-agers  under  the  AYD  tutelage,  and  they  include  joining 
strikes  on  the  picket  line  and  in  other  ways.  It  says  they  "forced  the 
superintendent  of  schools  (Milwaukee)  to  withdraw  his  ban  on  Negro 
teachers,"  and  their  "brilliant  fight  for  minority  rights  put  a  crimp  in 
police  brutality  to  Mexican  and  Negro  youth"  (in  California).  They 
brag  in  other  documents  of  having  a  part  in  three  recent  agitational 
marches  on  Albany,  N.  Y.,  and  Washington,  D.  C. 

American  Youth  for  Democracy  hides  its  communism  behind  sugar- 
coated  slogans  and  appeals.  Its  constitution  states  that  "any  10  youths 
may  apply  for  a  charter,"  and  that  the  national  council  is  autHorized 
to  issue  such  charter,  if  it  desires  to  do  so ;  but  that  the  same  national 
council,  having  complete  authority  over  the  organization,  may  at  any 
time  cancel  a  charter  of  a  local  or  expel  any  member  of  the  organiza- 
tion, if  it  is  found  that  the  members  of  the  local  or  an  individual  has 
acted  "against  the  principles  or  general  welfare  of  the  organization." 
The  national  council  also  has  the  power  under  the  AYD  constitution 
to  formulate  the  "policies  and  program,"  and  to  order  solidarity  with 
other  groups.  This  was  the  exact  set-up  of  its  predecessor,  the  Young 
Communist  League,  and  it  is  the  present  set-up  of  the  Communist 
Party  and  all  other  Ked  fronts  in  the  United  States  of  America. 

Likewise  the  "policies  and  program  of  action"  of  the  AYD  conform 
constantly  with  the  Communist  Party  line,  as  did  the  Young  Com- 
munist League.  A  study  of  the  present  policies  and  program  of  the 
AYD  shows  that  it  is  in  complete  conformity  with  the  present-day 
Communist  Party  line,  even  to  an  all-out  defense  of  the  so-called 
"rights"  of  the  Communist  Party  of  Russia  and  of  party  leaders.  A 
letter  written  by  Leon  Wofsy,  official  of  the  State  of  New  York  section 
of  AYD  (March  10,  1947) ,  says,  in  part : 

AYD  is  proud  to  state,  at  a  time  when  anticommunism  is  the  major  instrument 
of  reaction  in  our  country,  that  we  subscribe  without  reservation  to  the  full  and 
equal  citizenship  of  Communists  with  all  democrats.  Liberals  in  our  country 
cannot  pussyfoot  about  the  rights  of  Communists.  *  *  *  The  Communists 
who  are  among  those  elected  to  leadership  (of  AYD)  are  there  because  they 
have  proven  their  worth.  *  *  *  AYD  was  born  in  the  midst  of  the  anti- 
Fascist  war.  Its  founders,  Communists  and  non-Communists  alike,  learned  the 
world-wide  lesson  of  unity.  *  *  *  rj-^Q  initiative  of  the  Young  Communist 
League  in  dissolving  its  ov.n  organization  and  in  helping  bring  together  many  non- 
Communist  (f routers)  youth  leaders  from  imions,  student  organizations,  and 
youth  councils  must  be  judged  by  its  merits.     *     *     * 

Outstanding  examples  of  how  the  AYD  line  has  changed  in  con- 
formity with  the  Soviet  and  (American)  Communist  Party  lines  were 
the  changes  in  name  of  the  YCL  to  AYD  at  the  outbreak  of  the  war, 
of  the  Communist  Party  to  the  Commimist  Political  Association  in  the 
United  States,  and  of  the  Communist  International  to  its  separate 
internationals  under  the  misnomer  Internationals  Against  Fascism 
and  for  Democracy. 


74  TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE 

AYD  demanded  an  "immediate  second  front"  after  the  fall-out  be- 
tween Stalin  and  Hitler,  prior  to  which  the  leaders  of  this  movement 
were  protesting  against  war  and  for  peace  in  the  United  States  of 
America.  After  the  war  the  AYD  went  on  immediate  record  against 
military  training  for  the  United  States,  while  condoning  it  for  Russia 
and  its  satellites.  It  launched  out  in  an  immediate  campaign  reaching 
even  into  our  armed  forces  for  the  "immediate  return  of  American 
troops  from  the  Far  East"  and  for  the  discontinuance  of  aid  to  the 
Chinese  Central  Government.  It,  like  the  American  Communists  and 
Russia,  began  to  try  to  smear  General  MacArthur's  administration  of 
the  Far  East,  charging  that  he  was  a  "collaborator  of  Hirohito"  and 
with  "Philippine  Fascists."  It  charged  that  President  Truman,  Sec- 
retary of  State  Byrnes,  and  Senator  Vandenberg  were  seeking  to  place 
the  United  States  in  the  position  of  a  "dictator  among  nations" ;  that 
the  "Wall  Street  influence  behind  them"  is  seeking  another  war,  and 
that  this  is  the  "pattern  of  imperialism  that  brought  forth  fascism 
and  war."  It  charges  that  "economic  royalists  want  us  to  hate  the 
Soviet  Union  because  it  is  carrying  on  the  fight  against  fascism, 
principles  for  which  the  war  was  fought,"  It  demands  "stop  the 
draft,"  "defeat  military  training,"  "stop  imperialist  interference  with 
democratic  movements  in  China,  Philippines,  and  Europe,  and  expan- 
sionist bases  in  Latin  and  South  America."  It  demanded  "stop 
Byrnes-Bevin  gang-up  against  the  U.  S.  S.  R."  These  are  but  a 
handful  of  its  pro-Soviet  and  Communist  demands,  which  are  but 
echoes  from  Moscow  and  from  New  York  headquarters  of  the  Com- 
munist Party,  the  stooge  in  the  United  States  for  the  Soviet  in  all 
matters. 

It  may  be  apropos  here  to  state  that  one  of  the  foremost  leaders  of 
the  young  Red  movement  has  stated  within  the  past  years  that 
"capitalism  is  synonymous  with  fascism ;  *  *  *  to  stop  war  and 
to  bring  about  democracy  it  is  therefore  necessary  to  fight  capitalism" 
(Russia  is  described  as  a  "democracy").  Here  one  has  the  pattern 
under  which  the  the  Reds  and  their  fronters  can  and  do  smear  and 
undermine  and  attack  all  anti-Communists  or  believers  in  capitalism 
(our  form  of  government)  as  "Fascists,"  and  carry  on  their  battle  for 
communism  under  the  banner  of  "antifascism  and  democracy." 

AYD  has  issued  several  organs,  and  it  has  a  budget  of  $35,000  annu- 
ally. Its  expenditures  were  reported  to  have  been  $26,940  for  the 
year  ending  June  1946.  Its  publications  have  included  Spotlight, 
AYD  News,  Teen  Ager,  AYD  News  Letter,  AYD  in  Action,  and  thou- 
sands of  cheap  pamphlets  and  leaflets,  all  printed  in  New  York  City  by 
known  printer  of  Communist  Party  propaganda.  The  principal 
organ  of  AYD  is  known  currently  as  Youth. 

A  recent  issue  of  the  official  Communist  publication.  Political  Af- 
fairs, now  edited  by  Max  Weiss,  features  a  statement  by  Marvin  Shaw, 
entitled  "The  Reawakening  of  the  American  Student  Movement,"  in 
which  American  Youth  for  Democracy  is  identified  as  "the  major 
progressive  student  organization."  The  writer  states  that  "the  Com- 
munist clubs  on  the  campus  must  become  increasingly  active.  *  *  * 
They  have  a  role  in  the  immediate  student  struggles  that  no  other 
organization  can  fulfill." 

Besides  the  AYD  campus  and  off-campus  clubs,  operating  under 
various  names,  and  in  many  instances  hiding  the  parent  name,  AYD, 


TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE  75 

are  teen-age  clubs,  adult  clubs,  sweethearts  of  servicemen's  clubs,  and 
the  American  youth  orchestra.  The  latter  was  organized  in  1932  by 
the  Red  youth,  and  it  made  its  debut  in  Carnegie  Hall  in  New  York 
City. 

AYD  locals  are  usually  called  youth  clubs,  and  many  unsuspecting 
youth  are  thus  enticed  into  joining,  unaware  that  the  clubs  are  under 
direct  Communist  control.  Among  the  branches  operating  in  New 
York  City  are  the  Hunts  Point  Youth  Club,  Bataan  Youth  Club,  Roos- 
evelt Youth  Club,  Clarity  Youth  Club,  Action  Youth  Club,  Art  Action 
Youth  Club,  Challente  Youth  Club,  AVallace  Youth  Club,  Parkches- 
ter  Youth  Club,  and  Allerton  Temple  Youth  Club.  Other  Red  out- 
fits maintaining  youth  sections  and  cooperating  with  the  AYD  are  the 
IWO,  Young  America  Institute,  Nature  Friends,  and  Southern  Negro 
Youth  Congress.  The  AYD  also  cooperates  with  the  Inter-Racial 
Friendship  Committee.  It  promotes  Youth  Citizen  Pilgrimages  and 
Youth  Legislatures. 

The  current  AYD  program  to  bait  new  members  and  to  hide  its 
subversiveness,  includes  the  collecting  of  75,000  signatures  to  raise 
student  veteran  subsistence,  opposition  to  Jim  Crowism  in  league  base- 
ball, for  sending  relief  to  European  anti-Fascist  youth,  opposition  ta 
military  conscription,  defending  academic  freedom,  "standing  with 
labor  in  its  resolution  to  defeat  the  212  pending  antilabor  bills,"  and 
for  "freedom,  jobs,  and  peace  for  youth." 

At  an  AYD  parley  held  in  New  York  several  weeks  ago,  it  was  an- 
nounced that  since  youth  "faces  new  and  urgent  problems,"  and  since 
"youth  is  being  invited  to  fight  a  new  war,  not  for  democracy  and 
liberation,  but  for  conquest  for  the  sake  of  empire  and  profit  for  those 
who  want  an  American  century,"  the  AYD  was  instructed  to  set  up  a 
stronger  force  to  combat  the  "war  mongers  and  labor  baiters."  A 
delegation  composed  of  15  members  of  the  AYD  immediately  came  to 
Washington,  calling  on  Members  of  Congress  to  support  the  organi- 
zation's demands. 

A  mimeographed  report  to  State  secretaries  of  the  AYD,  issued 
January  8,  1946,  calling  for  a  membership  drive,  reported  that  in  a 
previous  2-week  enrollment  drive.  New  York  City  had  828  reenroll; 
Illinois,  203;  California,  299;  Maryland,  26;  Washington,  D.  C,  5; 
Ohio,  33 ;  eastern  Pennsylvania,  53 ;  Massachusetts,  12 ;  Missouri,  18 ; 
and  Michigan,  59.  The  report  pointed  to  the  fact  that  in  every  State 
there  were  from  30  to  2,000  members  who  should  be  reenrolled. 

The  following  officers  and  council  members  were  elected  at  the  June 
1946  convention  of  the  AYD : 

National  Officers 

Cochairmen :  Winifred  Norman,  Vincent  Fieri. 

Vice  chairmen :  Louis  Burnliam,  Mayer  Frieden,  John  Gallo,  Frances  Gullotta, 
Ruth  Jett,  Mollie  Lieber. 

Executive  secretary :  Herbert  Signer. 
Secretary-treasurer :  Julie  Lowitt. 
Education  and  teen-age  director :  Vivian  Levin. 
Intercollegiate  director :  Lee  Marsh. 

Nationai.  Council  Members 

Michigan:  Abel  Lee  Smith,  Anabel  Barahal,  Rolf  Cahn,  Johnny  Gallo,  Erma 
Henderson  (State  president).  Bob  Purdy,  Phil  Schatz,  Robert  Oummings  (State 
secretary). 


76  TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE 

New  Jersey:  Douglas  Barrett,  Evelyn  Gordon,  "Willie  Mae  Gordon,  Mary 
Adanatzias  (director,  Essex  County). 

New  York  State:  Leo  Rifkin,  Warren  Brown,  Paul  Robeson,  Jr.,  Joe  Buckholt, 
Henry  Cooperstock,  Roslyn  Emerine,  Ann  Johnston,  Bob  Kaufman,  Buelah 
Kramer,  Burl  Michelson,  Herb  Nalibow,  Teddy  Schwartz,  Fitz  Squires,  Bill  Villa, 
Rose  Stamler  (cliairman.  New  York  intercollegiate  section). 

Massachusetts  :  Barbara  Bennet,  Ruby  Flum,  Ginny  Kougias,  Bob  McCarthy. 

Wisconsin  :  Rubel  Lucero. 

California:  Bob  Zakow,  Chuck  Bruck,  Ralph  Johnson,  Vicki  Landish,  Henry 
Leland,  Elaine  Rose,  Betty  McCandless,  (chairman,  Lms  Angeles  Youth  Council). 

Illinois:  Iz  Cheifetz,  Evelyn  Fargo,  Sam  Freidman,  Delores  Gerrard,  Leon 
Gurley,  Pat  Hoverder.  Vernon  Jarret. 

Pennsylvania:  Werner  Marx,  Harry  Dubin,  Cynthia  Isenberg,  Marcella  Sloan, 
Lauren  Taylor,  Leon  Weiner. 

Washington  State :  Cyril  Guis. 

Maryland :  Whitey  Goodfriend,  Wallace  Jefferson. 

Ohio :  Frank  Hashmall,  Marvin  Lukin,  Nathan  Marks,  Catherine  McCastee. 

Minnesota  :  Alma  He.ster. 

Connecticut :  Al  Marder. 

District  of  Columbia  :  Mary  Willoughby. 

Missouri :  Ray  Wolverson. 

Speakers  at  this  convention  of  the  AYD  included  Harry  F.  Ward, 
cochairman,  Civil  Rights  Congress ;  Kenneth  Kennedy,  national  com- 
mander, United  Negro  and  Allied  Veterans ;  MoUie  Lieber,  Carl  Ross, 
and  Herb  Signer.  Addresses  were  also  delivered  by  Luis  Mas  Martin 
delegate  of  the  Socialist  Youth  of  Cuba ;  Bill  Stewart,  delegate  of  the 
Federation  of  Labor  Youth  of  Canada ;  and  Nada  Krieger  of  Yugo- 
slavia. 

National  headquarters  of  AYD  are  located  at  150  Nassau  Street,  New 
York,  N.  Y.  Addresses  of  other  sections  (incomplete)  are:  216  Mar- 
ket Street,  San  Francisco ;  318  Eighth  Street,  San  Jose ;  1201  South 
Alvarado  Street,  Los  Angeles;  and  2321  Fifteenth  Place  SE.,  Wash- 
ington, D.  C. 

The  following  are  a  few  of  the  local  leaders :  Barbara  Gould,  mem- 
bership director,  San  Francisco;  Kenneth  Van  Leuven,  membership 
director,  Los  Angeles;  Evelyn  Fargo,  Illinois  State  director;  Erma 
Henderson,  chairman,  Michigan ;  Bob  Cunningham,  secretary.  Michi- 
gan;  Phil  Shatz,  membership  director,  Michigan;  Douglas  Barrett, 
chairman.  New  Jersey;  Clare  Hunt,  executive  director.  New  Jersey; 
Alma  Hester,  executive  director,  Minnesota;  Sam  Cohen,  director, 
Philadelphia;  Jacqueline  Winibish,  membership  director,  Detroit; 
Henry  Leland,  county  organizer,  Santa  Clara  County,  Calif.;  Betty 
McCandless,  chairman,  Los  Angeles  Youth  Council ;  Mary  Adanatzian, 
director,  Essex  County,  N.  J.;  Mrs.  Bob  Mason,  membership  director, 
Montclair,  N.  J.,  Youth  Adult  Club;  Harriet  Ratner,  director,  Mich- 
igan Youth  for  Democratic  Action  (affiliate  of  AYD)  ;  Leon  Straus, 
chairman;  Everett  Thomas,  vice  chairman;  Frances  Galotta,  vice 
cliairman;  Dez  Gallon,  vice  chairman;  Marty  Mellman,  treasurer; 
Harry  Rosen,  organizing  secretary;  Leon  Wofsy,  executive  secre- 
tary, and  Rose  Stamler,  chairman  intercollegiate  section,  New  York; 
Muriel  Wildman,  secretary,  Washington-Oregon  region  (also  a  mem- 
ber of  the  executive  committee  of  the  Washington  Commonwealth 
Federation). 

State  and  regional  offices  and  heads  of  the  AYD  are :  Lauren  Taylor, 
401  South  Twenty-second  Street,  Philadelphia;  Adeline  Kolin.  1442 
Griswold  Street,  "Detroit;  Pauli  Annoni,  201  North  Negley,  Pitts- 
burgh ;  Celeste  Strack,  593  Market  Street,  San  Francisco ;  Herb  Signer, 


TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE  77 

116  West  Jackson  Street,  Chicaoo;  Selma  Weiss,  10  East  Lexington 
Street,  Baltimore;  Daisy  Lolich,  750  Prospect  Street,  Cleveland; 
Jack  Epstein,  87  Orange  Street,  New  Haven ;  Jim  West,  225  Halsey, 
Newai  k ;  and  Lil  Koss,  13  Astor  Place,  New  York,  N.  Y. 

Additional  leaders  and  section  heads  are :  Mrs.  Kelley  Mink,  Seattle; 
L/eo  Kaplan,  chairman  State  intercollegiate  section,  Boulder,  Colo.; 
Harry  Zepelin,  State  secretary,  Tom  Paine  Club,  Boulder,  Colo.; 
Irving  Sverdlow,  president,  Tom  Paine  Club,  New  York;  Naomi 
Baker,  chairman,  Brooklyn  College  Club,  New  York;  Ruth  Maurice, 
chairman,  Hunter  College  section,  New  York;  Mrs.  Ellie  Hendrickson, 
organizer,  Everett,  Wash.;  Camille  Schweiger,  secretary,  Washington, 
D.  C.  ,*Mary  Lou  McEvers,  executive  secretary.  University  of  Wash- 
ington unit ;  Robert  Cummins,  executive  secretary,  Detroit. 

Officers  for  California  elected  at  the  AYD  conference  which  was 
held  in  Los  Angeles  in  July  1945  were:  Jeanette  Salve,  chairman; 
Meyer  Frieden,  executive  secretary;  Lee  Herendeen,  secretary-treas- 
urer ;  Gene  Gardner,  vice  chairman  of  the  college  division  •  Nina  Acker- 
man  of  Mrs.  GI ;  Robert  Zakon  of  the  Teen  Agers;  and  Suzanne  Sher 
of  Young  Adults.  Miscellaneous  members  and  leaders  in  California 
are:  Rosabelle  Tragin  (Hollywood  AYD  and  CIO  United  Office  and 
Professional  Workers'  Union),  chairman  AYD  Conference  on  Jobs 
and  Youth,  San  Francisco,  Octobsr  21,  1945;  Art  Pearl  and  Margaret 
Norie  (man  and  wife),  leaders  of  the  University  of  California  AYD 
Club  in  1946;  Charles  and  Sophie  Keller,  West  Oakland  AYD  Club; 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Rosco  Proctor,  and  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Mike  Dorsey,  leaders 
in  the  Coronices  Village  AYD  Club  in  Berkeley,  Calif. ;  Barbara  Gould 
(stenographer  of  the  interational  offices  of  the  ILWU,  and  social  di- 
rector of  the  AYD  Maritime  Club  in  San  Francisco),  wife  of  Dow 
Wilson  of  the  NMU,  leading  member  of  the  club ;  Donald  Weiss,  chair- 
man of  the  Unity  Club  of  AYD,  Los  Angeles ;  Elaine  Rose,  northern 
California  coordinator  of  AYD ;  Bill  Lowe,  northern  vice  chairman  of 
AYD  and  teen  age  director  in  the  Negro  community  in  Berkeley; 
Jeanette  Salve,  southern  vice  chairman  and  head  of  Los  Angeles  execu- 
tive board  of  the  AYD;  Reeva  Olson,  San  Francisco  AYD  secretary; 
Vicki  Landish,  student  secretary  of  AYD  in  Los  Angeles;  Howard 
Rose,  State  veterans'  director  of  AYD  in  California  in  1945;  Julia 
Spector,  Berkeley  secretary  of  AYD ;  Betty  Blake,  member  California 
State  Council  of  AYD;  Phil  Schatz,  national  education  director  of 
AYD  in  1945 ;  Bonnie  Gandlaush,  led  AYD  modern  dance  group  on  the 
University  of  California  campus ;  Betty  Green,  a  member  of  the  Na- 
tional Council  of  AYD  and  chairman  of  the  San  Francisco  organizing 
committee  in  1944,  an  active  leader  in  the  Young  Democrats  of  Cali- 
fornia, and  the  wife  of  Robert  Miller  Green,  former  member  of  the 
California  State  Legislature  and  now  a  member  of  the  San  Francisco 
Board  of  Supervisors. 

The  AYD  follows  the  Communist  Party-line  in  all  matters,  from 
carrj'ing  on  a  fight  against  so-called  Red  baiting  to  supporting  the  en- 
tire foreign  policy  of  the  Soviet  Union.  It  took  up  the  cudgel  against 
Argentina,  as  did  the  Communists,  and  it  demanded  that  the  United 
States  get  out  of  China.  It  supports  the  guerilla  forces  of  the  Philip- 
pines, and  it  advocates  the  Communist  stand  regarding  Korea.  It  has 
recruited  student  aid  for  Tito's  rebuilding  program,  and  it  has  echoed 
the  Communist  demands  on  Greece.     The  seeds  of  Marxism  are  being 


78  TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE 

sown  in  a  vital  spot — our  educational  institutions  and  among  our  youth 
whose  knowledge  of  the  principles  of  our  own  Government  has  in 
many  instances  been  neglected,  and  to  whom  falls  the  responsibility  for 
the  future  of  our  great  land. 

At  this  point,  I  wish  to  submit  to  the  committee  various  exhibits, 
including  the  constitution  of  the  AYD,  as  originally  adopted,  and 
which  I  believe  has  not  been  amended.  I  am  also  submitting  a  chart 
showing  the  connections  its  leaders  have  had  in  the  past  with  the  Young 
Communist  League,  and  the  minutes  of  a  meeting  of  the  AYD  na- 
tional board  in  which  is  listed  its  regional  headquarters  and  leaders. 

(Exhibits  26,  27,  and  28  were  received.)  " 

The  Teen  Age  Art  Club  in  Los  Angeles  is  a  branch  of  the  AYJ).  It 
held  an  art  exhibit  in  June  at  the  Los  Angeles  Museum.  Marty  Lub- 
ner,  chairmaii  of  the  AYD  in  that  city,  was  in  charge  of  the  exhibit. 

The  Citizens'  Committee  on  Academic  Freedom  has  been  organized 
in  New  York  to  defend  the  AYD  against  possible  barring  from  the 
campus  of  city  and  State  educational  institutions.  Stanley  M.  Isaacs 
is  chairman  of  the  committee,  and  Genevieve  Earle  and  Harold  Lenz 
are  members. 

The  AYD  is  currently  promoting  a  petition  campaign  in  opposition 
to  military  training  legislation.  The  petitions  being  circulated  are 
in  the  form  of  ballots.  These  are  being  distributed  at  summer  schools, 
beaches,  bowling  alleys,  poolrooms,  employment  agencies,  union  meet- 
ings, factory  gates,  youth  gatherings,  and  summer  camps. 

I  will  now  discuss  another  prominent  youth  organization — American 
Youth  for  a  Free  World,  apparently  the  successor  of  the  American 
Youth  Congress.  American  Youth  for  a  Free  World  was  organized 
in  1942,  shortly  after  the  breaking  up  of  the  (Communist)  American 
Youth  Congress.  It  is  a  coalition  of  Communist  and  left-wing  youth 
movements,  including  the  Southern  Negro  Youth  Congress  (Com- 
munist), American  Youth  for  Democracy  (Communist),  American 
Communications  Association  (CIO),  National  Maritime  Union 
(CIO),  United  Office  and  Professional  Workers  of  America  (CIO), 
Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  (CIO) ,  and  the  National  Association 
for  the  Advancement  of  Colored  People.  The  majority  of  the  lesser 
leftist  movements  affiliating  with  American  Youth  for  a  Free  ^Yorld, 
among  them  the  Business  and  Professional  Council  of  the  YWCA, 
the  Industrial  Council  of  the  YWCA,  both  of  which  have  consistently 
sent  delegates  to  Red  front  youth  gatherings;  Junior  Hadassah, 
Young  Women's  Zionist  Organization  of  America,  American  Uni- 
tarian Youth,  Young  People's  League  of  the  United  Synagogue  of 
America,  Austro-American  Youth  Council,  Armenian  Youth  of 
America,  Czechoslovak  National  Union  of  Students,  and  the  Nazarene 
Youth  People's  Society,  were  previously  affiliated  with  the  Red's 
American  Youth  Congress. 

Officers  of  American  Youth  for  a  Free  World  and  its  delegates 
participated  in  the  World  Youth  Congress,  held  in  Paris  in  1945. 
The  congress  was  almost  completely  dominated  by  Communists.  On 
the  occasion  of  the  third  meeting  of  the  Soviet  Youth  Anti-Fascist 
Committee  in  Moscow,  American  Youth  for  a  Free  World  jDresented 
a  scroll  of  greetings  from  the  American  youth  organizations  to  the 
youth  of  the  Soviet  Union.    It  is  an  affiliate  of  the  World  Youth 

*"  See  appendix,  p.  174,  for  exhibits  26  to  2S. 


TESTIMONY  OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE  79 

Council,  established  at  the  International  Youth  Conference  held  in 
London  in  1942,  and  also  of  the  World  Federation  of  Democratic 
Youth,  established  at  a  youth  congress  held  in  London  in  Novem- 
ber 1945. 

(Exhibit  No.  29  was  received.) ^'^ 

Mr.  Steeijl.  AYFW,  with  headquarters  at  144  Bleecker  Street,  New 
York,  N.  Y.,  has  sections  all  over  the  country — Boston,  Richmond, 
Miami,  Detroit,  Chicago,  Seattle,  Los  Angeles,  Houston,  and  in  all 
principal  cities  and  towns  in  the  United  States.  Oflicers  are  Martha 
H.  Fletcher,  chairman  of  the  International  Commission  of  American 
Youth  for  a  Free  World ;  Beatrice  E.  Allen,  national  chairman ;  Joseph 
E.  Engel,  treasurer;  Frances  Damon,  executive  secretary,  a  delegate 
to  the  recent  World  Youth  Congress. 

The  World  Youth  Council,  of  which  the  AYFW  is  also  an  affiliate, 
has  headquarters  in  the  Grand  Building,  Trafalgar  Square,  London, 
England.  Vaclaw  Palecek,  pro-Communist  Czechoslovakian,  was 
international  chairman  of  the  council.  In  1943  he  toured  the  United 
States,  addressing  youth  groups  in  New  York,  Washington,  D.  C, 
Boston,  Buffalo.  Pittsburgh,  Cleveland,  Detroit,  Chicago,  Indianap- 
olis, St.  Louis.  Kansas  City,  Salt  Lake  City,  Seattle,  San  Francisco, 
Los  Angeles,  Hollywood,  Houston,  and  New  Orleans.  He  also  visited 
Toronto,  Canada.  He  directed  167  discussion  conferences  in  the 
United  States  with  youth-movement  leaders.  Among  those  whom  he 
directly  contacted  were  Ruth  Jett,  at  the  time  chairman  of  the  South- 
ern Negro  Youth  Congress ;  Winifred  Norman,  then  chairman  of  the 
National  Council  of  Negro  Youth  (Red  front)  ;  and  Frances -Damon, 
of  American  Youth  for  a  Free  World. 

Youth  conferences  were  also  held  in  Mexico  and  other  South  Ameri- 
can countries.  The  Mexican  conference  was  greeted  by  Maj.  Gen. 
Eugene  Fedorov,  president  of  the  Soviet  Youth  Anti-Fascist  Commit- 
tee, an  affiliate  of  the  World  Youth  Council.  Frances  Damon  and 
Martha  Fletcher  of  the  American  Youth  for  a  Free  World  attended 
the  Mexican  conference. 

AYFW,  while  an  affdiate  of  the  World  Youth  Council,  was  also  a 
section  of  the  American  Free  World  Association,  the  adult  organiza- 
tion headed  by  ]\Irs.  J.  Borden  Harriman,  and  the  International  Free 
World  Association,  of  which  J.  Alvarez  del  Vayo  is  executive  director ; 
Louis  Dolovet,  general  secretary ;  Frederick  C.  McKee,  treasurer ;  and 
Orson  Welles,  delegate. 

At  the  time  these  conferences  were  being  held  plans  were  being  made 
for  a  world  youth  conference  to  be  held  in  London  at  a  later  date.  In 
1943  AYI*\V  held  a  convention  with  representatives  of  the  following 
organizations  in  attendance:  National  Council  of  American-Soviet 
Friendship  (youth  committee),  American  Unitarian  Youth,  Arme- 
mian  Youth  of  American,  Austro- American  Youth  Council,  Czechoslo- 
vakian National  Council  of  America,  Free  World  Association,  Girls' 
Friendly  Society,  Hillel  Foundation,  International  Fur  and  Leather 
Workers'  Union  (CIO),  Junior  Hadassah,  National  Council  of  Negro 
Youth,  National  Federation  of  Settlements,  National  Maritime  Union 
(CIO),  Nature  Friends,  Slovak  Gymnatic  Union  Sokel,  Southern 
Negro  Youth  Congi-ess,  United  States   Student   Assembly,   United 

"  See  appendix,  p.  175,  for  exhibit  29. 
65176 — 47 6 


80  TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE 

Office  nnd  Professional  Workers  of  America  (CIO),  YAVCA,  and 
Youth  Builders,  Inc.  Harriet  Ida  Pickens  served  as  chairman  of  the 
conference  and  Frances  Damon  as  executive  secretary.  Miss  Pickens 
has  been  active  in  Communist  ranks  for  several  years. 

In  the  meantime  the  World  Youth  Council  promoted  similar  con- 
ferences in  various  European  countries.  These  resulted  in  the  forma- 
tion of  the  United  League  of  Anti-Fascist  Youth  of  Serka,  the  United 
Lea^Tie  of  Anti-Fascist  Youth  of  Yugoslavia,  the  Finnish  Democratic 
Youth  Association,  the  Association  of  Democratic  Youth  of  Hungary, 
the  Fronte  della  Gioventu  of  Italy,  the  United  Youth  Movement  of 
Jamaica,  the  Panama  Federation  of  Students,  the  Forces  Unies  de  la 
Jeunnesse  Patriotique  (FUJP)  of  France,  the  Anglo-Soviet  Youth 
Friendship  Alliance  of  England,  the  New  Zealand  Federation  of 
Young  Peoi)le's  Clubs,  Cultural  Youth  Committee  of  Bulgaria,  United 
Anti-Fascist  Youth  of  Yugoslavia,  the  Canadian  Youth  Committee, 
Union  of  Youth  of  Tunis,  and  other  youth  groups. 

It  was  about  this  time  that  Moscow  antl  its  field  forces  moved  in 
and  took  over  the  leadership  of  these  groups.  In  November  1944:  a 
board  meeting  of  the  AYD  was  held  in  New  York  City.  At  that  time 
the  following  resolution  was  adopted : 

We  should  cooperate  closely  with  the  American  Youth  for  a  Free  World  and 
the  World  Youth  Council  of  London,  particularly  in  their  plans  for  World  Youth 
Week  in  March  (1945)  and  other  activities  which  will  undoubtedly  culminate  in 
the  participation  of  an  American  delegation  in  a  World  Youth  Conference  next 
year  (1945). 

AYFW  later  announced  that  it  had  received  a  call  to  the  World 
Youth  Conference  in  January  1945,  and  it  accordingly  held  a  meeting 
of  representatives  of  the  youth  movements  of  the  United  States  at 
which  was  set  up  a  United  States  arrangements  committee  for  the 
World  Youth  Conference.  The  conference  was  held  in  London  in 
November  1945.  The  members  of  the  arrangements  committee  in  turn 
elected  delegates  to  the  conference.  The  delegates  included  Meyer 
Bass  of  New  York  City ;  Gloster  Current  of  New  York  City ;  Naomi 
Chertoff  of  New  York  City ;  Frances  Damon  of  New  York  City ;  Law- 
rence Day  of  Washington.  D.  C. ;  Joseph  Engel,  New  York  City ;  Elsa 
Graves,  Long  Island;  Elizabeth  Green,  Boston;  Alice  Horton,  New 
York  City ;  Muriel  Jacobson,  New  York  City ;  Esther  Cooper,  Jackson, 
Ala.;  Russell  Jones,  New  York  City;  MoUie  Lieber;  Alexander 
Mapp;  Lempir  Matthews;  Elizabeth  McCandless;  Thomas  Neill; 
Ann  Postma;  Doris  Senk;  and  Olivia  Stokes.  Frank  Sinatra  is  cred- 
ited by  them  with  having  assisted  in  raising  funds  to  help  defray  the 
expenses  of  the  delegates  to  the  world  conference. 

The  American  delegates  were  given  special  conference  training  be- 
fore leaving  for  the  conference.  In  this  respect  they  were  addressed 
by  Senator  Pepper,  Congresswoman  Emily  Taft  Douglas,  Dr.  Bryn 
Hoode  (then  Chief  of  the  Cultural  Cooperation  Division  of  the  State 
Department),  Vladimir  Hurtan  ( Czechoslovakian  Ambassador),  Dr. 
Frank  Kingdon,  and  others. 

The  World  Youth  Conference  demanded  a  youth-rights  charter, 
the  right  of  self-determination  for  colonial  and  semicolonial  peoples, 
loans,  and  other  aid  for  Europe;  vote  for  18-year-olds,  the  right  of 
labor  to  organize,  civil  liberties  for  colored  people,  and  freedom  of 
speech.    It  opposed  United  States  control  of  atom-bomb  secrets. 


TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE  81 

Throughout  the  conference  the  American  delegates  expressed  the 
•hope  that  from  the  conference  might  come  a  "stronger  and  more  effec- 
tive world-youth  organization,  utilizing  the  organizational  experience 
and  contacts  of  the  World  Youth  Council,  in  which  a  broader  repre- 
sentative group  of  democratic  youth  organizations  may  find  a  basis 
for  action  on  common  concern."  A  constitutional  draft  commission 
was  set  up  for  this  purpose.  Alice  Horton  of  the  United  States  stu- 
dent assembly  represented  the  American  delegation  on  this  com- 
mission. 

Out  of  the  commission  was  born  the  World  Federation  of  Demo- 
cratic Youth,  with  international  headquarters  temporarily  located  in 
London.  They  were  later  transferred  to  Paris  in  order  that  the  group 
might  establish  closer  relations  with  the  two  other  Red  internationals, 
the  World  Federation  of  Trade  Unions,  and  the  International  Demo- 
cratic Women's  Federation. 

The  following  were  elected  officers  of  the  World  Federation  of 
Democratic  Youth:  International  president,  Guy  de  Boisson  (French 
Communist)  ;  vice  chairmen,  Elsa  Graves  (CIO  United  Workers' 
Union),  Nikolai  Mikhailov  (Russian  Communist),  Penery  Jones 
(Great  Britain),  and  C.  Z.  Chen  (China)  ;  treasurer,  Frances  Damon 
(United  States);  secretaries,  Herbert  Williams  (Australia),  Svend 
Beyer  Pederson  (Denmark),  and  Kutty  Hookham  (Great  Britain). 
Council  members  from  the  United  States  were  Naomi  Chertoff  (Junior 
Hadassah),  Esther  Cooper  (Southern  Negro  Youth  Congress), 
Frances  Damon  (American  Youth  for  a  Free  World),  Elsa  Graves, 
Russell  Jones  (National  Intercollegiate  Christian  Council),  Thomas 
Neill  (CIO  United  Electrical,  Radio  and  Machine  Workers'  Union). 
Temporary  members  of  the  council:  Alice  Horton  (United  States 
Student  Assembly)  and  Gloster  Current  (National  Association  for 
Advancement  of  Colored  People.  Members  at  large:  Stefan  Ignar 
(Poland),  Slavko  Komar  (Yugoslavia),  Chen  Chia-Kang  (China), 
Ignacio  Gaillego  (Spain,  Loyalist),  Jiri  Hajek  (Czechoslovakia),  S. 
Sylver  (north  Africa),  Kitti  Boomla  (India),  and  Manuel  Popoca 
(Mexico) .  Adult  committee  included :  Vaclav  Palecek,  E.  Goldstucke 
(Czechoslovakia),  Snoh  Tanbunyuen  (Siam),  and  Margot  Gale 
(Great  Britain). 

Yugoslavia  sent  13  delegates  to  the  conference,  headed  by  the  Young 
Communist  League  leader,  Crozdana  Belie.  The  U.  S.  S.  R.  sent  25 
delegates ;  the  Ukraine,  10  delegates,  headed  by  Valentin  Klochko  and 
Vassili  Kostenko,  of  the  Young  Communist  League;  Sweden,  8  dele- 
gates, including  Knut  Olsson,  of  the  Communist  Youth  League^ 
Poland,  20  delegates,  with  R.  Obraczka,  president  of  the  Union  of 
Socialist  Youth;  Norway,  11  delegates,  led  by  R.  Halverson,  of  the 
Cotnmunist  Youth  Association;  Lithuania,  5  delegates,  including  B. 
Lopato,  of  the  Young  Communist  League;  Latvia,  5  delegates,  among 
whom  was  I.'Pinksis,  of  the  Young  Communist  League;  Estonia,  5 
delegates,  with  A.  Meri,  of  the  Young  Communist  League;  Cuba,  7 
delegates,  led  by  A.  Dou  and  W.  Hernandez,  of  the  youth  section 
of  the  Cuban  Revolutionary  Party ;  and  J.  Cravalosa,  of  the  Young 
Workers  of  Cuba.  A  survey  of  the  delegates  indicates  that  there  were 
not  a  sufficient  number  of  anti-Communists  among  tliem  to  vote  down 
any  pro-Communist  or  pro-Soviet  resolutions  if  they  had  desired  to 
do  so. 


82  TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE 

Following  the  conference,  Doris  Senk,  Joseph  Engel,  Muriel  Jacob- 
son,  Olivia  Stokes,  MoUie  Lieber,  and  Larry  Day,  all  American  dele-, 
gates,  visited  the  Soviet  Union.     The  Young  Communists  of  Moscov/ 
tendered  them  a  royal  reception. 

The  World  Federation  of  Democratic  Youth  publishes  a  magazine 
called  World  Youth  in  four  languages — Russian,  French,  Spanish, 
and  English.  The  headquarters  of  the  organization  are  now  located 
at  21  Bis,  rue  de  Chateaudun,  Paris,  France. 

It  has  been  announced  that  great  preparations  are  being  made  for 
a  world  youth  festival  to  be  held  in  Prague  from  July  20  to  August  7 
this  year  (1947).  A  student  division  of  the  United  States  Committee 
for  the  World  Youth  Festival  has  been  set  up,  with  offices  at  the  head- 
quarters of  American  Youth  for  a  Free  World  in  New  York  City. 
The  festival  is  sponsored  by  the  World  Federation  of  Democratic 
Youth,  with  the  cooperation  of  the  International  Union  of  Students, 
through  the  Czechoslovakian  youth  movement. 

(Exhibits  30  to  36  were  received.) ^^ 

Mr.  Steele.  According  to  Progressive  Citizens  of  America  sources, 
the  youth  section  of  that  group,  known  as  Young  Progressive  Citizens 
of  America,  is  sending  Robert  M.  Dunlap  of  Antioch  College  as  a 
delegate  to  the  Prague  gathering.  The  Southern  Congress  of  Negro 
Youth  and  the  Los  Angeles  Youth  Council,  both  affiliates  of  the  World 
Federation  of  Democratic  Youth,  will  send  delegates.  People's  Songs, 
Inc.,  will  be  represented  by  Michael  Scott  and  Ernie  Lieberman. 
George  Walker  will  be  the  delegate  to  the  National  Negro  Congress. 
Rose  Marie  Ellington  will  be  the  delegate  to  the  Southern  Negro 
Youth  Congress.  Among  the  delegates  from  the  west  coast  will  be 
Letitia  Innes  of  the  Los  Angeles  Youth  Project,  Richard  Taylor  of 
the  United  Student  Youth,  Jean  Innes  of  the  Los  Angeles  Youth 
IProject,  Richard  Taylor  of  the  United  Student  Youth,  Jean  Gross, 
Paul  Levine,  and  Jane  Grodzins,  disconnected;  Shirley  Escobar  of 
American  Youth  for  Democracy  (California  section),  Molly  Meuhaus 
(Los  Angeles  student),  Dudley  Kenworthy,  and  Bill  Hoyt,  claiming 
to  represent  the  Los  Angeles  YMCA;  Vince  Pieri,  A  YD  head  in 
Pennsylvania,  will  be  a  delegate.  Wendell  R.  Lipscomb  of  San  Diego, 
wartime  flying  instructor  at  Tuskogee,  Ala.,  and  now  a  student  at 
the  University  of  California,  has  been  selected  the  delegate  of  the 
American  Unitarian  Youth  Congress. 

Young  Reds  are  evidencing  considerable  interest  at  the  present  time 
in  a  comparatively  new  youth  movement,  the  National  Student  Or- 
ganization, which  was  conceived  at  a  congress  of  youth  held  in  Chicago 
late  in  1946.  Jim  Smith,  of  Texas,  is  chairman  of  the  continuation 
committee  of  the  organization  which  is  setting  up  the  permanent 
group. 

Back  in  1944,  the  National  Council  of  American-Soviet  Friend- 
ship set  up  what  was  known  as  the  Committee  of  Women.  The 
chairman  of  this  committee  was  Mrs.  Muriel  Draper,  and  the  vice 
chairman  was  Mrs.  Elinor  S.  Gimbel.  The  committee  held  a  con- 
ference at  tlie  Hotel  Commodore  in  New  York  City  on  November  18, 
1944.  The  occasion  was  billed  as  a  Conference  on  Women  of 
U.  S.  A.  and  the  U.  S.  S.  R.  in  the  postwar  world.  The  Call  an- 
nouncing the  conference  stated,  in  effect,  that  since  the  women  of 

>»  See  appendix,  p.  175,  for  exhibits  30  to  36. 


TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE  83 

the  world  played  such  important  parts  in  the  war,  they  demanded 
to  have  an  equally  important  role  in  the  shaping  of  postwar  economy. 
The  Call  appealed  to  other  women's  organizations  to  send  delegates 
to  the  conference. 

The  signers  of  the  Call  were  Marjorie  Post  Davies  (Mrs.  Joseph 
Davies),  acting  national  honorary  chairman;  and  Muriel  Draper, 
head  of  the  Women's  Coimiiittee,  of  the  National  Council  of  American- 
Soviet  Friendship.  Mrs.  Kuth  W.  Russ,  executive  secretary  of  the 
Women's  Committee,  was  secretary  of  the  conference. 

Three  sessions  of  the  conference  were  held.  Principal  topics  of 
discussion  were  American-Soviet  women's  issues,  and  f)ostwar 
rights  for  women  in  the  United  States.  Speakers  included  Ruth 
Young,  Rose  Schneiderman,  Charlotte  Hawkins  Brown,  Mrs.  LaFell 
Dickinson,  Dr.  Arnold  Gesell,  Mrs.  Sidonie  M.  Gruenberg,  D.  Leona 
Baumgartner,  and  Mrs.  Norman  de  R.  Whitehouse. 

(Exhibit  37  was  received.) ^^ 

Mr.  Steele.  Among  the  sponsors  of  the  conference  were  the  follow- 
ing: Henrietta  Buckmaster,  Mrs.  Bella  Dodd,  Mrs.  Katherine  Earn- 
shaw,  Mrs.  Sidonie  M.  Gruenberg,  Josephine  Timms,  Ruth  Young, 
Muriel  Draper,  Elinor  S.  Gimbel,  Dr.  Charlotte  Hawkins  Brown,  Mrs. 
Sherwood  Anderson,  Mrs.  Mary  McLeod  Bethune,  Mrs.  Jo  David- 
son, Mildred  Fairchild,  Mrs.  Frederick  V.  Field,  Cornelia  Goldsmith, 
Mrs.  Sophie  Gropper,  Mrs.  Sidney  Hillman,  Mrs.  Stanley  Isaacs,  Mrs. 
Julia  Church  Kolar,  Dorothy  Kenyon,  Rosalie  Manning,  Rose 
Maurer,  Clarina  Michelson,  Eleanor  Neilson,  Mrs.  David  De  Sola 
Pool,  Mrs.  W.  Jay  Schieffelin,  Margaret  Schlauch,  Mrs.  Frederick  L. 
Schuman,  Vida  D.  Scudder,  Mrs.  Gilbert  Seldes,  Lisa  Segio,  Mary  K. 
Simkhovitch,  Irena  Skariatina,  Charlotte  Stern,  Anna  Louis  Strong, 
Genevieve  Taggard,  Katherine  Terrill,  Mrs.  Albert  Rhys  Williams, 
Ella  Winters  (Mrs.  Lincoln  Steffens),  Mrs.  Ellen  S.  Woodward,  Ruth 
Young,  and  Leane  Zugsmith. 

Previously  there  had  been  a  number  of  women's  organizations  set  up 
as  Communist  sections  and  Communist  fronts  in  this  country.  Some 
of  these  had  been  directly  affiliated  with  the  International  Congress  of 
Women,  with  headquarters  in  Moscow.  Others  were  affiliated  with 
the  Women's  International  Congress  Against  War  and  Fascism. 
Active  in  the  leadership  of  these  Congresses  were  Ann  Pauker,  Ru- 
manian Bolshevik  head;  Mme.  Kollantai  of  Russia;  Clara  Zetkin; 
Ella  Reeve  Bloor ;  Dolores  Ibarruri,  better  known  as  "La  Pasionaria," 
chairman  of  the  Communist  Party  in  Spain  now  in  exile  in  Yugo- 
slavia; Anna  Mai  of  Bulgaria;  Mme.  Eugenie  Cotton;  Mme.  Marie- 
Claude  Vaillant-Couturier  (Communist)  of  France;  and  Elizabeth 
Gurley  Flynn ;  and  others,  all  Communists. 

Like  many  of  the  other  internationals,  these  congresses  were  shelved 
during  World  War  II  because  of  complications  involved  in  travel, 
holding  of  meetings,  and  transmission  of  correspondence. 

Mr.  McDowell.  The  Mme.  Kollantai  you  just  referred  to,  wasn't 
she  ambassador  to 

Mr.  Steele.  Mexico. 

Mr.  McDowell.  Mexico. 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes. 


1"  See  appendix,  p.  175,  for  exhibit  37. 


84  TESTIMONY  OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE 

Mr.  McDowell.  From  the  Soviet  Union  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes. 

With  the  end  of  the  war,  however,  all  international  movements  im- 
mediately began  to  reorganize,  and  national  sections  in  each  country- 
were  rebuilt  and  revitalized.  Consequently,  it  was  not  surprising 
when  the  women  were  again  called  to  action  in  the  United  States  by 
the  National  Council  of  American-Soviet  Friendship.  Neither  was  it 
news  when  a  call  was  issued  for  the  International  Congress  of  Women 
of  the  World  in  1945.  Thus,  a  year  after  the  conference  held  at  the 
Hotel  Commodore  in  New  York  (November  18,  19M),  by  the  Na- 
tional Council  of  American-Soviet  Friendship,  the  International 
Congress  of  Women  convened  by  Communist  forces  in  Paris  (Novem- 
ber 26  to  December  1,  1945). 

Cochairmen  of  the  International  Congress  were  Mme.  Eugenie 
Cotton  and  Mme.  Marie-Claude  Vail] ant-Couturier,  Communist  mem- 
ber of  the  French  Parliament.  Dolores  Ibarruri,  Communist  of  Spain 
and  now  of  Yugoslavia,  was  the  keynote  speaker.  Mme.  Nina  Popova, 
leader  of  Communist  women  in  Russia,  had  a  leading  part  in  the 
program,  and  she  was  the  center  of  attraction.  The  delegates  from 
the  United  States  to  the  Congress  were  Elizabeth  Gurley  Flynn, 
chairman  of  the  Women's  Commission  of  the  Communist  Party  in  the 
United  States;  Dr.  Gene  Weltfish;  Thelma  Dale,  member  of  the  New 
York  State  Committee  of  the  Communist  Party ;  Susan  B.  Anthony  II, 
active  in  many  fronts;  Eleanor  Vaughan;  Ann  Bradford;  JVirs. 
Frederic  March;  Mrs.  Gifford  Pinchot;  Henrietta  Buckmaster;  Dr. 
Beryl  Parker;  Charlotte  Hawkins  Brown;  Vivian  Carter  Mason; 
Jeanette  Stern;  Muriel  Draper;  and  Elinor  S.  Gimbel.  Eight  hun- 
dred delegates  were  reported  in  attendance,  claiming  to  represent  some 
100,000,000  women  in  40  countries. 

Prior  to  the  International  Congress  held  in  the  same  month  as  the 
National  Council  for  American-Soviet  Friendship  conference  in  New 
York  City,  November  1944,  a  meeting  was  held  in  Paris,  similar  to 
that  held  in  the  United  States  by  the  National  Council  of  American- 
Soviet  Friendship.  The  Paris  meeting  was  attended  by  leftist  and 
pro-Soviet  women,  European  leaders  from  over  Europe.  It  was  re- 
ferred to  as  the  conference  of  the  "Initiative  Committee,"  the  members 
of  which  planned  the  December  1945  International  Congress.  Previ- 
ously active  internationals  composed  of  women  Communists  were 
discussed  at  the  first  Paris  meeting.  Particular  reference  was  made 
to  the  Women's  Congress  Against  War  and  Fascism  which  was  shelved 
following  its  1934  Congress  in  Paris.  The  Union  of  French  Women, 
a  Communist  front,  served  as  the  tool  for  the  sending  out  of  the  Call 
for  the  1944  International  Congress,  according  to  Clara  Bodian,  active 
in  Communist  ranks  in  the  United  States. 

Early  in  1946,  following  the  Paris  Congress  and  after  the  return 
of  the  American  delegates,  a  continuing  committee  was  set  up  here. 
Members  of  the  committee  were :  Elinor  S.  Gimbel,  who  incidentally 
claims  to  be  president  of  a  local  of  the  Parent-Teacher  Association 
in  New  York  City ;  Dr.  Gene  Weltfish,  coauthor  of  Races  of  Mankind 
which  was  barred  by  the  War  Department  from  courses  in  GI  orien- 
tation; Susan  B.  Anthony  II,  secretary;  Dr.  Beryl  Parker,  treasurer; 
members  of  the  board  were :  Mrs.  Grace  Allen  Bangs,  Clara  Bodian, 
Dr.  Charlotte  Hawkins  BroAvn,  Henrietta  Buckmaster,  Thelma  Dale, 


TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE  85 

Frances  Damon,  Dr.  Bella  V.  Dodd,  Muriel  Draper,  Katherine  Earn- 
shaw,  India  Edwards,  Thyra  Edwards,  Mary  L.  Fleddenis,  Elizabeth 
Gurley  Flynn,  Daisy  George,  Esther  Gihvarg,  Dorothy  Gottlieb, 
Sidonie  M.  Gruenberg,  Mrs.  Shippen  Lewis,  Mrs.  Frederic  March, 
Vivian  Carter  Mason,  Helen  Phillips,  Mrs.  Gifford  Pinchot,  Anna 
Center  Schneiderman,  Natalie  Sherman,  Josephine  Timms,  Jeanette 
Stern  Turner,  Mary  Van  Kleeck,  Eleanor  T.  Vaughan,  Mrs.  Stephen 
S.  Wise,  and  Ruth  Young. 

( Exhibit  38  was  received. )  -" 

Mr.  Stef.le.  This  group  eventually  became  known  as  the  Congress 
of  American  Women.  The  international  movement  is  called  the 
International  Democratic  Women's  Federation.  Appointed  as  regu- 
lar American  delegates  to  the  international,  as  the  exhibit  I  have  sub- 
mitted will  show,  were  Muriel  Draper;  Vivian  Carter  Mason  of  the 
National  Council  of  Negro  Women  of  New  York;  Mrs.  Frederic 
March,  representing  other  fronts;  and  Elizabeth  Gurley  Flynn,  who 
heads  the  Women's  Commission  of  the  Communist  Party.  Dr.  Gene 
Weltfish,  Dr.  Beryl  Parker,  and  Ann  Bradford,  secretary  of  the  CIO 
Women's  Auxiliary  of  Los  Angeles,  are  alternate  delegates  to  the  in- 
ternational. 

The  Congress  of  American  Women,  although  it  was  active,  was 
not  incorporated  until  January  17,  lO'lT.  Its  incorporators  were 
Gene  Weltfish,  515  West  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-second  Street, 
New  York,  N.  Y.;  Helen  Phillips,  203  Avenue  B,  Brooklyn,  N.  Y.; 
Muriel  Draper,  322  East  Fifty-eight  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y. ;  Joseph- 
ine Timms,  117-14  Union  Turnpike,  Kew  Gardens,  New  York;  Susan 
B.  Anthony  II,  38  Barrow  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y. ;  and  Elinor  S.  Gim- 
bel,  163  East  Seventy-eighth  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y. 

Bella  Dodd,  formerly  a  teacher  and  Communist  Party  leader,  at 
present  in  New  York  City,  acted  as  the  notary,  and  Benjamin  M.  Zel- 
man  as  attorney  for  the  organization. 

In  the  petition  for  incorporation,  it  was  stated  that  the  Congi^ess  of 
American  Women  was  a  membership  organization  to  promote  the 
welfare  of  the  American  women,  to  take  action  in  defense  of  legal 
social,  and  political  rights  of  women;  to  promote  close  collaboration 
between  the  women  of  the  United  States  with  women  of  other  coun- 
tries, to  promote  the  well  being,  health,  and  education  of  children; 
and  to  gather  and  disseminate  information  relating  to  the  status  of 
women. 

(Exhibit  39  was  received.)-^ 

Mr.  Steele.  Ann  Bradford,  a  delegate  to  the  International  Con- 
gress in  Paris,  was  a  sergeant  in  the  WAC  during  the  war.  She 
served  in  the  Teletype  Communications  Division  overseas. 

It  is  interesting  to  note  that  Russia  sent  40  delegates,  headed  by 
the  Communist,  Maj.  Zneida  Troitskava,  to  the  International  Con- 
gress. The  delegation  from  Yugoslavia,  was  lead  by  Annica  Hoffner, 
active  in  the  fighting  ranks  of  the  Communist  Red  armed  forces  under 
Tito.  Mme  Cotton  (Communist  leader)  of  France  was  appointed 
chairman  of  the  International  Congress;  Gene  Weltfish,  Dolores 
Ibarruri  (Communist),  Nina  Popova  (Communist)  of  Russia,  and 
Yeh  Nan  of  China,  vice  chairman ;  and  Mme  Marie-Claude  Vaillant- 
Couturier  (French  Communist  leader),  executive  secretary. 

="  See  appendix,  p.  175,  for  exhibit  38. 
»  See  appendix,  p.  175,  for  exhibit  39. 


86  TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE 

Out  of  the  International  Congress  the  so-called  Charter  for 
Women's  Rights,  officially  known  as  the  Women's  Status  Amendment 
came.  Susan  Anthony  II  of  the  United  States'  section  is  chairman 
of  the  special  commission  which  has  been  set  up  to  push  this  program, 
described  as  one  aimed  at  "abolishing  all  laws  which  discriminate 
against  women,  and  to  establish  equal  rights."  Supporters  of  this 
amendment  will  oppose  "discrimination  against  women,  regardless 
of  color  and  race."  They  explain  that  no  longer  will  women  be  ex- 
cluded from  men's  affairs.  The  National  Press  Club  in  Washington, 
D.  C.,  is  given  as  an  example  of  such  exclusion.  The  club,  it  claims, 
permits  women  to  dine  in  the  "small  dining  room"  only.  They  con- 
tend that  "Jim  Crowism"  is  practiced  by  various  organizations  and 
clubs,  and  that  "racial  discrimination  must  be  abandoned."  They 
promise  that  these  conditions  will  be  corrected  through  the  activities 
of  the  Congi-ess  of  American  Women.  They  are  determined  that 
laws  in  41  States  which  require  a  woman  to  live  in  the  same  house 
with  her  husband,  or  suffer  the  possibility  of  being  sued  for  divorce 
or  separation  shall  be  repealed.  Several  States  limit  general  con- 
tracts of  marriage  to  a  "discriminatory  degree,"  and  they  charge  the 
women  announce  that  these  laws  shall  be  repealed.  They  are  also 
going  to  demand  that  laws  providing  penalties  for  the  birth  of  children 
out  of  wedlock  be  repealed.     They  refer  to  these  as  "antiwomen  laws." 

(Exhibit  No.  40  was  received.) ^^ 

Mr.  Steele.  Another  WAC  who  joined  the  movement  is  Corp. 
Evelyn  Field  who  served  in  New  Guinea  and  Manila,  according  to 
Communist  sources.  She  complains  that  when  members  of  the  WAC, 
WAVES,  and  SPARS  returned  from  war  service  many  jobs  were 
closed  to  them,  and  she  charges  that  employers  were  not  interested  in 
their  "special  skills."  This  situation  will  be  rectified  by  the  Congress 
of  American  Women,  they  claim. 

The  congress  is  appealing  to  "help  the  children  survive  fascism," 
and  a  program  has  been  mapped  out  to  extend  their  aims  in  that  direc- 
tion. The  Brooklyn,  N.  Y.,  chapter,  headed  by  Mrs.  Mary  J.  Melish 
(William  H.)  has  a  drive  on  for  aid  to  Tito's  (Yugoslav)  youth.  The 
congress  says  it  will  accordingly  support  the  Pepper  maternal  and 
child-welfare  bill,  the  Murray-Wagner  free  medicine  and  medical 
bill,  and  the  Lanham  Act  which  provides  for  the  setting  up  of  day- 
care centers  for  children  or  nurseries.  Children's  centers  would  be 
necessary,  of  course,  if  the  entire  program  of  the  Congress  of  American 
Women  is  carried  out,  for  it  demands  the  right  of  women  to  work  at 
any  and  all  professions  and  trades,  manual  labor  included.  There- 
fore, laws  which  interfere  with  their  aims,  laws,  and  morals  which 
hold  the  home  and  family  together,  must  be  abolished.  The  women 
infer  that  women's  "apron  strings  must  be  untied." 

Upon  her  return  from  a  Nation-wide  speaking  tour,  Elizabeth 
Gurley  Flynn  (Communist)  reported  that  everywhere  she  went,  from 
California  to  New  York,  she  "found  women  setting  up  local  branches 
of  the  Congress  of  American  Women."  She  quoted  Ann  Bradford 
who  had  reported  on  the  establishment  of  branches  in  Los  Angeles, 
Denver,  Oakland,  and  Seattle. 

In  an  attempt  to  make  women  in  America  more  conscious  of  the 
so-called  fight  for  women's  rights,  the  Congress  of  American  Women 


"  See  appendix,  p.  175,  for  exhibit  40. 


TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE  87 

has  selected  March  8  as  International  Day,  and  November  29  as 
Women's  Day  for  annual  celebrations.  March  8  was  first  celebrated 
as  Communist  Women's  Day  in  Moscow. 

The  Congress  claims  that  it  will  be  active  in  the  political  action  field 
in  national  and  local  campaigns.  It  is  already  taking  its  place  with 
other  Communist  fronts  in  various  front  activities.  Its  representa- 
tives recently  marched  on  Washington,  D.  C,  storming  Congress  and 
the  State  Department  in  opposition  to  American  aid  to  Greece  and 
Turkey,  aid  designed  to  ward  off  the  Communist  menace  and  Soviet 
aggression.  The  Congress  of  American  Women  charge  this  may  lead 
to  an  "imperialist  war"  and  "American  imperialism  in  the  Balkans." 
Members  of  the  congress  alst)  participated  in  mass  demonstrations  in 
Washington,  D.  C,  against  the  repeal  of  tlie  OPA. 

Chairman  of  the  Committee  of  Action  for  Peace  and  Democracy  of 
the  Congress  of  American  Women  is  Muriel  Draper;  secretary,  Anna 
Lee.  The  chairman  of  the  Commission  on  Child  Care  and  Education 
is  Elinor  S.  Gimbel;  secretary,  Dorothy  Gottlieb.  Chairman  of  the 
Commission  on  the  Status  of  Women  is  Susan  B.  Anthony  II ;  secre- 
tary, Mary  Murphy. 

National  headquarters  of  the  Congress  of  American  Women  are 
located  at  55  West  Forty-second  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y.  The  na- 
tional president  is  Gene  Weltfish;  executive  vice  president,  IMuriel 
Draper;  treasurer,  Helen  Phillips;  secretary,  Josephine  Timms;  and 
recording  secretary,  Thyra  Edwards.  The  following  are  vice  presi- 
dents: Susan  B.  Anthony  II,  Ann  Bradford,  Charlotte  Hawkins 
Brown,  Henrietta  Buckmaster,  Dorothy  Connolly,  Thelma  Dale.  Mil- 
dred Fairchild,  Elizabeth  Gurley  Flynn,  Elinor  S.  Gimbel,  Mrs.  Fred- 
eric March,  Vivian  Carter  Mason,  Beryl  Parker,  Mrs.  Gifford  Pinchot, 
Ann  Center  Schneiderman,  Mrs.  Jeanette  Turner,  Eleanor  Vaughan 
and  Ruth  Young.  Members  of  the  editorial  board  are  Eleanor 
Vaughan  and  Bert  Sigrid. 

(Exhibit  No.  41  was  received.) ^^ 

Mr.  Steele.  The  Chicago  branch  of  the  Congress  of  American 
Women  is  lieaded  by  Mrs.  David  Davis;  Milwaukee,  Mrs.  Emil  H. 
Jones;  Brooklyn,  N.  Y.,  Mrs.  (Mary  J.)  William  Howard  Melish. 
The  congress  issued  a  call  to  the  following  women  for  the  organiza- 
tion of  new  branches:  Mrs.  Rosalind  Lindsmith,  Oakland;  Mrs. 
Eugene  Parsonnet,  Newark,  N.  J. ;  Mrs.  Theresa  Greenwald,  New 
Brunswick;  Mrs.  Esther  Bailin,  Bridgeport,  Conn.;  Mrs.  Emma  F. 
Baxter,  Worcester,  Mass. ;  Mrs.  Miriam  Brooks  Sherman,  Los  Angeles ; 
Mrs.  Charlotte  Backenstein,  Des  Moines;  Miss  Doris  Bauman,  Law- 
rence, Kansas;  Mrs.  Duke  Avnet,  Baltimore;  Mrs.  Rose  Tillotson, 
Minneapolis ;  Mrs.  Lois  Blakes,  Seattle ;  and  Mrs.  Anna  M.  Tormino, 
Spokane. 

The  Washington,  D.  C.  chapter  of  the  Congress  of  American  Women 
was  organized  early  in  1947.  Its  first  meeting  was  held  on  March  9, 
1947,  at  Pierce  Hall,  with  some  350  in  attendance.  Among  those 
present  were  wives  of  the  diplomatic  representatives  of  Russia, 
France,  Poland,  Czechoslovakia,  India,  Belgium,  and  The  Netherlands. 
Gene  Weltfish,  president  of  the  American  section  of  the  international 
and  one  of  the  three  international  vice  presidents,  addressed  the  meet- 
ing.   She  was  referred  to  as  "coauthor  with  Ruth  Benedict"  of  Races 


^  See  appendix,  p.  175,  for  exhibit  41. 


S8  TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE 

of  Mankind.  Mme.  Nikolai  Novikov,  wife  of  the  Soviet  Ambassadoi" 
to  the  United  States,  was  the  guest  of  honor. 

The  Congress  of  American  Women  is  building  through  State  and 
sectional  conferences.  It  held  an  Eastern  Seaboard  States  Confer- 
ence from  June  6  to  8,  1947.  Virginia  Shull  was  the  acting  exec- 
utive officer  in  charge  of  the  conference. 

The  July-August  1946  issue  of  Soviet  Women,  organ  of  the  Soviet 
Women's  Anti-Fascist  Central  Committee  and  of  the  Central  Council 
of  Trade  Unions  of  the  U.  S.  S.  R.,  was  devoted  to  an  exclusive  report 
of  the  June  1946  executive  committee  meeting  of  the  International 
Democratic  Women's  Federation,  of  which  the  Congress  of  American 
Women  is  a  section.  The  report  was  written  by  Nina  Popova,  who 
leads  the  Soviet  organization,  the  largest  section  of  the  international, 
and  one  of  the  vice  presidents  of  the  international. 

The  report  states  that  special  attention  was  given,  at  the  executive 
committee  meeting,  to  the  international's  branches  in  the  United  States 
and  Czechoslovakia.  It  called  attention  to  the  fact  that  since  the  in- 
ternational congress,  national  congresses  had  been  held  m  Eumania, 
Hungary,  Italy,  Albania,  Greece,  Poland,  Sweden,  the  United  States, 
Algeria,  Australia,  Bulgaria,  and  Yugoslavia.  The  report  further 
explained  that  in  the  Soviet-influenced  countries,  such  as  Yugoslavia, 
Poland,  Bulgaria,  Albania,  Austria,  and  Hugary,  all  women's  organi- 
zations had  united  on  a  national  scale  to  promote  the  aims  of  the 
international.  The  women's  organization  of  Communist-controlled 
northern  China,  representing  20,000,000  women,  has  been  accepted 
into  the  international. 

The  report  referred  to  the  setting  up  of  coordinating  committees 
by  the  federation  in  many  countries.  These  committees  direct  the 
program  of  many  women's  groups  not  directly  affiliated  with  the 
international.  Among  the  coordinated  activities  it  claims  are  the 
^'struggle  against  the  danger  of  a  new  war,"  "against  the  remnants 
of  fascism,"  "for  equal  social  and  economic  rights  for  women,"  for 
^'break  in  diplomatic  relations  with  Spain,"  and  for  "mobilizatio]i  of 
public  opinion  to  counter  the  onslaught  of  reaction  in  Greece."  Co- 
ordinating committees  have  been  set  up  by  the  international's  sections 
in  the  United  States,  France,  Italy,  Morocco,  Rumania,  and  Algeria. 
According  to  the  report,  the  American  section  thereby  already  unites 
over  500,000  women. 

The  report  reveals  that  an  international  drive  has  been  launched 
by  all  sections  of  the  international  to  force  the  UN  to  recognize  the 
International  Democratic  Women's  Federation  as  a  consultative 
organization,  as  it  has  the  International  World  Federation  of  Trade- 
Unions,  also  under  Communist  and  Soviet  control,  of  which  the  CIO 
in  the  United  States  is  the  American  section. 

The  executive  committee  endorsed  the  report  of  the  secretariat 
stressing  the  need  of  continued  recruiting  of  unorganized  women,  and 
calling  for  a  concerted  action  with  women's  organizations  not  yet 
affiliated. 

From  July  18  to  August  25,  1947,  was  the  period  set  for  an  interna- 
tional campaign  against  the  Franco  regime  in  Spain.  The  committee 
warned  all  sections  against  "splitting  maneuvers  of  the  reactionaries" 
to  discourage  following  of  the  international's  sections.  It  pointed  to 
such  obstacles  as  having  confronted  the  American  and  British  sections. 
The  American  section,  it  explained,  now  has  a  combined  membership 


TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE  89 

■of  500,000,  "despite  organizational  difficulties,  reactionary  propaganda 
■directed  against  it  by  pro-Fascist  elements,  and  attempts  to  intimi- 
date American  women  by  Red-baiting."  The  American  section's  ma- 
jor activities  it  claims  "are  centered  on  the  struggle  of  peace  and  democ- 
racy, economic  and  legal  equity  for  women,  socialized  medicine,  and 
democratic  education  of  children." 

The  committee  reported  that  among  the  women's  forces  joining  the 
American  section  is  the  Women's  Auxiliary  of  the  Congress  of  Indus- 
trial Organizations.  It  added  that  the  National  Women's  Revolu- 
tionary Bloc  of  Mexico  and  the  Viet  Nam  Public  Welfare  Women's 
Organization  of  Brazil  are  among  those  organizations  of  the  Western 
Hemisphere  joining  the  international.  Moves  are  on  to  take  in  the 
International  Women's  Cooperative  Guild. 

Among  those  attending  the  meeting  of  the  executive  committee,  in 
addition  to  the  international  president  and  secretary,  were  Nina  Pop- 
ova,  of  Russia;  Olga  Miloshevich  (Communist),  of  Yugoslavia;  Tsola 
Dragoicheva,  of  Bulgaria  (member  of  the  Political  Bureau  of  the 
Bulgarian  Communist  Party  and  deputy  member  of  the  Parliament 
of  Bulgaria)  ;  Mme.  Handoo,  of  India;  Mme.  Vermeche,  of  the  Union 
of  French  Women;  Mme.  Gorakova  and  Mme.  Troyanova  (Commu- 
nist), of  Czechoslovakia;  Mme.  Jeanne  Kormanowa,  of  Poland;  Mrs. 
Vivian  Carter  Mason,  of  the  United  States ;  Mme.  Alice  Sportiss,  of 
Algiers;  Mme.  Marie-Claude  Vaillant-Couturier  of  France  (Com- 
munist) ;  Mme.  Camille  Ravera  of  Italy  (Communist)  ;  Mme.  Char- 
lotte Muret  of  Switzerland;  and  Elizabeth  Tildy,  of  Hungary. 

A  report  by  Gene  Weltfish  of  the  Congress  of  American  Women 
also  appeared  in  the  same  issue  of  Soviet  Women.  In  it  she  spoke 
of  the  setting  up  of  a  provisional  committee  which  called  1,000  repre- 
sentatives of  women's  trade-union  and  religious  organizations  to- 
gether at  a  meeting  which  was  held  on  March  6,  1946,  in  New  York 
City,  at  which  the  Congress  of  American  Women  was  organized.  The 
report  stated  that  the  first  organization  to  affiliate  with  the  American 
section  was  the  women's  branch  of  the  Independent  Citizens'  Com- 
mittee of  Arts,  Sciences,  and  Professions,  and  that  women's  groups  of 
the  American  Federation  of  Labor  and  the  Congress  of  Industrial 
Organizations  affiliated  shortly  after.  Following  the  example  of 
these  groups,  the  report  continues,  "a  national  organization  of  women 
pilots  who  have  seen  service  in  the  United  States  Army  affiliated"; 
and  that  "Stable  local  organizations  have  been  set  up  in  Detroit, 
Philadelphia,  Washington,  D.  C,  Norfolk,  Boston,  Chicago,  and  Los 
Angeles." 

The  Weltfish  report  announced  that  the  Congress  of  American 
Women  will  launch  a  drive  in  the  1948  political  campaign  to  elect  48 
women,  one  from  each  State,  to  Congress.  She  stated  that  the  May 
conference  of  the  Congress  of  American  Women  called  for  a  break 
in  the  relations  between  the  United  States  and  Spain,  the  establish- 
ment of  international  control  over  the  production  and  use  of  atomic 
energy,  the  strengthening  of  friendship  with  the  Soviet  Union,  the 
support  of  colonial  countries  in  their  battle  for  self-determination,  a 
protest  against  maintenance  of  a  large  army  and  against  the  intro- 
duction of  military  training  in  the  United  States.  The  general  report 
stated  that  "Mrs.  Weltfish  told  the  executive  committee  how  reaction- 
ary and  Fascist  organizations  in  the  United  States  try  to  slander  the 
Congress  of  American  Women  and  intimidate  women  by  Red-baiting." 


90  TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE 

(Exhibit  No.  42  was  received.) ^^ 

The  Chairman.  The  Chair  would  like  to  make  an  announcement, 
before  the  bell  rings,  while  we  have  so  many  members  of  the  commit- 
tee here.     This  is  not  on  the  record. 

(Announcement  made  oif  the  record.) 

The  Chairman.  Copies  of  that  may  be  had  from  Mr.  Stripling. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Could  we  suspend  for  a  moment,  Mr.  Chairman  ? 

The  Chairman.  We  will  recess  for  a  minute,  Mr.  Steele. 

(A  short  recess.) 

The  Chairman.  All  right,  Mr.  Steele ;  will  you  resume  please. 

Mr.  Steele.  I  wish  to  include  as  evidence  at  this  time  the  Report 
From  Moscow,  which  was  brought  to  me  a  month  ago  from  Moscow, 
the  program  of  the  Congress  of  American  Women,  the  "original  call," 
and  the  incorporation  papers.     This  is  merely  submitted  as  evidence. 

The  Chairman.  Are  you  keeping  track  of  the  numbers,  Mr. 
Stripling? 

Mr.  Stripling.  Yes.     We  have  them  all. 

Mr.  Steele.  The  Council  of  the  International  met  in  Prague  in 
December  1946,  but  I  have  not  yet  been  able  to  obtain  a  copy  of  its 
report. 

Now,  Communist  activities  among  Negros. 

The  Communist  movement  among  the  Negroes  in  the  United  States 
is  under  the  direction  of  the  Communist  Party  and  the  National  Negro 
Congress,  together  with  the  Southern  Negro  Youth  Congress.  Inter- 
locking and  cooperating  is  the  Southern  Conference  for  Human  Wel- 
fare and  several  others  I  will  mention  later.  The  international  Negro 
movement  by  the  Communists  was  originally  called  the  Provisional 
International  Trade  Union  Committee  of  Negro  Workers.  This  was 
a  section  of  the  Red  International  of  Labor  Union  of  Moscow.  Ac- 
cording to  James  W.  Ford,  Communist  party  leader,  in  Economic 
Struggles  of  NegTO  Workers,  the  Communist  Negro  drive  was  started 
in  the  United  States  in  1920.  The  American  section  of  the  Inter- 
national was  at  that  time  called  the  League  of  Struggle  for  Negro 
Rights. 

The  plan  and  purpose  of  the  Communist  movement  to  use  a  large 
percentage,  of  the  Negro  population  in  the  United  States,  particularly 
in  the  South,  may  best  be  emphasized  by  quoting  a  portion  of  the 
officially  published  report  of  the  Sixth  Congress  of  the  Communist 
International,  held  in  Moscow  in  July  and  August  1928.  I  quote 
from  the  statement  of  the  American  Negro  delegate,  listed  as  "Com- 
rade Jones,  USA,"  who  was  chairman  of  the  Negro  delegation  which 
dealt  with  the  problems  of  the  Communist  Party  of  the  United  States 
in  organizing  the  Negroes  for  the  revolution.  It  is  believed  that 
"Comrade  Jones"  is  John  Hudson  Jones,  whose  name  frequently  ap- 
pears in  the  Worker  in  connection  with  activities  among  Negroes. 
"Comrade  Jones"  said  in  part : 

We  organized  here  at  the  Congress  a  small  subcommittee  of  the  Anglo-Ameri- 
can secretariat  which  dealt  with  the  Negro  question  in  America.  This  com- 
mission has  done  a  considerable  amount  of  work,  which  is,  of  course,  by  no  means 
complete,  but  the  first  steps  were  made  *  *  *.  i  have  material  on  this  which 
will  be  submitted  to  the  colonial  commission  in  support  of  our  disagreement, 
together  with  those  drawn  up  by  the  Negro  commission. 


''*  See  appendix,  p.  175,  for  exhibit  42. 


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TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER  S.    STEELE  91 

This  is  a  very  important  question  and  rteserves  careful  study  before  definite 
steps  are  taken  in  drawing  a  program  or  advancing  slogans  for  our  work  among 
the  American  Negroes.  !Some  comrades  consider  is  necessary  at  this  moment 
to  launch  the  slogan  of  self-determination  for  the  American  Negroes;  to  advocate 
an  independent  Soviet  socialist  republic  in  America  for  Negroes.  There  is  no 
objection  on  our  part  on  the  principal  of  a  Soviet  republic  for  Negroes  in 
America.  The  point  we  are  concerned  with  here  is  how  to  organize  these  Negroes 
at  present  on  the  basis  of  their  everyday  needs  for  the  revolution.  The  question 
before  the  Negroes  today  is  not  what  will  be  done  with  them  after  the  revolution, 
but  what  measures  are  we  going  to  take  to  alleviate  their  present  condition  in 
America.  We  have  to  adopt  a  program  that  will  take  care  of  their  immediate 
needs,  of  course  keeping  in  mind  the  necessity  for  organizing  the  revo- 
lution.    *     *     * 

The  central  slogan  around  which  we  can  rally  the  Negro  masses  is  the  slogan 
of  social  equality. 

Fifty  or  more  slogans  for  the  so-called  "everyday  needs"  of  the 
Negro,  which  constituted,  in  fact,  Communist  propaganda  for  the 
agitation  of  the  Negro,  especially  in  the  South,  were  adopted.  By 
1935  the  Communists  decided  that  the  slogans  had  served  their  pur- 
pose, that  of  arousing  the  Negro,  and  that  the  real  issue  could  then 
be  presented.  Consequently,  in  June  1935,  the  Communists  published 
a  document  entitled  "The  Negroes  in  a  Soviet  America,"  in  which 
the  actual  plan  was  outlined.  James  W.  Ford  and  James  S.  Allen, 
Communist  officials,  were  authors  of  the  document.  After  reviewing 
the  success  of  the  slogans,  the  authors  stated : 

As  the  gains  of  the  revolution  are  consolidated,  these  Soviet  territories  will 
be  united  to  form  a  new  Soviet  Negro  Republic.  *  *  *  s^q  must  begin  to 
organize — begin  by  organizing,  by  preparing  our  forces  in  our  daily  struggles  ta 
improve  our  conditions,  by  learning  to  take  over."^ 

At  about  the  same  time  another  publication  made  its  appearance  in 
the  Communist  propaganda  distributing  centers.  It  was  published  by 
the  Communists  in  the  United  States.  On  one  of  its  pages  there  ap- 
peared a  map  of  the  Black  Belt,  as  the  Communists  call  the  South, 
which  the  Reds  intend  shall  first  be  divided  into  small  Soviets,  ulti- 
mately becoming  one  large  Negro  soviet  republic.^*' 

The  following  are  recent  Communist  booklets  dealing  with  the  Negro 
issue :  Lynching  and  Frame-Up  in  Tennessee,  by  Robert  Minor ;  A 
Southerner  Looks  at  Negro  Discrimination,  by  George  Cable,  edited 
and  with  an  introduction  by  Alva  W.  Taylor,  of  the  Southern  Con- 
ference for  Human  Welfare,  published  by  the  International  Publish- 
ers; and  The  Path  of  Negro  Liberation,  by  Benjamin  J.  Davis, 
published  by  New  Century  Publishers.  Davis  and  Minor,  as  I  have 
previously  stated,  are  members  of  the  National  Committee  of  the 
Communist  Party. 

]n  The  Path  of  Negro  Liberation,  a  statement  is  made  to  the  effect 
that  only  Communists  support  the  "right  to  self-determination  of  the 
Negro  in  the  Black  Belt  area"  (p.  10).  "Such  progressive  organiza- 
tions as  the  Southern  Negro  Youth  Congress  and  the  Southern  Con- 
ference for  Human  Welfare  are  enjoying  an  ever  wider  influence," 
as  a  result  of  the  ground  work  of  the  Communists  (p.  19). 

Prominent  in  the  National  Negro  Congress  and  active  in  the  Red 
drive  among  Negroes  for  many  years  have  been  the  following : 

Langston  Hughes,  Max  Yergan,  Harry  Haywood,  James  W.  Ford, 
Mrs.  Jessica  Henderson,  William  L.  Patlerson,  Robert  Minor,  Benja- 


2=  See  appendix,  p.  175,  for  exhibit  43. 
-*  See  appendix,  p.  175,  for  exhibit  44. 


92  TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE 

mill  J.  Davis,  Jr.,  Hosie  Hart,  Herman  MacKawain,  Bernice  DeCosta, 
Dr.  Reuben  S.  Youn^,  Charles  Alexander,  Tom  Truesdale,  Leonard 
Patterson,  William  Burroughs,  Harold  Williams,  Merrill  C.  Work, 
Steve  Kingston,  Henry  Shepard,  Dr.  Arnold  Donowa,  James  Moore, 
Rabbi  Ben  Goldstein,  Mrs.  Mary  Craig  Speed,  Bonita  Williams, 
Hanou  Chan,  James  Allen,  Cyril  Briggs,  William  Fitzgerald,  George 
Maddox,  Maude  White,  Richard  B.  Moore,  and  Eugene  Gordon. 
Communists  are  even  more  strongly  entrenched  in  the  National  Negro 
Congress  through  its  national  committee,  the  members  of  which  in- 
cluded William  Z.  Foster,  Israel  Amter,  Earl  Browder,  and  Claude 
Lightfoot.*   The  State  committees  were  also  Communist  dominated. 

The  Communist  hold  out  the  bait  of  "self-determination  of  the  black 
belts"  to  Negroes  of  the  country.  These  belts  include,  of  course,  the 
districts  most  heavily  populated  by  Negroes.  Communists  promise 
them  confiscation  of  land  and  factories  now  being  held  by  white  people 
and  the  turning  over  of  them  to  the  Negroes.  Contrary  to  this  promise, 
however,  the  Communists  have  admitted,  in  inner  circles,  that  the 
Negroes  are  to  be  segregated  in  the  black  belts  for  the  purpose  of  form- 
ing Negro  Soviets.  They  have  also  admitted  that  the  Negroes  do  not 
have  any  suspicion  of  this  plan  and  property  would  not  become  theirs, 
but  the  Soviets,  under  dictatorship. 

The  National  Negro  Congress  was  organized  in  1935  by  the  Reds. 
From  the  official  proceedings  of  the  National  Negro  Congress 
(second),  held  in  Philadelphia  in  October  1937,  we  learn  (p.  10)  that 
the  congress  represented  in  "true .  spirit"  the  "united  front."  The 
report  stated  that  the  congress  "marched  in  the  van  of  the  CIO"  and 
"enlists  organizers  to  join  the  CIO  forces."  The  congress  defended 
the  Scottsboro  Negroes,  a  pet  hobby  of  the  Communist  Party.  It 
called  for  reverence  to  the  leaders  of  the  Black  Revolution  which  they 
claim  broke  out  in  the  eighteenth  century. 

Among  those  extending  greetings  to  the  second  National  Negro 
Congress  were  John  L.  Lewis ;  Tom  Mooney,  from  San  Quentin  prison ; 
and  I.  Maximilian  Martin,  secretary  of  the  National  Association  for 
the  Advancement  of  Colored  People ;  Ben  Gold ;  and  Walter  Reuther, 
president  of  Local  174,  of  the  CIO,  United  Auto  Workers  (1937). 
The  American  Labor  Party  also  sent  greetings.  Philip  Murray,  CIO 
official,  addressed  the  congress. 

The  delegates  to  the  congress  protested  to  President  Roosevelt  and 
Postmaster  General  Farley  against  the  alleged  denial  of  Negroes  of 
the  rights  and  privileges  of  the  railway  mail  services.  They  claimed 
that  the  railway  union  discriminated  against  the  Negroes  in  the 
service.  They  also  protested  against  so-called  "discrimination"  in  the 
railway  employees  unions,  in  gas,  electric,  water,  city,  streetcar,  and 
other  utility  unions. 

Edward  E.  Strong  delivered  an  address  at  the  Congress  on  Negro 
Youth  and  the  Fight  for  Freedom  and  Equality.  Strong  was  a  mem- 
ber of  the  administrative  committee  of  the  American  Youth  Congress, 
secretary  of  the  Southern  Negro  Youth  Congress.  Strong  spoke  of 
Communist  "united  front"  program. 

A.  Philip  Randolph,  one-time  president  of  the  National  Negro 
Congress,  resigned  his  position  because  of  the  Communist  control 
thereof.  At  the  time  of  his  resignation,  at  a  meeting  held  in  Wash- 
ington, D.  C,  he  charged  that  the  Congress  was  controlled  by  the 
Communist  Party,  through  which  he  found  it  was  chiefly  financed. 


TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S,    STEELE  93 

The  theme  of  the  tenth  annual  convention  of  the  National  Negro 
Congress,  held  in  Detroit  from  May  30  to  June  2,  1946,  was  "Death 
blow  to  Jim  Crow."  Delegates  to  the  convention  advocated  the  en- 
actment of  a  permanent  fair  employment  practice  act.  They  con- 
demned tlie  Truman  administration  for  what  they  charged  was  aban- 
donment of  the  'Big  Three  unity"  and  for  adopting  an  "Anglo- 
American  policy"  in  international  affairs.  They  called  not  only  for 
full  freedom  and  equality  for  the  Negro  people  in  the  United  States 
but  also  for  the  freedom  and  equality  of  the  colonial  peoples  of  the 
world.  They  demanded  an  end  to  the  poll  tax  and  the  trend  toward 
"imperialism"  and  a  "third  world  war."  They  demanded  jobs  and 
security ;  health,  insurance,  housing,  and  civil  rights  legislation ;  a  GI 
bill  of  rights  for  Negro  veterans  and  merchant  seamen.  They  de- 
manded close  friendship  with  the  Soviet  Union.  They  called  for  an 
end  to  the  attacks  on  the  Communist  Party,  and  they  voted  to  cooperate 
with  and  aid  in  every  manner  possible  CIO  unions,  especially  the 
National  Maritime  Union.  They  urged  Government  ownership  of 
natural  resources.     Only  praise  was  voiced  for  Russia. 

Approximately  1,000  delegates  attended  the  convention,  represent- 
ing about  500  organizations,  the  Communist  Party,  various  Red 
fronts,  and  CIO  unions.  The  convention  had  the  endorsement  of 
leaders  of  these  movements.  Speakers  included  Paul  Robeson ;  former 
Congressman  Hugh  DeLacy;  Congressman  A.  Clayton  Powell; 
George  Addes,  of  the  CIO  Auto  Workers  Union;  Benjamin  J.  Davis, 
of  the  Communist  Party;  Michael  J.  Quill,  of  the  CIO  Transport 
Workers  Union ;  James  Dombrowski,  of  the  Southern  Conference  for 
Human  Welfare;  Alan  Morrison,  formerly  of  Stars  and  Stripes  and 
publicity  "director  of  the  United  Negro  and  Allied  Veterans  of 
America;  Donald  Henderson,  of  the  ClO:  Max  Yergan;  Kenneth 
Eckert,  of  the  CIO ;  Walter  Frisbie,  of  the  Indiana  Industrial  Coun- 
cil; John  Simmons,  city  councilman  of  Toledo;  Halois  Moorhead, 
of  the  A.  F.  of  L. ;  and  Dr.  Charlotte  Hawkins  Brown,  of  the  Congress 
of  American  Women. 

The  National  Negro  Congress  maintains  headquarters  at  307  Len- 
nox Avenue,  New  York,  N.  Y. ;  but,  contrary  to  the  New  York  laws, 
it  is  not  registered.  Sectional  offices  have  been  set  up  at  114  Erskine 
Avenue,  Detroit,  and  1015  M  Street  NW.,  Washington,  D.  C.  Local 
branches  have  been  set  up  in  78  cities,  of  course. 

(Exhibit  No.  45  was  received.) ^^ 

Mr.  Steele.  Officers  of  the  National  Negro  Congress  at  this  time 
(1947)  are  the  following:  Max  Yergan,  president;  C.  Le  Bron  Sim- 
mons, treasurer ;  Revels  Cayton,  executive  secretary ;  Thelma  M.  Dale, 
field  secretary;  Dorothy  K.  JFunn,  director  of  labor  legislation; 
Arthur  Bowman,  midwest  secretary;  vice  presidents,  Ferdinand 
Smith,  Edward  E.  Strong,  Charles  Collins,  Matthew  Crawford,  Rob- 
bie Mae  Riddick,  A.  C.  Williams,  Dr.  Charlotte  Hawkins  Brown, 
Raymond  Tillman,  Osceola  McCaine  (Southern  Conference  for  Hu- 
man Welfare) ,  J.  S.  Bourne,  Frederick  Tashma,  Walter  Frisbee  (CIO 
of  Indiana),  and  J.  B.  Simmons. 

Sponsors  of  the  Tenth  Convention  of  the  National  Negro  Congress 
included  S.  L.  M.  Barlow,  Forum  for  Democracy;  Harry  Bridges, 
president.  International  Longshoremen's  and  Warehousemen's  Union, 

2'  See  appendix,  p.  175,  for  exhibit  45. 
65176 — 47 7 


94  TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE 

CIO;  Sophonisba  P.  Breckenrid^e,  School  of  Social  Services,  Uni- 
versity of  Chicago ;  Gwendolyn  Bennett,  director,  George  Washington 
Carver  School ;  Louis  Coleman ;  Eugene  F.  Connolly,  city  councilman, 
New  York ;  James  A.  Dombrowski,  Southern  Conference  for  Human 
Welfare ;  Muriel  Draper ;  Walter  K.  Ecklund,  Sacramento  CIO  Coun- 
cil; Arthur  H.  Fauset,  United  People's  Action  Committee,  Pennsyl- 
vania; Abram  Flaxer,  State,  County,  and  Municipal  Workers,  CIO; 
James  W.  Ford ;  Rev.  Stephen  H.  Fritchman ;  Elinor  S.  Gimbel,  Con- 
gress of  American  Women;  Donald  Henderson,  Food,  Tobacco,  and 
Agricultural  Workers,  CIO;  Langston  Hughes;  Stanley  M.  Isaacs, 
New  York  councilman ;  Dave  Jenkins,  California  Labor  School ;  Rock- 
well Kent;  Canada  Lee;  William  Howard  Melish;  Samuel  J.  Novick; 
Mervyn  Rathborne ;  William  J.  Schieffelin ;  Henry  Winston,  Na- 
tional Committee,  Comnumist  Party;  Norman  Corwin;  Robert  W. 
Kenny,  National  Lawyers'  Guild;  Carey  McWilliams;  and  Mabel  K. 
Staupers,  National  Association  of  Colored  Graduate  Nurses. 

According  to  Communist  reports,  police  raided  the  meeting  of  the 
labor  division  of  the  congress  at  the  convention,  arresting  87  of  its 
members.  Listed  among  those  it  claims  were  taken  to  jail  were  Lewis 
Demby;  Hiram  McNealey;  John  Stinson;  Ed  Tolan;  James  Walker; 
Joan  Ellis,  director  of  Detroit  Council  of  Applied  Religion;  Chris 
Alston;  Art  Bowman;  Barry  Blossinghame ;  Pat  Raskin,  of  American 
Youth  for  Democracy;  Hugh  Bryson;  J.  M.  Bolin;  Anna  M.  Kross; 
Charles  Collins ;  Earl  B.  Dickerson ;  Frank  M.  Davis ;  Arthur  Fauset ; 
Abram  Flaxer;  Stephen  Fritchman;  Elinor  Gimbel;  Ira  Reid;  Wil- 
liam J.  Scheili'elin ;  Oliver  Boutte ;  and  John  Howard  Law^son. 

Some  $60,000  for  its  legislative  program  of  the  congress  was  reported 
pledged  at  the  convention  by  individuals,  trade-unions,  and  other  left- 
wing  organizations.  It  was  officially  reported  that  the  Negro  labor 
victory  committee  of  New  York  had  merged  with  the  trade-union 
division  of  the  congress. 

An  executive  board  of  the  National  Negro  Congress,  composed  of 
77  members,  was  elected  at  the  convention.  Among  those  on  the  board 
are  Doxey  Wilkerson,  Connnunist  Party  National  Committee;  Ben- 
jamin J.  Davis,  Jr.;  John  Goodman,  AFL;  Ada  B.  Jackson;  Herbert 
Aptheker;  Josh  Lawrence,  Communist  Party  National  Connnittee; 
Henry  Winston,  Communist  Party  National  Committee;  Hope  Stev- 
ens; and  Ewart  Guinier. 

Newly  elected  members  of  the  trade-union  committee  of  the  con- 
gress are  Donald  Henderson.  William  Young,  Mervyn  Rathborne, 
Raymond  Tillman,  Marcel  Scherer,  Hodges  Mason,  and  Charles  Col- 
lins. Elected  honorary  members  were  M.  Fazal  Elhai  Qurban,  of 
the  All-India  Trade  Union  Congress,  and  M.  Sidney  Pelage,  of  Paris. 

On  April  27, 1947,  100  members  of  the  National  Negro  Congress  and 
other  interested  individuals  called  upon  President  Truman  to  repudi- 
ate decisively  steps  to  illegalize  the  Communist  Party.  The  demand 
read  in  part : 

As  Negro  Americans  we  cannot  be  nnniindfnl  that  this  proposal  to  outlaw  the 
Communist  I'arty  comes  precisely  wlien  our  Federal  Government  proposed  grave 
concern  over  the  democratic  rights  of  people  in  far-distant  parts  of  the  world. 

Their  criticism  was  also  aimed  at  Secretary  of  Labor  Schwellenbach 
because  of  his  proposal  to  outlaw  the  Communist  Party.  Those  sign- 
ing the  appeal  included  W.  E.  B.  DuBois,  Paul  Robeson,  Roscoe  Dun- 


TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE  95 

jee,  Charlotte  HiUYkins  Brown,  Max  Yergan,  Charlotta  A.  Bass,  and 
Arthur  Huff  Fauset. 

David  Smith  is  secretary  of  the  Philadelphia  branch  of  the  congress. 
The  following  are  a  few  of  the  local  California  officers  of  the  Nation- 
al Negro  Congress:  Eaymond  F.  Thompson,  executive  secretary,  Cali- 
fornia (police  record  in  California  and  Detroit)  ;  Charles  MacMurray, 
chairman  of  the  Alameda  County  Executive  Committee;  Matt  Craw- 
ford, regional  director,  Oakland:  Charlotta  A.  Bass  (editor,  Cali- 
fornia Eagle),  president,  Los  Angeles  chapter;  Helen  Samuels,  secre- 
tary, Los  Angeles  chapter. 

The  National  Negro  Congress  held  an  All-Southern  Negro  Youth 
Conference  in  April  1938,  in  Chattanooga.  Edward  Strong  was  na- 
tional executive  secretary  of  that  conference.  It  was  reported  that 
355  delegates,  representing  organizations  composed  of  383,720  Negroes, 
were  in  attendance.  The  program  adopted  concentrated  on  the  south- 
ern aspect  of  the  Negroes,  and  it  was  in  kee])ing  with  the  program  and 
action  of  the  National  Negro  Congress.  This  conference  led  to  the 
establishment  of  the  Southern  Negro  Youth  Congress  and  first  served 
as  the  youth  section  of  the  National  Negro  Congress,  cooperating 
with  the  Young  Communist  League  (American  Youth  for  Democra- 
cy), the  American  Youth  Congress  (now  the  American  Youth  for  a 
Free  "World),  and  the  Southern  Conference  for  Human  Welfare. 

Esther  V.  Cooper,  executive  secretary  of  the  Southern  Negro  Youth 
Congress,  was  a  delegate  to  the  International  Congress  held  in  London 
in  October  1945.  which  led  to  the  setting  up  of  the  World  Federation 
for  Democratic  Youth,  world  Communist  movement. 

The  Seventh  Annual  Conference  of  an  All-Southern  Negro  Youth 
Congress  was  held  in  Columbia,  S.  C,  from  October  18  to  20,  1946. 
It  convened  at  Fisk  LTniversity,  with  900  delegates  from  the  Southern 
States  in  attendance.-  A  feature  of  the  convention  was  the  setting 
up  of  a  mock  government  called  the  Southern  Youth  Legislature  to 
"challenge  the  old  order  in  the  South.''  The  so-called  legislature 
enacted  bills  endorsing  Senator  Pepper  and  Henry  Wallace,  bills 
supporting  the  CIO  organizational  drive  in  the  South,  bills  favoring 
e(}ual  educational  and  health  facilities,  bills  against  the  poll  tax  and 
discrimination. 

Delegates  were  present  from  Haiti,  India,  and  Liberia.  Greetings 
were  received  from  Soviet  Russia  and  Yugoslavia.  American  Youth 
for  Democracy  sent  a  special  delegation  to  the  conference.  Songs 
produced  by  People's  Songs,  Inc.  were  sung. 

In  February  1947  the  Southern  Negro  Youth  Congress  announced 
that  it  had  built  many  new  clubs,  among  them  clubs  in  Roanoke; 
Montgomery  and  Birmingham,  Ala  ;  in  Anderson,  Andrews,  ISIamiing, 
and  Winnsboro,  S.  C. ;  and  one  in  Jackson,  Miss. 

The  headquarters  of  the  Southern  Negro  Youth  Congress  are  located 
at  526  Masonic  Temple  Building,  Birmingham,  Ala.  It  also  operates 
a  movement  called  the  Southern  Negro  Youth  Educational  Fund,  Inc. 

At  this  time  (1947)  the  officers  of  the  Southern  Negro  Youth  Con- 
gress are  as  follows :  Rose  Mae  Catchings,  president :  Alton  Adams, 
Jr.,  Edgar  Holt,  Kenneth  C.  Kennedy,  Barbara  Oldwine,  Charles 
Rhodes,  and  Ernest  Wright,  vice  presidents;  Esther  V.  Cooper  (Mrs. 
James  E.  Jackson,  whose  husband  was  with  the  American  Youth  Con- 
gress and  has  been  chairman  of  the  Communist  Party  of  Louisiana), 


96  TESTIMONY  OF  WALTER  S.   STEELE 

executive  secretary;  Louis  E.  Burnham,  organizing  secretary;  and 
Maenetta  Steele,  treasurer. 

The  executive  board  of  the  Southern  Negro  Youth  Congress  is 
composed  of  the  following :  Sadie  Appleby,  Mary  Kuth  Banks,  Helen 
Barnett,  Mabel  Bentley,  Sadie  Boyd,  Fannie  Burrell,  Dorothy  Burn- 
ham,  Florence  Castile,  John  Costley,  Gaines  Culpepper,  Norman 
Dixon,  Herman  Gray,  Lynn  Gray,  Cleo  Harris,  George  Hayes,  Lloyd 
Hurst,  Bennie  Hill,  Frank  Hutchings,  Jr.,  JVIatthew  Jarrett,  Eussell 
Jones,  Robert  Jones,  Lawrence  Matlock,  Naomi  Neel,  Stella  Pecot, 
Alice  Person,  Odessa  Roberts,  Theresa  Simpson,  Grace  Tillman, 
Robert  Wilson,  and  Wilson  York. 

The  advisory  board  is  composed  of  the  following:  F.  D.  Patterson, 
chairman ;  Charles  G.  Gomillion,  secretary ;  W.  A.  Bell,  D.  V.  Jemison, 
Mary  McLeod  Bethune,  Jesse  B.  Blayton,  Horace  Mann  Bond,  James 
Dombrowski,  W.  E.  B.  DuBois,  Roscoe  Dunjee,  Charlotte  Hawkins 
Brown,  F.  B.  Washington,  Arthur  D.  Shores,  James  Shepard,  Ira  de 
A.  Reid.  and  Ralph  O'Hara  Lanier. 

(Exhibit  No.  46  was  received.) ^^ 

Mr,  Steele.  The  organizing  secretary  of  the  Southern  Negro  Youth 
Congress,  Louis  Burnham,  is  a  'graduate  of  the  City  College  of  New 
York.  He  went  south  in  1941  to  assist  in  organizing  the  Congress. 
He  was  originally  connected  with  the  youth  section  of  the  National 
Negro  Congress.  In  1937,  he  participated  in  Young  Communist 
student  strikes  at  City  College.  His  name  often  appeared  in  Young 
Communist  publications.  He  was  elected  vice  chairman  of  the  Ameri- 
can Youth  for  Democracy  at  its  June  1946  convention,  held  in  New 
York. 

(Exhibit  No.  47  was  received. )^^ 

Arthur  G.  Price,  a  member  of  the  United  Negro  and  Allied  Veterans, 
is  special  projects  director  of  the  Southern  Negro  Youth  Congress. 
Incidentally,  the  Congress  is  also  affiliated  with  the  Council  on  African 
Affairs,  details  of  which  appear  later  in  this  testimony. 

Another  Negro  movement  which  has  every  evidence  of  being  Com- 
munist is  the  Negro  Publication  Society  of  America,  Inc.,  with  head- 
quarters in  New  York.  This  was  incorporated  in  New  York  on  Sep- 
tember 23,  1941,  with  Herbert  Aptheker,  Angelo  Herndon,  Margaret 
Osborn,  Lawrence  D.  Reddick,  and  Artlmr  Huff  Fauset  as  incorpora- 
tors. Reference  to  this  has  been  made  in  another  section  of  this 
testimony. 

I  wish  at  this  time  to  submit  as  evidence  information  on  the  organ- 
izations that  I  have  mentioned. 

(Exhibit  received.) 

Mr.  Rankin.  Do  you  include  in  your  statement  the  National  Asso- 
ciation for  the  Advancement  of  the  Colored  People? 

Mr.  Steele.  Pardon  me? 

Mr.  Rankin.  Do  you  include  in  your  list  there  this  National  Asso- 
ciation for  the  Advancement  of  the  Colored  People? 

Mr.  Steele.  Only  where  I  find  them  cooperating  with  the  other 
movements. 

Mr.  Rankin.  It  was  organized  by  a  man  named  Spingarn,  I  believe. 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir. 

^^  See  appendix,  p.  175,  for  exhibit  46. 
2»  See  appendix,  p.  175,  for  exliibit  47. 


TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE  97 

Mr.  Rankin.  And  a  man  by  the  name  of  Spingarn,  of  New  York,  is 
the  head  of  it  now. 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Rankin.  A  Jew  who  has  no  more  interest  in  the  Negro  than 
the  rest  of  us. 

The  Chairman.  He  might  have  an  interest.  Just  because  he  is  a 
Jew  is  no  sign  that  he  is  against  the  Negro. 

Mr.  Rankin.  He  hasn't  any  interest  in  the  Negro.  He  is  out  to  cause 
trouble.  You  knew  it  passed  a  resolution  condemning  tliis  committee 
and  demanding  its  abolition,  did  you  not  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Rankin.  I  just  wanted  to  know  if  you  were  aware  of  the  fact 
that  it  is  a  Communist  front  organization  and  used  to  promote  the 
interest  of  the  Communist  movement  throughout  the  country. 

Mr.  Steele.  Mr.  Congressman,  I  have  seen  a  few  of  its  locals  and  I 
have  seen  a  few  of  its  local  leaders  involved  with  other  Communist 
fronts,  but  I  haven't  personally  had  any  evidence  to  prove  as  a 
national  organization  that  it  is  a  front. 

Mr.  Rankin.  The  Booker  T.  Washington  Foundation,  which  is 
headed  by  a  group  of  very  fine  American  Negroes  asked  for  an  all- 
Negro  hospital  in  Virginia  to  take  care  of  the  load,  in  order  that  they 
might  have  their  own  doctors,  and  so  forth,  as  they  do  down  at  Tus- 
kegee.  Yesterday  this  alleged  National  Association  for  the  Advance- 
ment of  Colored  People  sent  a  telegram  to  the  committee  opposing  it. 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir. 

JSIr.  Rankin.  I  just  want  to  let  you  know  that  before  there  is  a  line 
of  demarcation 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes. 

Mr.  Rankin.  Between  the  real  patriotic  American  Negroes  and  the 
group  that  is  trying  to  mislead  the  others  into  trouble  and  stir  up 
friction  for  the  white  people  all  over  the  country.  Now,  you  pointed 
out  there  a  while  ago  one.  of  the  things  they  had  proposed  was  a  Negro 
soviet  for  the  Southern  States,  didn't  you  ^ 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir ;  I  submitted  the  evidence. 

Mr.  Rankin.  You  have  seen  their  map,  haven't  you  ? 

Mr.  Steele,  I  submitted  that. 

Mr.  Rankin.  You  submitted  that? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes. 

Mr.  Rankin.  You  know,  judging  from  what  took  place  in  Russia, 
that  would  mean  the  murder  of  practically  every  white  man  in  those 
States  who  was  not  willing  to  submit  to  that  kind  of  regime  and  the 
raping  of  untold  thousands  of  white  women.  You  are  aware  of  that, 
are  you  not  ? 

Mr.  Steele,  Of  course,  that  is  purely  a  presumption. 

Mr.  Rankin.  That  is  about  what  happened  in  Russia,  isn't  it,  when 
they  took  over  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  I  don't  know  what  happened  in  the  Negro  soviet  over 
there. 

Mr.  Rankin.  I  know,  but  it  wouldn't  be  any  better  than  the  white 
soviet. 

Mr.  Steele.  I  presume  not,  no,  sir. 

Mr.  Rankin.  You  know,  in  the  soviet  over  there,  every  man  that 
resisted  them  either  was  sent  to  Siberia  or  was  stood  before  a  firing 
line. 


98  .       TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Rankin.  I  just  wondered  if  the  people  of  this  country  realize 
the  danger  that  these  fronts  really  have  to  the  welfare  of  this  country  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  Well,  that  is  what  I  think  the  committee  is  trying  to 
show. 

The  Chairman.  By  exposure. 

Mr.  Steele.  By  exposure. 

The  Chairman.  No  question  about  that. 

Mr.  Rankin.  That  is  exactly  what  I  am  asking,  too. 

Mr.  Steele.  I  would  say  any  take-over,  in  any  section,  would  be 
followed  by  bloodshed,  whether  it  was  a  Negro  soviet  or  a  white 
soviet. 

Mr.  McDowell.  Of  course,  INIr.  Steele,  you  probably  know  the  re- 
sponsible colored  leaders  in  America  have  completelj^  rejected  this 
idea. 

Mr.  Steele.  I  understand. 

Mr.  Rankin.  And  they  rejected  this  alleged  National  Association 
for  the  Advancement  of  the  Colored  People,  too. 

Mr.  Steele.  Now 

Mr.  Stripling.  Mr.  Steele,  have  you  finished  with  your  testimony 
on  the  Communist  activities  among  Negroes? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Could  you  give  the  committee  any  observation  on 
your  part  as  to  whether  or  not  the  Communists  have  been  making 
any  progress  and  meeting  with  any  success  in  their  efforts  to  recruit 
the  Negroes  behind  the  cause  of  communism? 

Mr.  Steele.  From  my  observations,  I  think  they  have  made  very 
little  progress  with  the  masses  of  the  Negro  people.  I  have  talked 
to  people  who  are  students  on  that  subject  and  who  have  studied  that 
angle  in  particular.  The  claim  is — as  I  understand  it — that  the 
average  colored  person  is  tied  pretty  closely  to  his  church  and  that 
while  they  might  win  some  of  them  over  temporarily,  as  soon  as  they 
find  out  what  it  is,  the  majority  of  them  are  out  of  the  movement. 
Considering  the  number  of  colored  people  in  the  country,  I  doubt 
very  much  that  tliey  have  made  any  great  inroads. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Would  you  consider  the  National  Negro  Congress 
to  be  in  the  forefront  in  the  effort  of  the  Communists  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  Very  definitely  so. 

Mr.  Stripling.  They  are  spearheading  the  Communist  effort  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  Very  definitely  so:  yes.  sir.  In  fact,  the  original  chair- 
man of  that  organization,  Phillips  Randolph,  resigned  as  chairman 
of  it  because,  as  he  said,  he  found  after  he  had  headed  the  organiza- 
tion it  was  absolutely  under  the  control  of  tiie  Communist  Party  and 
was  being  financed  directly  by  the  Communist  Party. 

The  Chairman.  But  you  did  say  the  National  Association  for  the 
Advancement  of  the  Colored  People  was  not  a  Communist  front. 

Mr.  Steele.  I  said,  insofar  as  I  have  found 

Mr.  Rankin.  He 

The  Chahoian.  Let  the  witness  answer. 

Mr.  Rankin.  You  are  testifying  for  him,  through  Mr.  Thomas. 

The  Chairman.  I  am  asking  questions. 

Mr.  Steele.  I  think  I  have  already  answered  the  question,  anyhow, 
that  I  haven't  found  the  national  organization  as  a  whole  is  a  Com- 


TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER    S.    STEELE  99 

munist  front.  I  have  found  locals  and  local  officers  connected  with 
the  other  Red  front  movements. 

The  Chairman.  Did  yon  know  the  national  association  had  passed 
a  resolntion  at  its  recent  convention  condemning  communism? 

Mr.  Steele.  I  didn't  know  that ;  no.  sir. 

Mr.  Rankin.  Do  you  know  it  passed  one  the  other  day  condemn- 
ing this  committee  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  I  knew  that. 

Mr.  Rankin.  And  for  the  destruction  of  this  committee. 

Mr.  Steele.  I  knew  of  that,  sir. 

Mr.  Rankin.  Because  of  its  fight  against  communism. 

The  Chairman.  There  are  a  lot  of  other  people  condemn  this  com- 
mittee, but  that  doesn't  mean  they  are  Communists. 

Mr.  SiTiELE.  Now  I  wish  to  deal  with  a  new  subject,  that  I  doubt 
you  have  heard  very  much  about.  It  is  a  rather  dry  subject,  in  a 
way,  because  it  has  to  do  with  the  cultural  front.  It  has  many  ramifi- 
cations. From  1930  to  1936,  the  Communist  forces  in  the  United 
States  maintained  sections  of  the  International  of  Revolutionary 
Writers  and  the  International  or  Revolutionary  Theaters,  through 
which  their  cultural-front  activities  were  directed.  The  immediate 
sections  thereof  were  the  John  Reed  Clubs,  Pen  and  Hammer  Clubs, 
and  the  Workers'  Cultural  Federation.  The  subdivisions  were  the 
following :  Workers'  Music  League,  Workers'  Theater  League,  Work- 
ers' Radio  Club,  Workers'  Short-Wave  Club,  National  Film  and  Photo 
League.  Workers'  Film  and  Photo  League.  Young  Workers'  Dance 
League,  Group  Theater,  and  New  Theater.  The  League  of  American 
AYriters  later  supplanted  the  John  Reed  and  Pen  and  Hannner  Clubs. 
These  in  turn  operated  through  many  offshoots. 

Again  I  refer  to  what  I  charge  is  one  of  the  most  important  centers 
of  Soviet  and  Communist  activities  in  our  country — the  National 
Council  of  American-Soviet  Friendship,  this  time  with  respect  to  its 
advancement  of  present-day  Communist  "cultural"  activities.  On 
November  18,  1945,  the  council  held  an  American-Soviet  cultural  con- 
ference at  the  Engineering  Societies  Building  in  New  York  City. 
Scores  of  Communists  ancl  fronters  attended,  together  with  others 
interested  in  revolutionary  literature,  stage,  screen,  dancing,  educa- 
tion, radio,  and  all  other  fields  of  leftist  cultural  activities. 

Howard  Fast  was  one  of  the  headliners  of  the  conference.  In  his 
address  he  made  the  following  statement :  "I  believe  that  the  Soviet 
writer  is  armed  far  better  than  we  are  with  the  tools  of  understanding 
society.""  He  referred  to  our  censorship  laws  which  he  claimed  forced 
concessions  on  the  Avriters.  He  spoke  of  the  average  writer's  inability 
to  labor  through  a  "welter  of  contradictions,"  of  his  inability  to  bring 
forth  democracy  within  the  framework  of  an  "imperialistic  nation." 
He  scorned  those  who  could  be  affected  by  the  cry  of  communism,  and 
he  called  for  writers  to  battle  through  such  attacks.  He  often  referred 
to  the  superiority  of  Soviet  literature. 

Arthur  Upham  Pope  presided  at  the  conference.  Other  speakers 
were  Helen  Galiagan  Douglas,  Serge  Koussevitsky,  Margaret  Webster, 
John  Hersey,  Lillian  Hellman,  Dean  Dixon,  and  Aaron  Copeland. 
Commiinist  publications  devoted  considerable  space  to  this  conference. 
Greetings  were  received  from  the  All  Union  Society  for  Cultural 
Relations  (of  Moscow),  of  which  it  is  believed  that  the  National 
Council  for  American-Soviet  Friendship  is  a  section. 


100  TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE 

Reports  of  the  revival  of  Communist  cultural  movements  in  other 
countries  were  given  prominent  space  in  Communist  publications  as 
"come-ons"  for  American  Reds  in  this  field.  In  February  1946  a 
larger  American-Soviet  Cultural  Conference  was  held  in  New  York. 
Shortly  after,  Serge  Koussevitsky,  Morton  Gould,  Olin  Downes,  Elie 
Siegmeister,  and  Margaret  Grant  called  the  first  meeting  of  the 
American-Soviet  Music  Society  at  Times  Hall,  240  West  Forty-fourth 
Street,  New  York.     Aaron  Copeland  presided. 

In  April  1946  came  William  Z.  Foster's  call  for  increased  action  in 
the  "cultural"  field.  At  that  time  he  predicted  that  "the  next  year 
(1947)  will  show  a. tremendous  resurgence  of  progressive  spirit  in 
every  cultural  field."     He  further  stated  : 

National  cultures  are  rich  with  the  people's  folk  songs,  their  minstrels  and 
ballad  singers,  their  poetry,  their  theaters,  their  artistic  handicrafts ;  and  more- 
over rising  revolutionary  social  classes,  instinctively  realizing  the  importance  of 
art  as  a  social  weapon,  have  always  forged  their  own  art  and  used  it  to  chal- 
lenge that  of  the  existing  ruling  class.  Tlie  national  culture  in  any  given  period 
has  never  been  identified  with  the  culture  of  the  ruling  class  *  *  *  Progres- 
sive artists  ai"e  raising  their  voices  independently  in  literature,  in  the  theater, 
and  in  various  other  artistic  fields.  At  the  same  time  they  are  exerting  con- 
structive pressures  upon  the  organized,  capitalistic  cultural  forms :  the  radio, 
the  press,  the  motion  pictures  *  *  *  Communists  and  other  democratic  artists 
should  cultivate  both  these  streams  of  new  people's  art  *  *  *  including  the 
publication  of  books,  the  production  of  progressive  plays,  the  promotion  of  artistic 
and  general  culture  work  in  trade  unions,  Negro  groups,  farmer  organizations, 
and  other  people's  groupings ;  the  development  of  democratic  art  projects  by  the 
local.  State,  and  National  Government,  the  strengthening  of  publications  by  the 
left,  and  the  establishment  of  organized  artistic  movements  *  *  *  The  spe- 
cial tasks  of  the  Communists  in  the  development  of  the  new  democratic  trends 
in  our  national  culture  is  to  enrich  them  with  Marxist  understanding  and  to 
carry  them  to  the  people.  The  Communists  must,  above  all  others,  be  the  ones 
to  understand  the  true  significance  of  art  as  a  weapon  in  the  class  struggle,  and 
to  know  how  to  combat  all  reactionary  capitalistic  hindrances  to  the  development 
of  the  new  people's  democratic  art. 

The  Red  publications  widely  advertised  the  two  large  mass  meet- 
ings which  were  held  in  New  York  City  and  Los  Angeles,  providing 
crescendo  to  the  drive  in  behalf  of  the  cultural  front.  The  Los  An- 
geles meetin^was  held  under  the  auspices  of  the  Communist  west 
coast  paper.  People's  Daily  World,  and  it  was  reported  to  have  at- 
tracted 1,500  people.  The  New  York  meeting  was  held  under  the 
joint  auspices  of  the  Communist  organs,  the  Daily  Worker  and  New 
Masses,  at  which  3,500  people  were  reported  in  attendance.  Emphasis 
was  placed  at  these  meetings  on  the  building  of  a  "broad  Marxist  cul- 
tural front"  for  the  "stormy  days  ahead." 

In  July  1946  a  cultural  frOnt  congress  was  held  in  Moscow.  Nor- 
man Corwin,  writer  and  radio  commentator  of  the  United  States, 
was  the  "honored  guest."  He  presented  the  Moscow  International  Con- 
vention with  the  two  recordings  from  the  American-Soviet  Music 
Society,  on  which  were  reproduced  special  messages  from  the  Red 
leaders  in  the  United  States  to  the  Soviet  heads. 

An  increase  in  cultural-front  activities  finally  became  evident 
with  the  setting  up  of  Stage  for  Action,  Young  People's  Records,  New 
Theater,  Trade  Union  Theater,  People's  Artists,  Cultural  Folk  Dance 
Group,  Theodore  Dreiser  Work  Shop,  Modern  Culture  Club,  Carver 
Cultural  Council,  Cultural  Council,  Dramatic  Work  Shop,  Contem- 
porary Tlieater  (mobile  unit) ,  Provisional  Committee  for  Democracy 
in  Radio,  International  Programs,  Jefferson  Chorus,  Philadelphia 


TESTIMONY  OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE  101 

Stage  for  Action,  California  Stage  for  Action,  Contemporary  Writers, 
American  Folksay  Group,  People's  Orchestra,  People's  Chorus,  Book 
Find  Club,  Challenge  Records,  Charter  Records,  Freiheit  Gesang 
Farein,  People's  Artists,  Inc.,  Committee  for  the  Defense  of  Educa- 
tion, the  Keyrlote  Recordings,  Inc.,  People's  Songs  and  People's 
Radio  Foundation. 

New  Masses  entered  the  recording  field  with  transcriptions  of 
Songs  of  the  Lincoln  Brigade,  Strange  Fruit,  Beloved  Comrade,  Soli- 
darity Forever,  Red  Army  Sings,  and  Citizens  CIO  Album.  Tliese 
recordings  were  offered  free  with  subscriptions  to  Communist  weekly, 
New  Masses. 

The  American-Russian  Music  Corporation  came  into  existence.  It 
maintains  offices  at  150  West  57th  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y.  It  is 
learned  that. this  was  also  set  up  by  the  National  Council  for  American- 
Soviet  Friendship. 

During  this  period,  the  American  Authors  Authority  began  func- 
tioning. It  was  designed  to  control  copyrights.  This  was  sired  by 
the  Screen  Writers'  Guild,  Hollj^wood  Citizens'  Committee  of  Arts, 
Sciences  and  Professions,  and  the  Hollywood  Writers'  Mobilization. 
The  chief  authority  was  centered  under  the  direction  of  James  M.  Cain. 
It  is  the  intention  of  the  Authority  to  try  to  force  all  writers  to  send 
their  manuscripts  to  the  Authority  to  have  them  copyrighted  in  its 
nam§.  In  one  sense  it  may  have  been  considered  a  sort  of  a  bureau- 
cratic communistic  union;  in  another,  a  huge  Red  monopoly. 

The  Compass  Record  Co.  then  became  active,  specializing  in  Soviet 
recordings.  Young  People's  Record  Clubs  began  to  flourish,  as  did 
Young  People's  Book  Clubs.  The  International  Film  Foundation 
of  New  York  announced  Julien  Bryan  film  productions  ready  for  dis- 
tribution. International  Publishers,  the  Communist  propaganda 
house,  issued  a  series  of  Young  World  Books  which  were  propaganda 
about  Communist  Russia.  International  Workers'  Order  films  were 
exhibited  all  over  the  country.  Communist  schools"began  to  organize 
classes  in  song,  stage,  screen,  dance,  writing,  and  kindred  subjects.  A 
People's  Song  School  is  the  most  recent  addition  to  the  Communist 
cultural  scene. 

An  "Arts  as  a  Weapon"  s^nnposium  was  held  in  New  York  City 
on  April  15,  194G.  It  was  headlined  by  William  Z.  Foster,  Howard 
Fast,  Dalton  Trumbo,  Arnaud  D'Usseau,  and  Elizabeth  Cattlett. 
Joseph  North  and  Samuel  Sillen  were  cochairmen  of  the  symposium. 
It  was  decided  at  this  time  that  the  cultural  section  in  the  revolution- 
ary field  was  to  be  rebuilt ;  that  "art  was  to  become  a  weapon."  Only 
a  few  months  earlier  Moscow  had  purged  its  cultural  fronts  of  the  so- 
called  "weaklings"  who  had  permitted  the  "vibrations  of  world  unity 
for  victory  to  dull  their  drums  for  revolution." 

Let  us  now  examine  the  ramifications  of  the  larger  of  the  present- 
day  movements  specializing  in  various  fields  of  so-called  "culture," 
but  which  have  become  part  and  parcel,  in  fact,  of  the  Red  propaganda 
and  agitational  machine  in  the  United  States. 

People's  Songs,  Inc.,  was  incorporated  in  January  31,  1946,  in  New 
York  City.  It  now  has  sections  in  every  large  city  in  the  United 
States.  Affiliated  with  it  are  many  other  smaller  movements.  It  has 
injected  itself  into  CIO,  Communist  fronts,  and  Communist  schools. 
The  incorporation  papers  list  the  following  as  directors  and  incor- 


102  TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER    S.    STEELE 

porators :  Herbert  Hanf recht,  302  West  102d  Street,  New  York, 
N.  Y;  Peter  Seeger,  129  McDoiigal  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y. ;  Lee  Hays, 
same  address;  Daniel  Lapidus,  100  Fifth  Avenue,  New  York,  N.  Y., 
who  appeared  before  this  committee  of  Congress  as  attorney  for 
Eugene  Dennis,  secretary  of  the  Communist  Party ;  and  Robert  Chii- 
borne,  729  Greenwich  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y.  Joe  Brodsky  is  the  at- 
torney for  the  corporation.  The  incorporation -papers  provided  that 
the  members  of  the  board  should  number  not  less  than  5,  and  more 
than  25. 

The  outfit  was  described  as  a  "membership  corporation,"  the  pur- 
pose of  which  is  to  stimulate  and  develop  an  understanding  and  appre- 
ciation of  worthy  American  music,  songs,  cultural  and  civic  traditions, 
and  to  carry  out  these  objectives  on  a  nonpartisan  basis  (exhibit  48).^" 

The  board  of  directors  includes  the  following :  B.  A.  Botkin,  Tom 
Glazer,  Horace  Grenell,  Woody  Guthrie,  John  Hammond,  Jr.,  Her- 
bert Haufrecht,  Bess  Hawes,  Waldemar  Hille,  Svatava  Jacobson,  Paul 
Kent,' Millard  Lampell,  Felix  Landau,  E;irl  Robinson,  Bob  Russell, 
Walter  Lowenfels,  Alan  Lomax,  Paul  Secon,  Kenneth  Spencer,  Wil- 
liam Stracke,  Palmer  Weber,  Alec  Wilder,  and  Bill  Wolff.  National 
director  of  People's  Songs,  Inc.,  is  Peter  Seeger;  executive  director, 
Lee  Hays;  and  editor,  Bernard  Asbel.  The  board  of  sponsors  in- 
cludes Sam  Barlow,  Leonard  Bernstein,  Marc  Blitzstein  (who  was  with 
the  War  Department  on  special  duty  in  England).  Aaron  Copeland, 
Norman  Corwin,  Lincoln  Kirstein,  Larry  Adler,  Moe  Asch,  C.  B. 
Baldwin,  Carl  Carmer,  Oscar  Hammerstein  II,  E.  Y.  Harburg,  Judy 
HoUiday,  Lena  Home,  John  Houseman,  Burl  Ives,  David  Kapp,  Elia 
Kazan,  Alain  Locke,  Lynn  Murray,  Dorothy  Parker,  Paul  Robeson, 
Harold  Rome,  Herman  Sobel,  Louis  Untermeyer,  Sam  Wanamaker, 
Josh  White,  and  Lila  Belle  Pitts.  The  advisory  committee  includes 
Rockwell  Kent  and  Michael  Gold. 

People's  Songs,  Inc.,  appears  to  be  directly  descended  from  the 
Almanac  Singers,  which  prior  to  World  War  II  published  "songs  for 
the  workers"  (workers  as  used  by  the  Reds  is  synonymous  with  Com- 
munists). The  Almanac  Singers  furnished  the  songs  used  by  such 
Communist  groups  as  the  American  Student  Union,  American  Youth 
Congress,  International  Workers'  Order,  American  Peace  .Mobil- 
ization, etc.  People's  Songs,  Inc.,  is  now  writing  songs  and  plays, 
promoting  choruses  and  schools  for  Conmiunist  fronts.  Many  of  its 
songs  have  been  adopted  by  certain  left-wing  CIO  unions,  the  CIO  and 
the  National  Citizens'  Political  Action  Committee,  the  Communist 
Party  and  its  units,  American  Youth  for  Democracy,  Civil  Rights 
Congress,  the  International  Workers'  Order,  Congress  of  American 
Women,  the  Southern  Conference  for  Human  Welfare,  and  other  Red 
fronts. 

The  CIO  is  also  taking  its  place  in  Red  cultural  fields.  Not  long  ago 
a  CIO  chorus  was  formed.  On  May  24,  1947,  at  Town  Hall,  New 
York  City,  the  chorus  presented  a  cantata  written  by  Millard  Lam- 
pell and  Alex  North.  This  was  the  first  public  appearance  of  the 
chorus. 

A  few  of  the  many  songs  produced  by  People's  Songs,  Inc.,  are :  Put 
It  on  the  Ground  (pay  raise  song  to  the  bosses),  by  Ray  Glaser  and 
Bill  Wolfe;  Take  This  Hammer  (going  home  song  for  GI's)  ;  Jim 


^"  See  appendix,  p.  175,  for  exhil>it  48. 


TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE  103 

Crow  (rticial  agitational  song),  by  Bill  Oliver;  Atomic  Energy  (anti- 
atomic  bomb),  by  Ray  Glaser  and  Sir  Lancelot;  We've  Got  Our  Eyes 
on  You  (political  campaign  song  '"dedicated  to  your  Congressman"), 
by  Bernie  Asbel;  That's  Why,  by  Ray  Glaser;  Roll  the  Prices  Back, 
by  Ray  Glaser;  On  to  Sacramento  (marching  song  sung  by  marchers 
on  the  way  to  the  offices  of  the  Governor  of  California  on  March  20, 
1947),  by  Mario  (Boots)  Casetta  ;  John  Hardy  (Hardy,  a  coal  miner, 
was  convicted  of  murder  during  a  coal  strike  in  West  Virginia  in 
181)-i)  ;  DDT  (agitational  song  against  conservatives  in  Congress,  and 
in  support  of  De  Lacy.  Powell,  Marcantonio,  and  other  radicals  men- 
tioned by  name),  by  Walter  Lowenfels;  Walk  in  Peace  (antiwar 
song),  by  Sir  Lancelot;  Listen  Mr.  Bilbo,  by  Robert  Claiborne;  Six- 
teen Ton  (agitatifmal  song  for  coal  miners)  ;  Except  My  Daddy's 
Wages  (antihigli  cost  of  living),  by  Ray  Glaser;  Landlord;  Liberal 
Commentator;  The  Bonnie  Laboring  Boy;  Song  of  My  Hands;  Roll 
the  Union  On ;  The  Union  Man ;  Conversation  With  a  Mule ;  We  Are 
the  Guys;  Solidarity  Forever;  The  Rankin  Tree;  Homeless  Blues; 
May  Day  Song:  OPA  Shouts;  Beloved  Comrade;  Talking  Atomic 
Bliies;  Look  Here  Georgia;  Free  and  Equal  Blues;  Walk  in  Peace; 
Black,  Brown,  and  White  Blues;  Beans,  Bacon,  and  Gravy;  The  Rat 
IS^amed  Franco;  Voter,  Oh  Voter,  Oh  Voter;  Bilbo  Breakdown;  You 
Guys  Gotta  Organize ;  Vote  PAC  ;  Poll  Tax  Chain ;  Picket  Line  Pris- 
cilla;  "Wliatcha  Gonna  Do  When  Election  Comes?;  Inflation  Talking 
Blues;  Union  Maid;  Unity  Rhumba;  Miners:  Kids  and  Wives';  and 
In  Spite  of  Governor  Martin. 

Let  us  consider  the  type  of  songs,  classified  as  "worthy  American 
songs,"  which  are  produced  and  circulated  by  People's  Songs,  Inc. 
One  of  them  is  entitled  :  "'The  Preacher  and  the  Slave,"  set  to  the  music 
of  an  old  Gospel  hymn.    The  words  are  as  follows : 

Long-haired  preacher  come  out  every  night, 
Try  to  tell  you  what's  wrong  and  what's  right ; 
'  But  when  asked  a-bout  something  to  eat 

They  will  answer  with  voices  so  sweet : 


Refrain 


Refrain. 


You  will  eat  by  and  by 

In  that  glorious  land  above  the  sky. 

AVork  and  pray,  live  on  hay : 

You'll  get  pie  in  the  sky  when  you  die. 

Working^llen  of  all  countries  unite, 
Side  by  side  we  for  freedom  will  fight ; 
When  the  world  and  its  wealth  we  have  gained 
To  tlie  grafters  we'll  sing  this  refrain  : 


This  song  was  originally  written  by  Joe  Hill,  reproduced  by  People's 
Songs,  Inc.,  by  permission  of  the  IWW.  It  is  considered  one  of  their 
best  songs.  Aubrey  Haan  of  the  LTniversity  of  Utah  is  at  the  present 
time  writing  a  novel  based  on  the  life  of  Joe  Hill.  A  number  of  IIVW 
songs  have  been  reproduced  for  present-day  use  by  People's  Songs. 

Another  of  the  People's  Songs'  "masterpieces"  is  entitled:  "Rag- 
gedy."   The  following  is  one  of  the  verses : 

Hungry,  hungry  are  we, 
Just  as  hungry  as  hungry  can  be ; 
We  don't  get  nothing  for  our  labor, 
So  hungry,  hungry  are  we. 


104  TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER  S.   STEELE 

In  the  other  verses  the  words  "raggedy,"  "homeless,"  "landless,"  and 
"angry"  replace  the  word  "hungry"  used  in  the  first  verse, 

A  special  song  was  written  for  use  at  subscription  gatherings  for 
the  People's  Daily  World,  west  coast  Communist  organ.  The  first 
verse  reads : 

Johnny  went  to  get  a  subscription, 

Upon  a  door  lie  knocked. 
He  spoke  rigbt  through  the  transom 

Because  the  door  was  locked. 
Said  Johnny,  so  persistently, 

"I'm  bringing  you  good  news, 
A  copy  of  the  People's  World 
Will  clarify  your  views." 

A  play  entitled  "Hootenanny"  is  now  being  produced  by  People's 
Songs  and  Song  Work  Shops,  in  which  many  of  the  previously  men- 
tioned songs  are  sung.  Harry  Hay  acts  as  coordinator,  and  he  is  sup- 
ported by  Earl  Robinson  and  Bill  Wolff.  Among  those  included  in 
the  cast  are  Murray  Gooclson,  Sonny  Vale,  the  Berry  Sisters,  Sir 
Lancelot,  Bill  Oliver  of  the  CIO  Newspaper  Guild  of  Los  Angeles, 
Shirley  Gray,  and  Mario  (Boots)  Casetta,  director  of  the  Los  Angeles 
Chapter  of  People's  Songs.  A  check  of  the  records  of  the  majority  of 
these  individuals  will  show  their  direct  Communist  or  front  connec- 
tions in  many  fields. 

People's  Songs,  Inc.,  is  reaching  into  labor  unions  through  the  or- 
ganization of  union  choruses.  One  is  the  Ford  Chorus,  composed  of 
members  of  the  large  Detroit  CIO  local.  Johnny  Gallo  is  recrea- 
tional director  of  the  local  and  organizer  and  director  of  the  People's 
Songs  project.  He  is  a  national  officer  of  American  Youth  for  Democ- 
racy, and  he  is  one  of  the  leaders  of  its  Michigan  section.  The 
International  Ladies'  Garment  Workers'  Union,  railroad  unions  of 
Chicago,  and  the  Allis-Chalmers  CIO  strikers  were  reported  to  be 
seriously  considering  forming  choruses. 

People's  Songs  staged  a  benefit  for  the  Communist  Party  in  New 
York  City  on  November  30, 1946.  Its  advertisements  and  press  notices 
are  to  be  found  in  the  Daily  Worker,  New  Masses,  The  Worker,  Chi- 
cago Star,  Michigan  Herald,  PM,  People's  Daily  World,  and  Salute, 
New  Theater  and  the  Trade  Union  Theater  are  among  the  groups 
affiliated  Avith  People's  Songs. 

People's  Artists  is  also  an  affiliate  of  People's  Songs,  and  it  has 
offices  in  with  the  latter.  It  supplies  special  talent  to  organizations  for 
the  purpose  of  promoting  people's  songs,  shows,  and  entertainment. 
People's  Artists  also  supplies  the  entertainment  for  Communist  Party 
gatherings.  It  took  charge  of  the  entertainment  at  a  party  meeting 
which  was  held  in  New  York  on  April  26,  1947.  People's  Songs  also 
participated. 

A  People's  Songs  concert  was  sponsored  by  the  American  Youth 
for  Democracy  in  Cleveland  in  October  1946.  The  Jefferson  Chorus, 
organized  by  the  Communist  school  having  the  same  name,  is  under 
the  direction  of  People's  Songs.  The  chorus  operates  under  the 
auspices  of  Stage  for  Action.  The  chorus  led  the  strikers  in  New 
York  City  in  January  1947,  and  it  was  referred  to  as  the  Jefferson 
Chorus  on  the  Picket  Lines. 

The  American  Folksay  Group  of  American  Youth  for  Democracy, 
in  February  1947,  was  led  by  People's  Songs.     The  New  Theater, 


TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE  105 

m  cooperation  with  Stage  for  Action  and  People's  Songs  is  now  stag- 
ing Communist  plays  in  New  York.  One  of  them  is  Waiting  for 
Lefty.  Others  are  The  Cradle  Will  Rock,  The  General  and  the 
Goats,  and  All  Aboard. 

People's  Songs  was  in  charge  of  the  entertainment  presented  at  the 
Civil  Rights  Congress  in  September  1946.  Recordings  of  People's 
Songs  are  made  by  Keynote  Recordings,  Inc.  Among  Keynote  Re- 
cordings of  People's  Songs  is  an  album  of  five  records  produced  for 
use  by  the  CIO-PAC  on  radio  transcriptions.  People's  Songs  pro- 
duced the  songs  used  by  the  National  Political  Action  Committee  and 
Schools  for  Political  Action  Technique,  launched  in  1946.  One  such 
School  was  held  in  Washington,  D,  C,  in  June  of  that  year,  Peter 
Seeger,  Lee  Hays,  and  Allan  Max  were  instructors  at  this  school. 

Millard  Lampell  of  People's  Songs,  Inc.,  was  one  of  the  organizers 
of  the  Almanac  Singers.  He  is  also  chairman  of  the  veterans'  com- 
mittee of  the  Civil  Rights  Congress,  and  a  writer  for  the  Daily  Worker. 
Walter  Lowenfels  of  People's  Songs  is  a  Communist  Party  leader  in 
Philadelphia.  Dr.  B.  A.  Botkin  until  recently  was  archivist  of  the 
Library  of  Congress  in  the  American  Folk  Song  Division. 

People's  Songs  claims  a  membership  of  2,000  in  38  States,  with  mem- 
bers in  Hawaii,  Alaska,  China,  France,  and  India. 

So  important  have  the  songs  produced  by  People's  Songs,  Inc.,  be- 
come in  Red  ranks  that  the  Communist  school  in  Hollywood — People's 
Educational  Center,  the  (Communist)  California  Labor  School  in 
San  Francisco,  the  Jefferson  School  in  New  York,  and  the  (Com- 
munist) Labor  School  in  Oakland  have  inaugurated  classes  in  the 
science  of  agitational  song  writing.  They  are  taught-  by  leaders  of 
People's  Songs,  Inc.  The  Cultural  Folk  Song  Group  and  American- 
Russian  Corporation  (distributor  of  Russian  and  Soviet  Music)  are 
other  organizations  active  in  this  field  (exhibits  49  and  50)  .^^ 

Leonard  Jackson,  former  director  of  International  Programs,  now 
heads  the  People's  Songs  booking  division. 

People's  Songs  is  now  completing  a  special  set  of  recordings  for 
CIO  unions.  One  particular  set  is  being  made  for  the  National 
Maritime  Union.  It  is  planned  that  recordings  are  to  be  placed  on 
all  ships  manned  by  NMU  members. 

A  board  of  sponsors,  recently  set  up  to  give  People's  Songs  additional 
momentum  in  its  all-out  drive  for  expansion,  includes  Larry  Adler, 
Moe  Asch,  C.  B.  Baldwin,  Sam  Barlow,  Leonard  Bernstein,  Marc 
Blitzstein,  Carl  Carmer,  Aaron  Copeland,  Norman  Corwin,  Oscar 
Hammerstein  II,  E.  Y.  Harburg,  Judy  HoUiday,  Lena  Home,  John 
Houseman,  Burl  Ives,  David  Kapp,  Elli  Kazan,  Gene  Kelly,  Lincoln 
Kirsten,  Alain  Locke,  Lynn  Murray,  Dorothy  Parker,  Lila  Belle  Pitts, 
Paul  Robeson,  Harold  Rome,  Herman  Sobel,  Louis  Untermeyer,  Sara 
Wanamaker,  and  Josh  White. 

People's  Songs  has  sent  delegated  representatives  to  the  Prague 
conference  of  the  Communist  World  Youth  Festival,  now  being  held. 
Michael  Scott  and  Ernie  Lieberman  were  selected  as  its  delegates. 

Communist  cultural  groups  are  establishing  so-called  work  shops 
throughout  the  country  to  promote  People's  Songs  and  Stage  for 
Action  productions.  They  are  also  penetrating  legitimate  work  shops 
of  culture  by  planting  their  ready-made  "cultural"  wares  therein. 

"  See  appendix,  p.  175,  for  exhibits  49  and  50. 


106  TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE 

People's  Artists,  Inc.,  referred  to  previously  herein,  maintains  oiRces 
with  Stage  for  Action,  and  also  at  11  West  Charles  Street,  New  York, 
N.  Y.  It  has  sections  in  the  Midwest  and  far  West.  Its  leaders  in- 
clude Paul  Bain,  Bob  Claiborne,  Sis  Cunningham,  Eve  Gentry,  Cisco 
Houston,  Phil  Irving,  Jane  Martin,  Brown  McGhee,  Harry  B.  Ringel, 
Pete  Seeger,  and  Sonny  Terry.  Claiborne  and  Seeger  are  with 
People's  Songs,  Inc.  In  Los  Angeles  the  outfit  is  referred  to  as 
People's  Artists  Bureau. 

Additional  cultural  movements,  mentioned  in  Communist  publica- 
tions, are  the  Artists  League  of  America  and  the  Cultural  Folk  Dance 
group. 

The  New  Institute,  with  offices  at  29  Flatbush  Avenue,  Brooklyn, 
N.  Y.,  is  designed  to  promote  the  best  way  to  teach  film  and  radio. 
Members  of  the  faculty  are  Paul  Strand,  Irving  Lerner,  Leo  Hur- 
witz,  Alfred  Saxe,  Sydney  Myers,  Peter  Lyon,  Donald  Winclair, 
and  Eva  Desca.     Donald  Winclair  is  director. 

The  International  Film  Foundation,  Inc.,  1600  Broadway,  New 
York,  N.  Y.,  is  promoting  film  plays  on  Russia.  It  propagandizes 
among  American  youth.  Julian  Bryan  is  executive  director 
{exhibit  51).^^ 

Also  active  in  the  play  and  film  field  is  the  International  Workers' 
Order  which  sponsors  road  shows  and  film  entertainment  of  an  agita- 
tional nature.  Short  films  by  Frank  Sinatra  are  also  featured. 
Charles  Cooper  is  national  director  of  this  branch  of  IWO  activity. 
The  IWO  film  group  has  recently  produced  12  films.  The  rental  for 
these  films  is  kept  to  a  low  price.  Films  available  include  Health  and 
Security  for  America,  a  propaganda  play  in  behalf  of  socialized  medi- 
cine; Forward  All  Together,  upholding  Negro  rights ;  The  U.  S.  S.  R. — 
The  Land  and  the  People,  a  pro-Russian  film;  We  Are  All  Brothers, 
adopted  from  the  pamphlet.  Races  of  Mankind ;  How  To  Live  With  the 
Atom,  Up  and  Atom,  Sing  and  Win,  and  World  Control  of  Atom 
Energy. 

Challenge  Records,  Charter  Records,  Compass  Record  Co.  (distri- 
butors of  Soviet  recordings),  and  the  Young  People's  Record  Club, 
Inc.,  are  all  exploited  by  the  Communists.  Young  People's  Record 
Club  has  offices  at  40  West  Forty-sixth  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y.  As 
its  name  implies,  it  serves  youth  at  club  rates,  that  is  by  the  month. 
This  was  incorporated  in  New  York  City  on  July  21,  1946.  The  in- 
corporators, thought  to  be  "dummy"  incorporators,  were  Blanche 
Thorner,  2911  Barnes  Avenue,  Bronx,  N.  Y.;  Ethel  Radin,  3045 
Twelfth  Street,  Brooklyn,  N.  Y. ;  and  Renee  Kaminsky,  752  West 
End  Avenue,  New  York,  N.  Y.  Each  held  one  vshare  of  stock,  and 
they  were  named  "directors  until  the  first  annual  meeting  of  stock- 
holders." Two  hundred  shares  of  stock  were  authorized,  but  no 
other  stockholdei'S  were  mentioned.  Abraham  L.  Pomerantz  of 
295  Madison  Avenue,  New  York,  N.  Y.,  was  referred  to  as  tliQ  agent. 
The  secretary  of  state  of  New  York  found  it  necessary  to  process  some- 
one in  any  action  or  proceeding  against  the  corporation.  Levy,  Pome- 
rantz, Sciiraeder,  and  Haudek  were  the  attorneys  for  the  corporation, 
and  the  corporation  offices  are  at  the  same  address  of  those  of  the  law 
firm  (exhibit  52), 


33 


»-  See  appendix,  p.  175,  for  exhibit  51. 
*"  See  appendix,  p.  175,  for  exhibit  52. 


TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE  107 

YounjTf  World  Books  is  still  another  outfit  designed  to  propagandize 
among  the  yonth.  It  distributes  books  on  evolution  and  Soviet  and 
pro-Communist  themes. 

Headquarters  of  Contemporary  Writers  are  located  at  the  Hotel 
Albert.  65  University  Place,  New  York,  N.  Y.  Howard  Fast  and 
Erskine  Caldwell  are  cochairmen.  The  announced  purpose  of  the 
organization  is  to  "create  literature  consistent  with  man's  need  for 
peace,  democracy,  and  security."  In  September  1946  it  sponsored  a 
Forum  of  Contemporary  Writers  which  was  held  at  the  Hotel  Capital 
in  New  York.  The  object  of  the  forum  was  to  launch  an  attack  against 
William  liandelph  Hearst  and  his  newspapers.  It  was  sponsored  by 
Richard  Lauterbach,  Howard  Fast,  Louis  Adamic,  Henrietta  Buck- 
master,  Oliver  Brown,  Dr.  W.  E.  B.  DuBois,  Bernard  Memeroff, 
Maxim  Lieber,  Dashiell  Hammett,  William  Rose  Benet,  Sterling 
North,  and  Quentin  Reynolds.  Contemporary  Writers  describes  it- 
self "the  militant  new  organization  of  Marxist  and  other  anti-Fascist 
authors." 

People's  Radio  Foundation,  Inc.,  with  offices  located  at  the  Hotel 
Albert,  65  University  Place,  New  York,  N.  Y.,  was  incorporated  on 
November  24,  1944.  The  purposes  of  the  foundation,  as  outlined  in 
the  application  for  incorporation,  are  as  follows : 

To  purchase,  construct,  ei-ect,  equip,  furnish,  maintain  and  operate  radio  broad- 
cast, television,  or  facsimile  stations,  network  relay  stations,  or  any  other  method 
for  intercoiuiecting  radio  stations;  to  purchase  or  lease  real  estate  and  plants 
necessary  to  carry  out  above  objects,  and  to  manufacture,  purchase,  or  otherwise 
acquire  products,  materials,  goods,  wares,  equipment,  etc.,  of  above  objects ; 
and  to  buy,  or  otlierwise  acquire  inventions,  processes,  trade-marks,  or  copy- 
rights; and  to  patent  and  license,  develop,  or  grant  license,  etc.;  or  to  buy  or 
lease,  or  otherwise  acquire  any  part  of  tlie  business,  good  will,  or  assets  of  any 
person,  firm,  or  corporation,  domestic  or  foreign,  engaged  in  similar  business;  to 
stimulate  among  the  radio  audience  and  the  public  generally  an  understanding 
and  appreciation  of  worthy  American  civic  and  cultural  traditions  and  achieve- 
ments and  like  contributions  made  by  nationality  groups     *     *     * 

Since  its  incorporation,  the  foundation  has  sold  stock  in  the  cor- 
poration amounting  to  tens  of  thousands  of  dollars,  and  I  have  been 
advised  that  it  has  applications  made,  through  dummies,  for  a  number 
of  FM  stations.  It  plans  to  establish  FM  stations  in  Seattle,  Wash. ; 
Los  Angeles;  North  Canton,  Ohio;  Lancaster;  Philadelphia;  Wash- 
ington, D.  C. ;  Buffalo,  New  York;  Detroit,  Chicago,  Newark,  Butte, 
and  other  large  cities  (exhibit  53).-^^ 

The  largest  stockholders,  as  of  March  1947,  of  the  foundation  are 
James  Lustig,  50  shares  of  preferred  and  25  common;  Jewish  People's 
Fraternal  Order  (Communist),  10  shares  of  preferred,  and  5  of  com- 
mon; Fur  and  Leather  Workers"  Union  (headed  by  Ben  Gold,  Com- 
mmiist  official),  8  shares  of  preferred,  and  21/2  of  connnon;  Russky 
Galos  (Russian  edition  of  Daily  Worker),  30  shares  of  preferred,  and 
15  of  common;  A.  A.  Heller  (treasurer  of  Communist  school  in  New 
York,  and  official  of  International  Publishers,  Communist  propa- 
ganda agency),  5  shares  of  preferred,  and  2^  of  common;  Inter- 
national Workers'  Order  (Communist),  25  shares  of  preferred,  and 
12i/>  of  common;  Paul  Crosbie  (Communist  attorney  and  party  sec- 
tional leader),  5  shares  of  preferred,  and  2i/^  of  common;  Magazine 
House,  10  shares  of  preferred,  and  5  of  common ;  Joe  Brodsky,  2  shares 

*>  See  appendix,  p  .175,  for  exhibit  53. 


108  .  TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE 

of  preferred,  and  1  of  common;  American  Committee  for  Protection 
for  Foreign  Born  (Communist  front),  1  share  of  preferred,  and  one- 
half  of  common;  Council  on  African  Affairs,  1  share  of  preferred, 
and  one-half  of  common;  Max  Yergan,  1  share  of  preferred,  and 
one-half  of  common;  Joseph  Weinstein,  10  shares  of  preferred;  Dr. 
Robert  Leslie,  10  shares  of  preferred,  and  5  of  common;  William 
Gropper,  1  share  of  preferred,  and  one-half  of  common ;  Harry  Kap- 
lan, 10  shares  of  preferred,  and  5  of  common;  Club  Obrero  Espanol, 
2  shares  of  preferred,  and  1  of  common ;  Centro  Fraternal  Hispano, 
1  share  of  preferred,  and  one-half  of  common;  Dental  Technician 
Equity,  1  share  of  preferred,  and  one-half  of  common;  American 
Communications  Association  (CIO),  2  shares  of  preferred,  and  1  of 
common.  As  of  June  30,  1946,  the  assets  of  the  foundation  were 
given  as  $50,420.51. 

Endorsing  the  People's  Radio  Foundation,  Inc.,  to  the  Federal  Com- 
munication Commission  were  the  Jewish  People's  Fraternal  Order, 
ICOR,  American  Slav  Congress,  Iranian  Institute,  Thrya  Edwards, 
Horace  Grenell  (Musicians  Union  Local  802),  Samuel  Landan, 
Harold  Cammer,  Louis  Weinstock,  Howard  Fast,  and  Elie  Sieg- 
meister. 

Tlie  following  are  charter  members  of  the  foundation  :  Leon  Barzin, 
Joe  Brodsky,  Charlie  Chaplin,  Charles  H.  Colvin,  Joseph  Curran 
(CIO),  Howard  Fast,  Bernard  Fein,  Frederick  V.  Field,  Leo  Gal- 
lagher, William  Gropper,  Mrs.  Ida  Guggenheimer,  Leverett  Gleason, 
A.  A.  Heller,  Langston  Hughes,  Albert  Kahn,  Rockwell  Kent,  Corliss 
Lamont,  Dr.  Robert  L.  Leslie,  Ray  Ley,  John  T.  McManus,  Samuel 
Novick,  Arthur  Osman,  Earl  Robinson,  Joseph  Selly,  Arthur  Szyk, 
Margaret  Webster,  and  Max  Yergan. 

Leon  Barzin  was  connected  with  Spanish-aid  movements  in  support 
of  Spanish  Red  revolutionists.  Joe  Brodsky  has  a  Communist  record 
too  lengthy  to  list  in  full  here.  He  was  a  member  of  the  board  of 
advisers  of  the  Communist  schools,  chief  of  the  legal  staff  of  the  Inter- 
national Labor  Defense,  on  the  advisory  council  of  Book  Union  (Com- 
munist), general  counsel  of  the  International  Workers'  Order,  on  the 
national  council  of  the  League  of  Struggle  for  Negro  Rights  (Com- 
munist). His  pro-Communist  leanings  and  activities  have  been 
known  to  the  public  for  years.  He  is  associated  with  the  National 
Council  of  American-Soviet  Friendship  and  the  Russian  War  Relief. 

Charles  H.  Colvin,  another  charter  member  of  the  foundation,  is 
associated  with  the  American-Russian  Institute,  a  propaganda  agency. 
Joseph  Curran,  head  of  a  CIO  union  previously  a  pro-Soviet  and  pro- 
Communist,  also  had  a  lengthy  front  record.  He  has  had  in  the  past 
84  front  connections  in  reports  dealing  with  subversive  activities. 
Howard  Fast,  author  and  writer,  has  been  a  sponsor  of  the  (Com- 
munist) American  Youth  for  Democracy,  formerly  the  Young  Com- 
munist League.  He  was  connected  with  the  Joint  Anti -Fascist 
Refugee  Committee,  and  he  was  among  those  indicted  by  the  Federal 
grand  jury  in  contempt  of  Congress. 

Bernard  Fein  sponsored  the  Tallentine  Jubilee  Committee.  Tal- 
lentine  was  a  prominent  Communist,  and  the  committee  was  strictly 
Communist.  Frederick  V.  Field  is  another  character  with  an  exten- 
sive subversive  record.  He  is  an  editor  of  the  Communist  magazine. 
New  Masses,  and  he  has  assisted  in  financing  and  directing  many  Red 
front  movements.     Leo  Gallagher  is  a  west-coast  attorney  and  a 


TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE  109 

Comiimnist.  He  was  the  Communist  Party  candidate  in  California 
for  attorney  general,  and  he  has  an  extensive  Communist  and  Com- 
munist front  background. 

William  Gropper,  cartoonist  for  official  Communist  Party  organs, 
has  a  record  of  some  60  radical  connections.  He  headed  the  John 
Reed  Clubs  at  one  time.  His  drawings  have  appeared  in  New  Masses, 
New  Pioneer,  The  Worker,  Daily  Worker  and  Soviet  Russia  Today, 
all  Communist  publications.  He  has  been  a  leader  in  Communist  cul- 
tural fronts  for  a  number  of  years.  He  has  affiliated  with  the  W^orkers' 
International  Relief  (Communist) ,  the  Congress  of  American  Artists, 
Workers'  Cultural  Federation,  and  American  Artists'  School.  He 
openly  supported  Earl  Browder  in  his  campaign  for  President  of  the 
United  States  in  1936. 

Ida  Guggenheimer  has  a  record  of  16  Red  front  connections.  She 
was  connected  with  the  American  League  for  Peace  and  Democracy 
(Communist)  in  1938,  the  International  Labor  Defense,  and  the  Con- 
sumers' Union.  Leverett  Gleason  was  among  those  indicted  by  the 
Federal  Grand  Jury  for  contempt  of  Congress  on  March  31,  1947. 
He  is  publisher  of  Salute,  a  radical  GI  magazine.  He  has  had  num- 
erous other  Red  affiliations.  A,  A.  Heller,  Russian-born,  has  long 
been  a  contributor  to  Communist  Party  activities.  He  has  donated 
approximately  $250,000  a  year  to  Communist  proj^aganda  movements 
and  campaigns,  and  he  has  been  high  in  Communist  Party  circles  in 
the  United  States  for  many  years. 

Langston  Hughes,  a  notorious  Negro  with  some  82  Communist 
affiliations,  has  been  particularly  active  in  Negro  Communist  activi- 
ties. He  was  originally  active  in  the  (Communist)  Workers'  Cultural 
Federation  in  1930,  the  New  Theater  League,  and  the  Southern  New 
Theater  School.  He  has  contributed  to  the  Communist  publications 
New  Masses,  Soviet  Russia  Today,  Labor  Defender,  Champion,  and 
The  Anvil.  He  was  active  in  Spanish  Red  ranks  during  the  Commu- 
nist revolution  in  that  country,  and  he  is  a  member  of  its  Red  Army 
reserve,  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade,  a  section  of  the  International 
Brigade.  He  has  been  prominent  in  Communist  front,  the  American 
Peace  Mobilization,  Conference  on  Pan-American  Democracy,  League 
of  Struggle  for  Negro  Rights,  League  of  American  Writers,  National 
Council  of  American-Soviet  Friendship,  Book  Union,  and  the  Ameri- 
can Student  Union.  One  of  his  poems,  a  favorite  with  Communists, 
iscalledPut  Just  One  More  "S"  in  US  A  (Soviet).  _ 

Albert  E.  Kalm,  a  Communist  functionary,  participated  in  the  na- 
tional convention  of  the  Communist  Party  in  1946.  He  heads  the 
Jewish  Committee  of  the  International  Workers'  Order,  and  he  is 
active  in  many  other  Red  fronts.  He  is  author  of  the  book,  The  Secret 
War  Against  Russia,  and  also  of  the  Great  Conspiracy  Against  Russia, 
both  of  which  have  been  widely  circulated  by  the  Communists. 

Rockwell  Kent,  an  artist,  was  formerly  a  member  of  the  IWW.  He 
now  heads  the  International  Workers'  Order.  He  supported  Browder 
in  his  campaigns  for  President  in  1936  and  1942.  He  has  been  a 
member  of  the  national  committee  of  the  International  Labor  Defense. 
He  was  active  in  the  American  League  for  Peace  and  Democracy,  the 
Conference  on  Pan-American  Democracy,  United  American  Artists, 
League  of  American  Writers,  National  Federation  for  Constitutional 
Liberties,  National  Council  of  American-Soviet  Friendship,  and  other 

65176—47 8 


110  '     TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE 

directly  Communist  and  Communist  front  groups.  He  is  referred  to 
108  times  in  Government  reports  in  connection  with  his  un-American 
activities. 

John  T.  McManus  heads  the  CIO  Newspaper  Guild.  Samuel  J. 
Novick  heads  the  Electronic  Corp.  of  America,  and  he  has  often  been 
accused  of  associating  with  Reds.  Arthur  Osman  is  a  CIO  union 
leader,  and  he  is  listed  as  having  15  Communist  front  affiliations. 
Joseph  Selly,  a  CIO  union  official,  has  numerous  Communist  front 
connections.  Margaret  Webster  has  been  active  in  Red  front  circles 
for  some  years.  Max  Yergan  is  a  Negro  Communist  leader  in  New 
York.  He  heads  the  National  Negro  Congress  (Communist),  and 
has  78  Communist  and  front  affiliations.  Earl  Robinson  has  long 
traveled  in  Communist  circles.  He  was  expelled  some  years  ago  from 
a  Seattle  school.  He  has  21  Red  front  designations.  He  is  a  close 
friend  of  Paul  Robeson,  the  Negro  singer,  who  has  some  80  radical 
connections. 

The  People's  Radio  Foundation  is  attacking  present-day  ownership 
of  radio.  It  is  promoting  the  licensing  of  FM  stations  to  leftists. 
It  is  defending  leftist  commentators  and  undermining  conservative 
commentators. 

There  is  evidence  to  show  that  left-wing  CIO  unions  and  Red 
fronters  representing  certain  front  organizations  have  gained  control 
of  many  of  the  136  FM  licensed  radio  stations  in  the  postwar  period. 
FM  stations  now  operate  in  100  cities  in  33  States  as  well  as  in  the 
District  of  Columbia.  It  is  anticipated  that  700  such  stations  will 
have  been  licensed  by  the  end  of  1947. 

The  latest  acquisition  in  this  field  is  a  station  in  Minneapolis,  the 
agent  for  which  is  Elmer  Benson,  vice  president  of  the  Progressive 
Citizens  of  America,  who  has  at  least  24  Red  front  citations.  A  con- 
ditional grant  to  operate  the  station  is  in  his  name. 

The  International  Ladies  Garment  Workers'  Union,  less  radical 
than  most  unions  in  the  garment  trade,  is  constructing  three  FM 
stations,  licenses  for  which  have  already  been  granted.  These  sta- 
tions will  be  located  in  Chattanooga,  St.  Louis,  and  Los  Angeles. 
The  union  has  also  applications  pending  for  FM  stations  in  New 
York  City,  Boston,  and  Philadelphia. 

The  Metropolitan  Broadcasting  Corp.,  of  Washington,  D.  C,  are 
owners  of  FM  Station  WQQW  which  began  broadcasting  in  January 
(1947).  On  the  opening  program  were  Alan  Lomax,  Gregory  Peck, 
Aaron  Copeland,  Gene  Kelly,  Earl  Robinson,  Peter  Seeger,  William 
Higenbotham,  Mordecai  Johnson,  and  others,  most  of  whom  are  re- 
ferred to  elsewhere  in  this  testimony.  The  incorporators  include 
Clark  Foreman,  Simon  Gerber,  Dr.  Leon  Gerber,  Samuel  Lichten- 
stein,  Morris  Rodman,  A.  E.  Lichtman,  John  P.  Anderson,  Albert 
Youngman,  Marcus  I.  Graham,  and  Mary  J.  Keeny,  many  of  whom 
have  Red  front  backgrounds.  The  radical  character  of  most  of  those 
connected  with  the  station  may  point  to  future  trends  in  the  move 
toward  producing  "thought  control"  over  the  air. 

Another  FM  station  operating  in  Washington,  D.  C,  is  Station 
WCFM,  owned  by  the  Potomac  Broadcasting  Cooperative.  Presi- 
dent of  the  station  is  Herbert  S.  Wood.  I  understand  that  he  has 
been  a  member  of  the  Washington  Book  Shop  (Communist)  and 
the  Washington  Committee  To  Aid  China  (sponsored  by  the  Ameri- 
can League  for  Peace  and  Democracy) . 


TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE  111 

A  move  is  being  made  in  New  York  City  to  set  up  a  new  broad- 
casting system,  to  provide  service  exclusively  for  FM  stations.  The 
group  interested  in  the  undertaking  is  temporarily  headed  by  Ira 
A.  Hirschmann,  who  was  a  member  of  the  govei-ning  committee  of 
Keep  America  Out  of  War  Congress  in  1939.  He  has  been  a  member 
of  the  board  of  trustees  of  the  New  School  for  Social  Research  in 
New  York.  His  other  front  affiliations  are  known  to  this  committee. 
Hirschmann  is  himself  owner  of  a  new  FM  station,  WABF,  in  New 
York  City. 

As  far  back  as  1941:  the  CIO  attempted  to  procure  licenses  prepar- 
atory to  building  a  Nation-wide  chain  of  FM  stations. 

Red  fronters,  using  the  air  over  the  established  radio  systems, 
haven't  fared  so  well.  Frank  Kingdon,  Robert  St.  John,  Johannes 
Steel,  and  a  number  of  other  fronters  have  been  dropped  by  the  various 
stations  over  which  they  had  broadcast  in  the  guise  of  news  com- 
mentators. Selden  Menefee,  possessed  of  an  extensive  radical  back- 
ground, who  had  a  temporary  assignment  with  one  of  the  major  broad- 
casting systems  as  program  director,  was  likewise  reportedly  dismissed. 
However,  individuals  such  as  Norman  Corwin  and  Sidney  Rogers  and 
others  still  crowd  the  airways. 

An  investigation  was  made  not  long  ago  of  the  series  known  as  the 
Fifth  Horseman,  starring  some  of  Hollywood's  top  talent.  Follow- 
ing its  discontinuance,  the  author,  Arnold  Marquis,  together  with  Sam 
Moore  produced  a  radio  series  called  A  Salute  to  the  U.  S.  S.  R.,  under 
the  sponsorship  of  the  Hollywood  Writers'  Mobilization.  Selden 
Menefee  is  reported  to  have  joined  Marquis  in  arranging  the  program 
for  the  previous  series. 

While  I  have  nothing  in  common  with  the  Senator  from  Missis- 
sippi, Mr.  Theodore  G.  Bilbo,  since  I  have  no  way  of  ascertaining 
whether  or  not  he  is  guilty  of  all  the  thoughts  and  acts  of  which  he  has 
been  accused,  I  wish  to  call  attention  to  a  broadcast  which  originated 
over  Station  WMCA  in  New  York  City,  entitled  "The  Gentleman 
from  Mississippi,"  by  Ira  Marion.  The  play  was  one  of  a  series 
called  New  World  a'Coming.  The  role  of  the  Senator  was  portrayed 
by  Will  Geer,  a  Communist,  who  is  currently  connected  with  People's 
Songs,  Inc.,  and  Stage  for  Action,  reference  to  which  will  be  found  in 
my  testimony.  Geer  was  formerly  active  in  the  New  Theater  League 
(Communist)  and  the  Southern  New  Theater  League.  He  is  the  hus- 
band of  Hertha  Ware  (Communist),  the  granddaughter  of  the  85 
year  old  "Mother"  (Ella)  Reeve  Ware  Omholt  Bloor.  Geer  was 
arrested  for  inciting  to  riot  and  resisting  an  officer  in  San  Diego  in 
June  1©33.  He  was  active  in  the  Young  Communist  League  in  1938, 
and  has  been  master  of  ceremonies  at  various  festivals  sponsored  by 
the  I  WO.  Norman  Rose  acted  as  narrator.  A  "Norman  Rose"  taught 
at  the  Workers'  School  (Communist)  in  New  York  in  1931.  New 
World  a'Coming  was  produced  and  directed  by  Joseph  Gottlieb.  The 
music  was  by  William  Taylor.  Members  of  the  cast  were  David  Ker- 
man,  Mort  Lawrence,  Scott  Tennyson,  AVendell  Holmes,  Joseph  Bo- 
land,  Martin  Wolfson,  and  Joan  Tompkins. 

In  this  field  of  propaganda  there  has  also  been  set  up  a  Provisional 
Committee  for  Democracy  in  Radio.  It  is  sponsored  by  the  Interna- 
tional Workers'  Order,  and  it  cooperates  with  the  People's  Radio 
Foundation. 


112  TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE 

The  People's  Kadio  Group  sponsors  radical  radio  plays,  two  of 
which  are  "Hail  Columbia"  and  the  "Ballad  of  Herman  Bottcher, — 
Communist  GI." 

Another  link  in  the  Communist  cultural  chain  is  Keynote  Record- 
ings, Inc.,  with  offices  located  at  522  Fifth  Avenue,  New  York,  N.  Y. 
It  has  been  in  operation  for  more  than  8  years.  This  outfit  propa- 
gandizes through  recordings.  It  has  recently  extended  its  efforts  in 
issuing  albums  of  records  of  a  Communist  propaganda  nature.  One 
highly  touted  album  is  entitled:  "Six  Songs  for  Democracy."  One  of 
the  songs  was  written  by  Hans  Eisler,  brother  of  Gerhart'Eisler,  both 
of  whom  are  German  Communists.  The  latter,  it  will  be  recalled,  was 
heard  before  a  congressional  committee  not  long  ago,  in  the  course 
of  the  hearings  he  was  exposed  as  n  Moscow  agent  active  in  Commu- 
nist Party  ranks  in  this  country.  Hans  Eisler  is  in  Hollywood,  writ- 
ing music  for  the  movies.^^ 

The  songs  of  Eric  Weinert,  widely  known  in  Communist  circles,  are 
also  distributed  by  Keynote  Recordings.  His  song,  included  in  the 
album  of  records  referred  to  above,  is  called  Song  of  the  International 
Brigade. 

Keynote  Recordings  has  the  endorsement  of  Paul  Robeson,  Negro 
Conmiunist  singer.  Recordings  of  this  outfit  have  been  translated  by 
Leonard  Mins  and  Anne  Bromberger.  Mins  was  formerly  with  the 
New  Deal  OSS  at  a  salary  of  $4,000  a  year.  He  has  been  connected 
with  the  League  of  American  Writers,  the  John  Reed  Clubs,  and  he  has 
taught  at  one  of  the  Communist  schools  in  New  York. 

Howard  Willard,  designer  of  the  album  cover  for  Keynote  records, 
was  among  those  listed  in  the  Communist  organ.  New  Masses,  in  1940, 
.  demanding  that  our  Government  cease  action  against  Communists  for 
violating  Federal  laws  by  recruiting  soldiers  for  a  Communist  army 
abroad,  and  for  other  illegal  activities.  He  charged  the  Government 
with  "badgering  Communist  leaders." 

Aclviiowledgment  of  services  rendered  Keynote  by  the  above-men- 
tioned individuals  is  made  in  its  literature  in  a  statement  written  by 
Eric  Beriiay,  who  was  for  many  years  connected  with  the  Communist 
organ,  New  Masses. 

In  a  discussion  of  Communist  activities  on  the  cultural  front,  we 
must  not  overlook  Red  camps.  Some  years  ago  there  were  27  of  these 
camps  owned  and  operated  by  the  Communists  as  cooperatives.  They 
have  disposed  of  some  of  these  camps,  but  they  have  made  arrange- 
ments whereby  their  followers  can  gather  at  given  times  at  camps  not 
under  direct  control.  At  least  five  of  the  old  camps  in  the  east  remain 
in  the  possession  of  the  Reds.  They  are  Camp  Beacon,  Beacon,  N.  Y. ; 
Camp  Unity,  AVingdale,  N.  Y. ;  Camp  Kinderland,  Hopewell  Junction, 
N.  Y. ;  Camp  Wo-Chi,  April  Farms,  Coopersburg,  Pa. ;  and  Camp 
Midvale,  N.  J.  Camp  Arrow  Lodge  is  a  choice  Communist  vacation 
spot.  It  is  located  at  Ellenville,  N.  Y.  The  Communists  and  their 
fronts  receive  schooling  at  these  camps.  They  sing  Soviet  songs  and 
dance  Russian  dances.  A  Communist  camp  has  been  maintained  for 
a  number  of  years  a  short  distance  from  Washington,  D.  C.  Commu- 
nist leaders  requently  address  the  classes  held  at  these  summer  camps. 

Other  camps  frequented  by  the  Reds  are  Camp  Followers  of  the 
Trail,  Buchanan,  N.  Y. ;  Crystal  Lake  Lodge,  Chestertown,  N.  Y. ; 

^  See  appendix,  p.  175,  for  exhibit  54. 


TESTIMONY  OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE  113 

Nature  Friends  Camp,  near  Boyerton,  Pa.;  Camp  Aselomar  (Cali- 
fornia Labor  School);  Camp  Annisquam  (Samuel  Adams  School); 
and  Camp  Summerdale,  near  Harrisburg,  Pa.  Most  of  these  camps 
operate  under  the  cooperative  plan — i.  e.,  they  are  set  up  as  coopera- 
tives, thereby  possibly  escaping  the  heavy  taxes  ordinary  commercial 
camps  must  pay.  For  example.  Camp  Summerdale  is  operated  by  the 
Summerdale  Co-Operative  Health  and  Recreation  Association,  Inc., 
as  a  cooperative  association.  The  offices  are  located  at  411  North  Sec- 
ond Street,  Harrisburg,  Pa.  V.  F.  Salerno  is  the  agent.  The  camp 
occupies  15  acres  of  land.  A  special  summer  interracial  school  is 
conducted  at  the  camp.  Adult  classes  are  held,  and  instruction  is  given 
in  radical  art,  crafts,  music,  dancing,  nature  study,  games,  sports,  and 
dramatics.  Mrs.  Sara  Levitz  is  the  treasurer  of  the  association,  and 
she  maintains  offices  at  128  Cumberland  Street,  Lebanon,  Pa.  Reser- 
vations are  made  through  Elliott  Turnage,  1230  North  Sixth  Street, 
Harrisburg. 

At  this  point,  I  wish  to  digress  slightly  from  the  subject  of  Com- 
munist camps.  While  I  have  not  in  this  testimony  discussed  the  co- 
operative field,  I  pointed  to  the  fact,  in  the  section  dealing  with  publi- 
cations, that  New  Masses,  as  an  example,  is  organized  under  coopera- 
tive and  educational  membership  laws.  In  past  months  I  have  done 
some  research  on  cooperatives,  and  I  have  found  apartment  projects, 
restaurants,  grocery  stores,  camps,  canneries,  and  many  other  projects 
are  owned  and  operated  by  the  Communists  as  cooperatives.  They 
evidently  escape  taxation  and  certain  other  Federal  regulations  when 
operating  as  cooperatives. 

The  Voice  of  Freedom  Committee  made  its  appearance  in  May 
1947.  It  was  created  for  the  purpose  of  conducting  a  propaganda 
and  agitational  battle  in  behalf  of  leftist  radio  commentators,  and 
in  opposition  to  so-called  reactionary  radio  commentators.  Its  head- 
quarters are  located  at  122  West  Seventy-first  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y. 
The  committee  poses  as  an  "antiradio  censorship"  movement.  Ac- 
tive with  it  are  William  Shirer,  Frank  Kingdon,  Will  Geer,  and 
William  Gailmore. 

Also  launched  in  May  1947  was  the  Artists  Fight  Back  movement. 
It  went  into  action  on  June  11  at  a  mass  meeting  of  leftists  held  in 
New  York  City,  in  time  to  propagandize  when  this  committee  was 
originally  supposed  to  begin  its  hearings  on  Red  activities  in  Holly- 
wood. Artists  Fight  Back  is  sponsored  by  ISIainstream,  a  new  publi- 
cation issued  by  the  (Communist)  New  Century  Publishers.  The 
committee  through  which  the  movement  operates  is  composed  of 
Dalton  Trumbo,  John  Howard  Lawson,  Theodore  Ward,  and  Philip 
Evergood.  It  says  it  will  oppose  the  Thomas  committee  in  its  attacks 
upon  "progressive"  artists,  meaning  "HoUywooders." 

To  the  cultural  front,  I  may  also  add  Artkino  Pictures,  Inc.,  723 
Seventh  Avenue,  New  York,  N.  Y. ;  and  Russian  Music  Co.,  Inc.,  121 
Lexington  Avenue,  New  York,  N.  Y.,  both  of  which  are  circulating 
Soviet  propaganda  films  and  music  in  the  United  States. 

Although  firms  or  societies  operating  in  New  York  City  are  re- 
quired, under  law,  to  file  with  the  county  clerk  of  New  York,  I  have 
been  informed  that  Stage  for  Action  has  failed  to  so  file.  Stage  for 
Action  is  promoting  propaganda  and  agitational  plays  from  coast 
to  coast.     In  New  York  City,  on  September  22,  1946,  it  produced  a 


114  TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE 

satire  on  the  Communist  propaganda  smear  book.  The  Great  Con- 
spiracy Against  Russia,  by  Albert  Kahn,  a  Communist  Party  func- 
tionary. Paul  Robeson  and  Paul  Draper,  both  of  whom  are  widely 
known  in  Communist  and  front  ranks,  took  the  leading  parts.  The 
script  was  written  from  the  book  for  the  stage  by  Morris  Watson, 
long  active  in  Red  front  circles  and  the  CIO  Newspaper  Guild ;  and 
Brett  Warren.  Tickets  were  sold  by  New  Masses,  Book  Fair,  Work- 
ers' Book  Shop,  Jefferson  School  for  Social  Science  Bookshop,  Stage 
for  Action  headquarters,  and  the  Modern  Bookshops  of  New  York 
City  and  Newark,  N.  J. 

Stage  for  Action  cooperates  with  People's  Songs,  Inc.,  People's 
Radio  Foundation,  and  other  Communist  fronts.  It  works  with  the 
JeAvish  People's  Fraternal  Order  (Communist)  and  the  CIO  Teachers' 
Union.  The  "audience  membership"'  is  $5  a  year,  and  $15  up  for 
plays  (exhibit  55).^" 

Among  the  plays  available  are  All  Aboard  (Negro  discrimination), 
Foreign  Policy  Shnitzebank,  Freedom  ol  the  Press  (the  "kept"'  press), 
J'xVccuse,  J.  P.  Dropabomb  (war  makers  and  unions).  Just  Plain 
Bowles  (inflation  dangers).  How  to  Canvass — How  Not  (election 
technique).  Open  Secret  (atom  bomb  control),  You're  Next  (civil 
liberties).  The  Way  Things  Are  (antilynching).  The  General  and 
the  Goats  (Army  and  the  atom  bomb),  The  Economist  (w^age  and 
price  levels),  The  Case  of  an  Empty  Purse  (need  for  OPA),  Talk  in 
Darkness  (tolerance).  Soldier  Who  Became  a  Great  Dane  (military 
red  tape),  So  Upon  a  Sailing  Sea  (unorganized  workers),  Skin  Deep 
(discrimination),  Dream  Job  (Army  discrimination),  and  The  Man 
on  the  Street  (action  against  "reactionary"  radio  commentators). 

Stage  for  Action  promotes  plays  for  Communists  and  front  organi- 
zations, and  it  is  offering  its  presentations  to  the  general  public,  evi- 
dently Avith  the  desire  of  orientating  the  people  with  their  propa- 
ganda plays.  Stage  for  Action  furnished  the  entertainment  presented 
at  the  convention  of  the  CIO  held  in  Atlantic  City  in  November  1946. 
It  is  on  the  lookout  for  new  performers  and  new  writers  who  will 
serve  as  Communist  "missionaries."  Communist  publications  reveal 
St^ge  for  Action  has  organized  a  training  school  for  talent  for  its 
Red  plays  in  New  York  City.  Trade  Union  Culture  is  included  in 
the  course  from  which  the  students  are  expected  to  form  "cultural 
groups"  within  their  own  unions.  Dome  Studios,  430  Sixth  Avenue, 
is  the  setting  for  the  classes.  The  school  has  annoimced  that  its 
faculty  includes  David  Pressman,  director  and  actor;  John  O'Shaugh- 
nessey,  formerly  with  the  old  Communist  Theater  League ;  Mary  Grey 
Barnett,  Millard  Lampbell,  active  in  Red  C.  I.  movements ;  and  Plelen 
Blok.     (Exhibit  56).^' 

Stage  for  Action  has  established  a  branch  in  Philadelphia,  known 
as  the  Philadelphia  Stage  for  Action,  at  1227  Walnut  Street.  Its 
performers  entertained  at  the  First  Annual  Walt  Whitman  Day  cele- 
bration of  the  Communists  in  Philadelphia  in  1946.  Mike  Gold  of 
the  National  Committee  of  the  Communist  Party  delivered  a  speech 
at  the  beginning  of  the  program.  The  following  are  sponsors  of  this 
new  branch:  Howard  Bay,  Gertrude  Berg,  Norman  Corwnn,  Howard 
Fast,  James  H.  Fay,  Peter  Frye,  William  Gailmore,  John  Cassner, 

*"  See  appendix,  p.  175,  for  exhibit  55. 
^'  See  appendix,  p.  175,  for  exhibit  56. 


TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE  115 

Elinor  S.  Gimbel.  Michael  Gordon,  Elizabeth  Hawes,  Stanley  Isaacs, 
Felix  Knight,  Canada  Lee,  Phillip  Loeb,  John  T.  McManus,  Mrs. 
Arthur  ISIayer,  William  Morris,  Jean  Muir,  Minerva  Pious,  Adam 
Clayton  Powell,  Lawrence  Eeddick,  Jerome  Robbins,  Paul  Eobeson, 
Oscar  Serlin.  Herman  Schumlin,  James  Thurber,  Channing  Tobias, 
Toni  Ward,  and  Frank  Wilson. 

Stage  for  Action  has  eight  affiliates — in  Boston,  Philadelphia, 
Washington  (D.  C),  Cleveland,  Detroit,  Chicago,  Denver,  and  Los 
Angeles.  It  has  a  mobile  unit  composed  of  50  performers,  which  is 
now  launching  a  tour  under  the  auspices  of  locals  of  the  United  Elec- 
trical Workers,  managed  by  the  national  office  of  the  union.  The 
Furriers  Union,  Transport  Union,  National  Maritime  Union,  and  the 
Department  Store  Workers'  Union  have  also  availed  themselves  of 
the  services  of  Stage  for  Action. 

On  Jmie  28,  194:7,  Stage  for  Action  gave  an  entertainment  at  408 
Waring  Hoad,  Elkins  Park,  Pa.  Participants  were  Bette  Itkis  and 
Len  Keyser. 

The  head  of  Stage  for  Action  in  Philadelphia  is  Ruth  Deacon,  an 
employee  of  the  Locust  Bookshop  (Communist)  in  that  city. 

Other  left-wing  theater  units  now  being  set  up  are  the  American 
Theater  Wing,  New  Dance  League,  the  Hollywood  Laboratory  Thea- 
tor  (formerly  Hollywood  Theater  Alliance),  and  the  American  Negro 
Theater. 

The  board  of  directors  of  Stage  for  Action  includes  Edward 
Chodorov,  ohairman;  Art  Smith,  vice  chairman;  Milton  Baron,  treas- 
urer; and  Alex  Leith,  exectutive  director.  Chodorov  was  active 
in  the  (Communist)  League  of  American  Writers  in  1941. 
This  was  a  section  of  the  International  of  Revolutionary  Writers 
of  Moscow.  He  also  petitioned  the  United  States  Government 
for  the  release  of  Earl  Browder.  He  was  an  officer  of  the  Holly- 
wood Anti-Nazi  League  immediately  following  the  Stalin-Hitler 
break.  This  was  a  Red  Front  outfit.  Alex  Leith  has  been  associated 
with  the  Communist  official  organ.  Daily  Worker.  Art  Smith  was 
active  'in  the  Red  espionage  forces  during  the  revolution  in  Spain  as 
a  member  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade  (Communist),  and  he  has 
been  prominent  in  other  front  circles. 

Among  those  contributing  scripts  to  Stage  for  Action  is  Norman 
Corwin,  who  recently  returned  from  Moscow  where  he  attended  a 
"Red  cultural"  congress.  He  has  been  active  in  the  National  Council 
of  American-Soviet  Friendship.  He  participated  in  the  Writers'  Con- 
gress, called  by  the  Hollywood  AVriters'  Mobilization,  a  Communist 
front,  in  1941.  This  was  a  branch  of  the  League  of  American  Writers. 
Corwin  has  also  been  active  in  the  American-Russian  Institute,  a 
propaganda  agency,  and  the  National  Wartime  Conference  of  Pro- 
fessions, Sciences,  and  Arts,  which  ultimately  became  known  as  the 
Independent  Committee  of  Arts,  Sciences,  and  Professions. 

Ben  Hecht,  who  also  writes  scripts  for  Stage  for  Action,  has  long 
been  active  in  Red  ranks.  He  has  been  a  member  of  the  National 
Citizens'  PAC,  the  American  Committee  To  Save  Refugees,  National 
Consumers'  Federation,  and  the  Exiles'  Writers  Committee,  a  sub- 
sidiary of  the  League  of  American  Writers,  and  others. 

Other  writers  of  scripts  for  Stage  for  Action  are  Arthur  Miller, 
formerly  president  of  the  Student  Council  of  New  York  University, 


116  TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE 

and  a  member  of  the  American  Youth  Congress;  Millard  Lampell, 
active  in  a  number  of  Red  fronts,  including  GI  front  circles ;  Harold 
Rome  of  the  National  Council  of  American-Soviet  Friendship,  the 
American  League  for  Peace  and  Democracy,  and  the  League  of  Ameri- 
can Writers ;  and  Earl  Robinson,  notorious  f ronter.  Stage  for  Action 
recently  revised  two  Russian  "experimental  movies,"  The  Cloak  and 
The  Unexpected,  for  presentation  at  the  Robert  Louis  Stevenson 
School. 

The  purpose  of  Stage  for  Action  is  best  explained  in  its  own  words: 

The  war  is  over,  but  the  need  for  action  continues.  Rumors  of  war,  atomic 
energy,  inflation,  native  Fascist  movements,  veterans'  problems  are  the  stuff  of 
today's  drama,  and  Stage  for  Action  will  dramatize  the  answers  as  progressives 
see  the  answers. 

An'  old  Communist  play,  originally  produced  by  the  New  Theater 
League  (Communist) ,  has  been  resurrected  by  Stage  for  Action.  The 
play  is  Waiting  for  Lefty,  by  Clifford  Odets.  It  will  be  recalled  that 
he  was  most  active  in  Red  ranks  from  1935  to  1941.  He  was  an  official 
of  the  (Communist)  Book  Union,  headed  by  Alex  Trachtenberg,  prop- 
aganda chief  for  the  Communist  Party.  He  was  arrested  in  Cuba 
while  on  a  Communist  agitational  jaunt  in  1941,  and  he  was  asked  to 
leave  the  country.  He  was  active  in  the  American  Youth  Congress  in 
193L7,  the  New  Theater  League,  and  the  Southern  New  Theater  School. 
He  has  defended  Communists  on  numerous  occasions. 

A  Communist  meeting,  the  Communists'  first  public  meeting  in  that 
locality,  was  held  in  Charleston,  S.  C,  a  few  months  ago.  The  meeting 
had  as  its  chairman  John  Green  of  the  Cosmopolitan  League. 

The  New  Writing  Foundation  was  set  up  at  316  East  Sixty-first 
Street,  New  York,  recently.  The  organization  will  be  active  in  col- 
legiate and  high-school  circles.  It  is  particularly  interested  in  stu- 
dents connected  with  school  papers.  Stan  Steiner  of  the  American 
Youth  for  Democracy  is  national  chairman.  The  foundation  will  pre- 
sent the  Theodore  Dreiser  and  Stephen  Benet  awards.  The  judges  are 
Edwin  Seaver,  Arthur  Miller,  Pete  Seeger,  Aaron  Kramer,  Alfred 
Kreymborg,  and  Louis  Lerman. 

One  of  the  most  important  "cultural"  events  of  the  year  for  the  Reds 
was  the  celebration  in  honor  of  "Mother"  Ella  Reeve  Bloor  on  the 
occasion  of  her  eighty-fifth  birthday  anniversary.  "Mother"  Bloor  is 
a  veteran  party  leader  who  boasts  of  a  more  extensive  police  record  for 
Communist  activities  than  any  other  Red.  This  "proletarian"  affair 
was  held  at  the  fashionable  Bellevue-Stratford  Hotel  in  Philadel- 
phia on  June  31,  1947.  The  "mother"  of  the  Communist  movement  in 
the  United  States  now  resides  at  April  Farms  near  Philadelphia, 
which  was  originally  a  "free  love"  colony.  Honorary  chairmen  of  the 
affair  included  Anna  Whitney,  another  veteran  in  Communist  ranks, 
and  now  a  State  official  of  the  Communist  Party^  in  California;  Anna 
Pennypacker  of  Philadelphia;  and  Elizabeth  Gurley  Flynn,  former 
IWW  and  now  a  member  of  the  national  committee  of  the  Communist 
Party  and  the  Congress  of  American  Women.  Sponsors  are  Susan 
Anthony  II,  official  of  the  Congress  of  American  Women ;  Dr.  Herbert 
Aptheker,  instructor  at  the  Communist  school  in  New  York;  Peter 
Cacchione,  Communist  head  of  the  Kings  County  section  of  the  party; 
New  York;  Ben  Davis,  leader  of  the  Harlem  section  of  the  Communist 
Party;  Muriel  Draper  of  the  Congress  of  American  Women  and  a 


TESTIMONY  OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE  117 

member  of  the  National  Council  of  American-Soviet  Friendship; 
Howard  Fast;  Arthur  Huff  Fausett;  William  Gropper;  Rockwell 
Kent ;  Alfred  Kreymborg ;  Harry  Ward ;  Gene  Weltfish ;  Max  Yergan ; 
Meridel  LeSeuer ;  Grace  Hutchins ;  Ben  Gold ;  and  Will  Geer,  all  Com- 
munists or  front  leaders. 

Nature  Friends,  a  prominent  Communist-supported  movement,  is 
among  the  hold-overs  of  prewar  days.  It  carries  on  actively  with  the 
cultural  fronts  of  the  Communists.  It  was  founded  in  Vienna,  Aus- 
tria, in  1895,  and  the  sections  in  this  country  are  branches  of  the  inter- 
national. It  is  organized  in  21  countries.  It  has  some  70,000  mem- 
bers and  400  camps.  Fifteen  sections  are  in  operation  in  the  United 
States.  Two  are  in  New  York,  one  in  Rochester,  N.  Y. ;  one  in  Syra- 
cuse, N.  Y. ;  one  in  Newark,  N.  J. ;  one  in  Patterson,  N.  J. ;  one  in 
Philadelphia ;  one  in  Allentown ;  one  in  Chicago ;  one  in  St.  Louis,  one 
in  Milwaukee;  one  in  Detroit;  one  in  Oakland;  one  in  Los  Angeles; 
and  two  in  San  Francisco.  Eastern  headquarters  are  located  at  43 
East  Eighty-fourth  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y.  Western  headquarters 
are  located  at  143  Albion  Street,  San  Francisco.  Max  Kurz  is  general 
secretary. 

Additional  Communist  fronts  which  have  turned  up  recently  in  this 
field  are  the  New  Theater  and  the  Trade-Union  Theater.  These  are 
outlets  for  Stage  for  Action  productions. 

Communists  held  what  they  called  a  Mainstream  Cultural  Confer- 
ence in  New  York  City  in  June  (1947).  They  reported  that  150  cul- 
tural leaders  were  present,  100  of  whom  were  from  New  York.  The 
remainder  came  from  other  States.  Speakers  at  the  conference  in- 
cluded Howard  Fast,  Samuel  Sillen,  Joseph  North,  John  Howard 
Lawson,  Gwen  Bennett,  Holland  Roberts,  and  Mitch  Fletcher. 

It  was  anounced  that  the  purpose  of  the  conference  was  to  organize 
the  progressive  cultural  theories  relating  to  arts,  sciences,  literature, 
and  all  other  fields  of  culture ;  "to  continue  the  fight  for  progressive 
material  within  the  present  commercially  dominated  cultural  fields, 
that  is,  radio,  movies,  press,  and  other  mediums  of  expression";  and 
"to  work  for  Government  aid  of  cultural  activities."  In  connection 
with  the  conference,  the  following  statement  was  made : 

During  the  depression  we  had  a  Federal  theater,  Federal  writers,  and  Federal 
arts  projects.  Now  as  the  depression  again  approaches,  we  should  do  our  utmost 
to  insure  the  return  of  Government-subsidized  cultural  activities,  and  this  time 
on  a  permanent  basis. 

It  was  resolved  at  the  conference  "to  work  for  the  retention  and 
expansion  of  people's  cultural  mediums  by  the  establishment  and  pro- 
tection of  people's  museums,  art  galleries,  progressive  press,  and  maga- 
zines such  as  Mainstream  and  New  Masses."  The  conference  sharply 
challenged  the  "theory  that  building  a  people's  culture  is  useless  until 
working  people  become  fully  class  conscious." 

Writers  and  artists  (here)  can  exert  considerable  pressure,  often  with  good 
effect.  Book  publishers  offer  unique  possibilities  in  this  respect  since  they  are 
far  less  under  the  control  of  the  monopolies.  Many  editors  and  publishers  still 
remain  to  a  certain  extent  amenable  to  the  demand  for  progressive  literature. 

The  conference  announced  that  a  follow-up  Culture  and  People's 
Conference  is  to  be  held  at  the  California  Labor  School  in  San 
Francisco,  August  2, 1947. 

Completion  of  plans  for  the  International  Theater  Institute  will  be 
the  task  of  the  international  congress  to  be  convened  in  Paris  on  July 


118  TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE 

28,  1947.  According  to  Communist  sources,  under  date  of  July  1, 
1947,  Maurice  Kurtz,  United  Nations  Educational,  Scientific,  and  Cul- 
tural Organization  official,  announced  that  the  congress  will  be  held 
behind  closed  doors,  and  that  from  it  would  emanate  the  International 
Theater  Institute,  under  the  guidance  of  individuals  from  Russia, 
United  States,  Great  Britain,  Austria,  Poland,  Czechoslovakia,  and 
Cliina.  Twenty-six  were  invited  to  attend  the  Paris  congress,  14  of 
which  had  accepted  by  July  3.  The  temporary  chairman  will  be 
J.  B.  Priestly  of  England.  His  brother  delegate  will  be  Turone 
Guthrie.  American  delegates  who  have  accepted  the  invitation  are 
Lillian  Hellman  and  Rosamond  Gilder. 

Mr.  SxRirLiNG.  Could  you  refer  back  there  to  the  name  "Dalton 
Trumbo." 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes. 

Mr.  Stripling.  What  page  is  that  on,  do  you  recall? 

Tlie  Chairman.  I  might  add,  while  you  are  looking  for  that,  Mr. 
Steele,  this  cultural  field  dovetails  with  the  investigation  we  are  mak- 
ing into  the  Hollywood  situation. 

Mr.  Steele.  Very  definitely  so,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  And  many  of  the  names  you  mentioned  are  names 
that  were  also  mentioned  to  our  committee  when  we  were  out  in 
California. 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  Those  names  will  be  followed  up  as  our  investi- 
gators go  along. 

Mr.  Steele.  These  very  definitely  center  out  of  New  York  and 
Hollywood. 

Mr.  Stripling.  This  Dalton  Trumbo  you  referred  to,  Mr.  Steele — 
I  am  wondering  if  he  is  the  Dalton  Trumbo  who  is  the  writer  in 
Hollywood. 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  he  is. 

Mr.  Stripling.  He  is  the  same  one  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir.     He  is  the  Hollywood  writer. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Stripling,  I  would  suggest  that  you  take  this 
part  of  the  record  and  send  it  out  to  our  investigators  in  California 
as  quickly  as  possible. 

Mr.  Stripling.  All  right,  sir. 

From  the  incorporators,  Mr.  Steele,  of  the  People's  Radio  Founda- 
tion and  People's  Song.  Inc.,  is  there  any  question  but  that  they  are 
Communist-inspired  organizations? 

Mr.  Steele.  No  ;  none  whatsoever. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Isn't  Joseph  Brodsky  identified  with  both  of  them? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Stripling.  And  Samuel  Lapedis  is  identified  with  both  of 
them  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Mr.  Brodsky  and  Mr.  Lapedis  serve  as  counsel  for 
the  Communist  Party? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Stripling.  In  other  words,  these  are  two  new  ventures? 

Mr.  Steele.  That  is  right. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Representing  an  entirely  new  technique  on  the 
part  of  the  Comnumist  Party? 

Mr.  Steele.  That  is  right. 


TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE  119 

INIr.  Stripling.  One  is  to  establish  radio  outlets  and  the  other  is 
to  disseminate  propaganda  throngh  the  medium  of  recordings  and 
through  special  service  features  which  Peoples'  Songs  get  out. 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Has  that  ever  been  done  before  in  any  concerted  vray 
by  the  party  (' 

Mr.  Steele.  Not  so  far  as  the  radio  is  concerned,  that  I  know  of. 
They  did  have  their  dramatic  groups,  their  different  dance  groups, 
their  theater  groups,  and  so  on,  but  I  don't  know  that  they  ever  hooked 
the  radio  up  with  it  before. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Is  that  in  conformity  with  the  announcement  from 
Moscow  last  year  that  art  must  be  used  as  a  vehicle  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  I  winild  assume  so  because  when  the  instructions  w^ere 
issued  from  Moscow,  Foster  echoed  the  instructions  and  immediately 
these  fronts  began  to  pop  up  from  the  ground. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Have  you  ever  heard  of  an  organization  known  as 
Union  Films? 

Mr.  Steele.  I  have,  sir. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Have  you  ever  heard  of  a  picture  called  Dead  Line 
for  Action  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  I  have :  yes,  sir,  I  have  not  seen  it,  but  I  heave  heard 
of  it. 

Mr.  Stripling.  You  have  heard  of  the  picture? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Do  you  know  who  produced  the  picture  Dead  Line 
for  xVction  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  I  heard  who  had  written  it,  yes;  Marzani. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Carl  Aldo  Marzani. 

Mr.  Steele.  Carl  Marzani ;  yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Stripling.  ]Mr.  Steele,  what  particular  significance  do  you  at- 
tach to  the  concerted  effort  which  the  Communists  have  made^  in  the 
last  year  in  the  cultural  field  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  For  one  thing,  I  think  they  i^lan  to  advance  and  to  keep 
their  contacts  with  union  members.  In  other  words,  we  find  these 
cultural  groups  are  being  set  up  at  off-the-factory  premises  meeting 
places  and  that  the  choruses  are  being  organized  among  the  union 
members. 

For  instance,  the  Ford  local,  the  largest  local  in  Detroit,  was  the 
first  one  to  set  up  a  chorus,  composed  of  the  CIO  union  members. 
I  think  most  people  like  to  sing,  a  lot  of  them  like  to  act,  and  so  on. 
I  figure  that  they  are  planning  to  keep  their  contacts  with  these  mem- 
bers, regardless  of  the  Taft-Hartley  Act. 

Mr.  Stripling.  In  other  words,  they  have  used  the  medium  of  enter- 
tainment as  a  vehicle  for  their  propaganda  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  That  is  right.  To  get  someone  to  sing  these  songs  as 
they  are  w^ritten  they  have  to  learn  the  verses  and  communism  may 
penetrate  into  some  of  them — I  don't  laiow. 

Tlie  Chairman.  It  probably  sounds  better  in  song  than  it  does 
otherwise. 

Mr.  Steele.  I  imagine  so.  It  would  possibly  sound  better  from  a 
brass  band,  without  the  words, 

Mr.  Stripling.  What  information  do  you  have  concerning  the  vari- 
ous radio  commentators  who  have  affiliated  with  these  cultural  groups 
and  who  have  spots,  so  to  speak,  on  radio  networks  ? 


120  TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE 

Mr.  Steele.  There  have  been  a  number  of  them  that  left  the  radio 
field.     Now,  I  can't  say  whether  they  left  by  force  or  left  voluntarily. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Who  are  some  of  them  ?     ^ 

Mr.  Si'EELE.  Well,  Johannes  Steel  was  one, 

Mr.  McDowell.  Johannes  Steel,  did  you  say  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes.     I  think  possibly  I  have  a  list  of  them  here. 

Mr.  Stripling.  You  made  reference  to  them  on  page  115  (b). 

Mr.  Steele.  Page  115  (b)  ?     Yes;  some  of  them. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Yes. 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes ;  Frank  Kingdon,  Robert  St.  John,  and  Johannes 
Steel  are  at  least  three  of  them.  There  is  also  Selden  Menefee,  who  is 
not  a  broadcaster,  but  he  was  program  director  of  one  of  the  large 
broadcasting  systems.  I  understand  he  was  dismissed.  There  have 
been  several  others  I  understand  that  have  been  either  dismissed  from 
the  program  or  their  contracts  ran  out  and  were  not  renewed.  How- 
ever, Norman  Corwin  and  Sidney  Rogers  among  others  are  still  on  the 
air. 

Mr.  Stripling.  You  consider  that  Norman  Corwin  is  advancing  the 
Communist  Party  line,  in  the  material  which  he  prepares  for  radio 
presentation? 

Mr.  Steele.  I  wouldn't  say  because  I  have  never  heard  his  broad- 
casts, but  he  is  certainly  affiliated  with  all  of  these  cultural  front 
movements  and  he  must  know  that  they  are  promoting  the  Communist 
line  because  he  has  taken  an  active  part  in  their  movements. 

Mr.  IMcDowELL.  Mr.  Steele,  what  is  the  purpose  of  this  Nature 
Friends  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  We  find  they  carry  on  mostly  the  young  Communist 
youth  activities  in  the  camp.  The  purposes  of  the  camp,  I  presume, 
is  to  attract  youngsters  during  their  vacations. 

Mr.  McDowell.  They  have  summer  camps  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  They  have  summer  camps. 

Mr.  McDowell.  I  see. 

Mr.  Steele.  They  take  them  on  the  hikes.  I  don't  know  how.  they 
teach  them  communisim  on  hikes 

Mr.  McDowell.  They  study  birds,  bees,  and  things. 

Mr.  Steele.  That  is  right. 

Now  the  International  Workers'  Order.  It  is  quite  possible  that  the 
International  Workers'  Order,  with  national  headquarters  located  at 
80  Fifth  Avenue,  New  York,  N.  Y.,  is  one  of  the  main  sources  from 
which  emanate  the  largest  sums  of  money  for  the  propagation  and 
organization  of  Communist  activities  and  publications  in  the  United 
States.  The  IWO  is  set  up  as  a  fraternal  life  insurance  movement, 
with  State  and  local  branches  operating  throughout  the  country. 
These  are  organized  under  the  assumption  that  the  move- 
ment is  purely  an  insurance  movement,  and  it  operates,  therefore,  un- 
der State  insurance  charters.  It  is  connected  with  practically  every 
Communist  and  front  group,  in  one  way  or  another,  which  springs 
up  in  our  country. 

The  IWO  was' first  incorporated  in  New  York  in  March  1930,  Its 
incorporators  were  Abraham  Epstein,  Nathan  Shaffer,  Meyer  Loonin, 
Rubin  Saltzman,  Joseph  R.  Brodsky,  Elias  Wattenberg,  Max  Stein- 
berg, Paul  Novick,  Hyman  I.  Costrell,  Hyman  Grossman,  Morris 
Karofsky,  William  Weiner,  and  Samuel  Almazoff.     The  notary  in 


TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE  121 

this  instance  was  Fay  Siegartel.  The  order  was  at  the  time  declared 
a  benefit  and  membership  organization  with  an  insurance  feature 
(exhibit  57 ).f« 

The  principles  and  purposes  of  the  IWO  were  enumerated  in  a 
printed  pamphlet  issued  shortly  after  its  incorporation.  I  quote,  in 
part,  from  this  pamphlet : 

The  International  Workers'  Order  maintains  that  capitalism  is  bank- 
rupt *  *  *.  The  International  Workers'  Order  realizes  that  the  workers 
must  organize  to  advance  against  capitalism  *  *  *  The  International  Work- 
ers' Order  realizes  there  is  no  way  out  for  capitalism  *  *  *  The  International 
Workers'  Order  views  with  pride  and  joy  the  Soviet  Union,  which  is  the  only 
country  where  there  is  no  crisis  *  *  *.  The  International  Workers'  Order 
realizes  that  only  under  a  system  similar  to  the  Soviet  system  there  is  no  exploi- 
tation of  the  working  class  *  *  *.  The  International  Workers'  Order  there- 
.  fore  appeals  to  the  workers  to  join  the  struggle  against  capitalism  and  for  a 
system  where  all  power  belongs  to  the  working  class     *     *     *_ 

The  International  Workers'  Order  realizes  that  the  only  party  that  leads  the 
working  class  in  the  struggle  against  capitalism  is  the  Communist  Party,  which 
unites  the  best  and  proven  members  of  the  working  class,  and  which  is  bound  to 
become  even  stronger  until  the  moment  will  come  when  the  workers  under  its 
leadership  will  overthrow  the  capitalist  system  and  establish  Soviets.  It  follows, 
therefore,  that  the  International  Workers'  Order  is  part  of  the  battle  front  of 
the  working  class     *     *     *_ 

We  find  that  the  Communist  is  the  only  party  that  fights  for  the  workers'  inter- 
ests. We  therefore  endorse  the  Communist  Party.  We  appeal  to  all  workers 
to  vote  for  the  Communist  Party.  We  aid  the  party  in  its  struggles  *  *  * 
It  [International  Workers'  Order]  aids  in  strikes  conducted  against  the  bosses. 
The  International  Workers'  Order  supports  such  strikes  both  with  money  and 
sympathy  and  with  appeals  to  its  members  for  aid.  We  have  just  said  that  the 
International  Workers'  Order  is  part  of  the  battle  front  of  the  working 
class     *     *     *^  _ 

Still  another  struggle  on  the  calendar  of  the  working  class  is  the  struggle  to 
defend  the  Soviet  Union.  Soon  we  may  be  called  to  fight  against  the  Bolsheviks 
under  one  pretext  or  another.  It  is  the  task  of  the  International  Workers'  Order 
to  offer  the  most  powerful  resistance  to  these  plans    *     *     *. 

The  first  president  of  the  IWO  was  William  Weiner,  an  alias  for 
Welwel  Warzover,  former  treasurer  of  the  Communist  Party,  who  was 
born  in  Russia.  He  was  charged  at  about  the  time  of  the  arrest  of 
Earl  Browder  with  passport  violations,  but  his  case  never  came  to  trial. 
He  paid  Sam  Carr,  head  of  the  Soviet  atom  spy  ring  in  Canada,  con- 
siderable sums  of  money.  Weiner  resigned  his  position  as  president 
of  the  IWO  in  favor  of  Rockwell  Kent.  According  to  the  IWO,  Kent 
was  formerly  a  member  of  the  IWW.  He  has  had  many  Red  front 
connections.  Kent  was  previously  a  vice  president  of  the  IWO  under 
Weiner.  The  general  secretary  and  director  of  the  IWO,  Max 
Bedacht,  has  been  for  many  years  a  member  of  the  national  com- 
mittee of  the  Communist  Party.  He  is  a  German  by  birth.  Peter 
Shipka  has  been  the  treasurer  of  the  IWO  for  some  time.  Other  vice 
presidents  include  Vito  Marcantonio,  Boleslaw  Gebert,  Rubin  Saltz- 
■man,  Louis  Thompson  and  John  Middleton,  a  member  of  the  board 
of  directors  of  the  National  Council  of  American-Soviet  Friendship. 
The  recording  secretary  is  Dave  Green ;  national  educational  director, 
Peter  Chaunt;  director  of  the  youth  department,  Richard  Crosscup; 
and  editor  of  its  major  organ,  Fraternal  Outlok,  Eugene  Konecky. 
Organizing  secretary  is  Sam  Milgrom. 

Tlie  following  are  State  office  locations  of  the  IWO:  184  West 
Washington   Avenue,   Chicago,   111.;    5   Harrison   Avenue,   Boston, 

8*  See  appendix,  p.  175,  for  exhibit  57. 


122  TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE 

Mass.;  139  South  Tenth  Street,  Philadelphia,  Pa.;  326  Fourth  Ave- 
nue, Pittsburgh,  Pa.;  942  Prospect  Avenue,  Cleveland,  Ohio;  2111 
Woodward  Avenue,  Detroit, -Mich.;  129-431  North  Eutaw  Street,  Bal- 
timore, Md.;  830  Market  Street,  San  Francisco,  Calif.;  40  Clinton 
Street,  Newark,  N.  J.  Locals  are  scattered  from  coast  to  coast 
(exhibit  58).^'^ 

The  paid  membership  of  the  IWO,  the  largest  of  any  organization, 
is  estimated  at  160,000,  with  a  youth  membership  of  approximately 
26,000.  Its  assets  are  listed  at  $2,774,841.05.  Receipts  from  January 
1,  1940,  to  January  1,  1944,  amounted  to  $7,180,832.36.  Its  disburse- 
ments for  the  same  period  amounted  to  $6,029,369.15,  $1,828,351.55  of 
this  representing  traveling,  special  subsidies,  sectional  organizers, 
literature,  publicity,  and  conventions,  totaled  $2,315,529.87.  The 
money  raised  in  special  campaigns  waged  by  the  IWO  among  its  • 
members  for  the  benefit  of  various  Communist  and  Communist -front 
movements  is  not  listed,  of  course,  in  its  official  report. 

The  IWO  maintains  a  front  line  fighters'  fund,  undoubtedly  made 
up  of  members  who  were  drafted  into  the  armed  forces  during  the 
war.  From  September  1941  to  April  1944,  the  fund  had  collected 
$220,388.34.  It  used  $4,373.45  of  its  funds  as  a  gift  to  Poland.  The 
Russian  war  relief  was  given  $11,000.  All-over  contributions  by  IWO 
to  Russia  amounted  to  $209,822.16;  United  Spanish  Aid,  $6,000;  Joint 
Anti-Fascist  Refugee  Committee,  $13,900;  Yugoslavia,  $2,000;  and 
China,  $4,980  (exhibit  59). «' 

Membership  in  the  Baltimore-District  of  Columbia  branch  is  ap- 
proximately 1,500;  Massachusetts  branch  4,000;  Connecticut  3,500; 
Michigan,  10,000;  Los  Angeles,  4,000;  Midwestern  States,  20,000; 
lower  New  York  State,  42,000;  upper  New  York  State,  3,900;  Ohio, 
18,000;  eastern  Pennsylvania,  14,500;  Pittsburgh,  19,000;  San  Fran- 
cisco, 1,400;  and  West"  Virginia,  1,500. 

Members  of  the  IWO  are  of  all  nationalities :  Greek.  1,500,  Hun- 
garian, 11,300;  Ukranian,  16,300;  Slovakian,  14.000;  Italian,  10,400; 
Russian,  16,600;  Carpatho-Russian,  5,600;  Polish,  10,056;  Finnish, 
1,226;  Serbian,  3,000;  Croatian,  9,400;  Rumanian,  2,500;  -Spanish, 
2,500;  Jewish,  44,600;  and  general,  16,000. 

The  IWO  is  set  up  on  a  national  and  racial  basis.  It  maintains  the 
following  branches:  American-Russian  Fraternal  Society,  president, 
Sam  Nikolauk,  secretary,  Daniel  Kasustchik;  Carpatho  Russian- 
American  Mutual  Aid  Society,  president,  Peter  Kostyshak,  secretary, 
Michael  Logoyda ;  Cervantes  Fraternal  Society,  president,  Jesus 
Colon,  secretary,  Luis  Cepeda ;  Croatian  Benevolent  Fraternity  of 
America,  president,  Anthony  Gerlach,  secretary,  Nicholas  Rajkoyich ; 
Finnish-American  Mutual  Aid  Society,  president,  Richard  Bjork- 
backa,  secretary,  Carl  Paivio;  Garibadli  American  Fraternal  Society, 
president,  Mario  DTnzillo,  secretary,  Louis  A.  Candela ;  Hellenic- 
American  Fraternal  Society,  president,  George  Karafios,  secretary, 
Nick  Marinos;  Jewish  People's  Fraternal  Order,  president,  Albert 
E.  Kahn  secretary,  Rubin  Saltzman ;  Hungarian  Brotherhood,  presi- 
dent, Hugo  Gellert,  secretary,  Emery  Komolos  Polonia  Society,  presi- 
dent, Boleslaw  Gebert,  secretary,  Wojciech  Haracz;  Rumanian-Amer- 
ican Fraternal  Society,  president,  George  Vocila,  secretary,  Mary 
Mila;    Serbian-American   Federation,   president,   Michael   Vuletich, 


*•  See  appendix,  p.  175,  for  exhibit  58. 
■*»  See  appendix,  p.  175,  for  exhibit  59. 


TESTIMONY   QF  WALTER   S.    STEELE  123 

secretar3%  Nicholas  Baltich;  Slovak  Workers'  Society,  president, 
Helen  Vrabel,  secretary,  Charles  INIusil ;  and  Ukrainian-American 
Fraternal  Union,  president,  Michael  Tkach,  secretary,  Walter  Riback, 
Tlirou<ih  these  momentum  is  given  the  Communist  nationals  movement 
(exhibit  60). ^1 

The  IWO  maintains  summer  camps,  schools,  and  meeting  places 
throughout  the  country.  The  nucleus  of  many  Ked  front  movements 
is  composed  of  members  of  the  organization.  These  movements  have 
been  established  for  the  purpose  of  carrying  on  an  agitational  and 
propaganda  campaign  in  behalf  of  Russian  and  Communist  expan- 
sion policies  in  Europe  and  the  Far  East.  I  will  discuss  a  few  of  these 
later  on  in  n\\  testimony. 

The  order,  as  it  is  called  in  Communist  Circles,  organized  a  move- 
ment to  aid  the  CIO  in  strikes.  This  was  known  as  the  Fraternal 
Orders  Conference.  The  chairman  is  B.  K.  Gebert ;  vice  chairman, 
Henry  Rath;  treasurer,  J.  Gasiunas;  and  secretar}^  George  Witkovich. 

The  IWO  cooperates  in  every  conceivable  manner  with  the  Com- 
munist Party,  its  publications,  its  fronts",  and  activities.  In  prac- 
tically every  issue  of  Communist  dailies  one  can  find  a  paid  advertise- 
ment of  the  order,  and  in  all  other  party  organs  as  well.  This  is  one 
way  of  helping  finance  the  Connnunist  movement.  On  the  other  hand, 
the  order's  publications  invariably  endorse  the  Communist  Party  and 
its  fronts.  Its  members,  particularly  the  leaders,  take  an  active  part 
m  party  affairs  and  activities. 

I  submit  as  evidence  of  the  close  cooperation  of  the  IWO  with  Com- 
munist fronts,  several  letters  written  by  the  officials  of  the  Order  to 
its  members.  You  will  note  that  one  is  addressed  to  "all  district  secre- 
taries'' of  the  IWO,  calling  for  the  extensive  distribution  of  the  Amer- 
ican Review  on  the  Soviet  Union,  a  pro-Soviet  publication  (exhibit 
61)^-  This  carried  glowing  articles,  according  to  the  letter,  ccmcern- 
ing  the  Red  Army,  speeches  by  Stalin  and  Molotov,  biographies  of 
various  Red  generals,  and  so  forth.  The  second  letter  is  addressed 
to  "all  language  and  district  secretaries— all  executives,''  and  it  asks 
for  complete  cooperation  with  the  American  Peace  Mobilization  which 
at  the  time  was  waging  "Yanks  are  not  coming"  and  "fight  against 
imperialist  war"  campaigns,  and  picketing  the  White  House  at  the 
time  of  the  Stalin-Hitler  break  (exhibit  62). ^^  The  third  letter,  ad- 
dressed to  "district  and  national  group  secretaries,"  asks  for  coopera- 
tion with  the  Veterans  of  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade  and  Farm  Re- 
search (exhibit  63).**  The  fourth  letter  is  even  more  inclusive.  It 
acknowledges  the  IWO  offer  to  distribute  printed  materials  for  the 
following  fronts :  International  Labor  Defense,  National  Lawyers' 
Guild,  American  Committee  for  Protection  of  Foreign  Born,  Council 
for  Inalienable  Rights,  Labor  Research,  Inc.,  American-Russian  In- 
stitute, Institute  for  Propaganda  Analysis,  Survey  Associates,  Inc., 
and  National  Negro  Congress.  I  previously  called  attention  to  the 
fact  that  the  order  cooperates  wholeheartedly  with  the  National  Coun- 
cil of  American-Soviet  Friendship  (exhibit  64).*^ 

I  also  submit  an  interoffice  memo  which  outlines  the  plan  to  use 
feature  articles  on  the  Daily  AVorker  and  the  People's  Daily  World, 

*i  See  appendix,  p.  175,  for  exhlliit  60. 
"  See  appendix,  p.  175,  for  exhibit  61. 
••^  See  appendix,  p.  175.  for  extiibit  62. 
*•  See  appendix,  p.  176,  for  exhibit  63. 
**  See  appendix,  p.  176,  for  exhibit  64. 


124  TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S,    STEELE 

two  Communist  organs,  in  IWO  publications,  in  an  effort  to  interest 
its  members  in  subscribing  to  them  (exhibit  65).*^  I  submit  a  folder 
circulated  among  members  of  the  order,  asking  for  subscriptions  to 
the  Daily  Worker  and  the  Worker  (Sunday  issue)  (exhibit  66)  .-^^  In 
addition,  I  will  present,  as  evidence,  a  "call"  to  the  Fourth  American 
Writers'  Congress,  issued  by  the  IWO  (exhibit  67).*^ 

The  November  1946  issue  of  Fraternal  Outlook  (official  IWO  organ) 
carried  a  number  of  endorsements.  These  included  all  major  pub- 
lications of  the  Communist  Party  and  those  of  several  national  front 
groups,  Daily  Worker,  the  Worker,  People's  Daily  World,  Freiheit, 
Russky  Golos,  Eteenpain,  Tyomies,  Glos  Ludowy,  Greek-American 
Tribune,  Karpatska  Rus,  Ludov}^  Dennik,  L'Unita  del  Popolo,  Mag- 
yar Herald,  Narodni  Glasnik,  Eumanian  American,  Slobodna  Eech 
Narodna  Wola.  In  connection  with  these  recommendations,  Fraternal 
Outlook  made  this  observation : 

No  other  newspaper  in  America  devotes  as  much  space  to  IWO  activities  as  the 
Daily  Worlter.  The  papers  above  have  helped  build  the  IWO ;  that's  why  thou- 
sands of  IWO  members  are  supporting  their  subscription  and  circulation  cam- 
paigns. 

The  IWO  publications  for  some  time  have  been  gi  en  over  to  na- 
tional front  movements,  which  are  organized  to  a._.,?tf.  and  propa- 
gandize in  behalf  of  Russia  and  Communist  expai^;/  ,  f^ffforts  in  the 
old  hemisphere.  They  devote  a  great  deal  of  space  to  the  All  Slav 
Congress.  They  also  publicize  extensively  for  the  National  Council 
of  American-Soviet  Friendship,  the  American  Association  for  Re- 
construction of  Yugoslavia,  the  American  Artists  Group,  the  Council 
for  Russian  Relief,  the  National  Committee  To  Win  the  Peace,  ICOR, 
National  Negro  Congress,  American  Youth  for  Democracy,  People's 
Mobilization,  and  other  similar  groups. 

The  IWO  conducted  campaigns,  in  conjunction  with  the  Commu- 
nists, agitating  for  the  return  of  American  boys  from  the  Far  East. 
They  circulate  Communist  Party  campaign  platforms,  support  their 
candidates,  raise  money  for  their  publications,  recruit  members  for 
the  party,  and  publish  and  circulate  party  literature. 

The  order  raised  $50,000  for  the  Spanish  Red  forces.  It  works  with 
party  sections,  has  party  leaders  address  its  giv^ups,  holds  joint  meet- 
ings with  party  sections,  names  its  locals  ni  honor  of  Commu- 
nists— John  Reed  Club,  Lenin  Club,  Lincoln  Steffens  Club,  Paul 
Robeson  Club,  and  Henry  Barbusse  Club.  Its  members  participate  in 
Communist  parades  and  attend  Communist  mass  meetings  and  dem- 
onstrations. Communist  party  leaders  who  have  addressed  its  con- 
ventions include  Earl  Browder,  William  Z.  Foster,  Freddy  Meyers, 
Robert  Minor,  William  Gropper,  Fred  Ellis,  and  John  L.  Spivak. 
The  IWO  established  a  national  training  school  for  its  organizers.  Its 
members  join  the  picket  lines  with  Reds  involved  in  strikes.  The 
order  maintains  birth-control  centers.  It  is  the  fountainhead  of  a 
movement  to  obtain  1,000,000  signatures  to  a  petition  to  be  presented 
to  Congress  in  behalf  of  free  medicine  and  medical  legislation  (social- 
ized medicine).  In  this  connection  it  recently  sponsored  a  movie 
dramatization.  The  passage  of  such  legislation  would  release  a  large 
amount  of  health  insurance  reserve  money  which  the  order  could  use 


■•«  See  appendix,  p.  176,  for  exhihit  65. 
<'  See  appendix,  p.  176,  for  exhibit  66. 
*«  See  appendix,  p.  176,  for  exhibit  67. 


TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE  125 

to  fiirtJier  Communist  cause.  It  promoted  a  campaign  to  build  audi- 
ences for  John  Roy  Carlson,  author  of  Under  Cover  and  The  Plotters, 
during  his  smear  lecture  tour,  by  organizing  ticket  bloc  purchasing 
among  its  members. 

The  IWO  maintains  a  large  staff  of  left-wing  doctors  and  opticians. 
It  carries  on  a  persistent  campaign  against  congressional  and  State 
investigations  of  Communist  activities.  Its  State  sections  are  divided 
into  many  local  lodges.  For  example,  there  are  36  lodges  in  Chicago, 
and  some  48  in  New  York.  One  branch  in  Washington,  D.  C,  is  known 
as  lodge  136,  with  headquarters  located  at  -±40:2  Georgia  Avenue  NW. 

Officers  of  the  Negro  organizing  committee  of  the  IWO  are  Louise 
Thompson,  chairman,  and  Sam  O.  Patterson,  secretary.  A  few  of  the 
sponsors  of  the  order  have  been  Charlotte  Hawkins  Brown,  Henrietta 
Buckmaster,  Howard  East,  Mike  Quill,  Max  Yergan,  A.  Clayton 
Powell,  Vito  Marcantonio,  and  Stanley  Nowak.  Among  its  junior 
director  is  Gerbish  Giles. 

Before  tlie  v\  ar  the  IWO  carried  on  campaigns  against  conscription, 
alien  registration,  lend-lease,  "warmongering''  movies,  and  "imperial- 
ist" war.  There  is  evidence  to  prove  the  statement  that  during  the 
war  it  carriecP^^n  propaganda  campaigns  among  soldiers  through 
messages  sec  •  ''+V,-in  packages  and  cigarettes  which  escaped  the  at- 
tention of  th"      '    trnment  censors. 

The  IWO  celebrates  the  anniversaries  in  the  U.  S.  A.  of  the  Red 
revolution  in  Russia,  and  it  sends  delegates  to  Moscow  to  join  in  its 
celebrations.  Nufrierous  advertisements  of  the  IWO  Avhich  have  ap- 
peared in  Communist  organs  refer  to  it  as  the  Class  Struggle  Fraternal 
Organization. 

The  Call  for  the  Seventh  Annual  Convention  of  the  IWO  appeared 
in  numerous  Communist  publications  in  full-page  advertisements. 
The  convention  was  held  in  New  York  City  on  June  16,  1947.  Full- 
page  advertisements  also  appear  in  Communist  publications  in  con- 
nection Avith  its  campaign  for  socialized  medicine.  I  submit  a  copy 
of  its  recent  convention  proceedings  (exhibit  68).*^ 

At  this  time  the  IWO  is  promoting  "cultural  shows,"  particularly 
in  industrial  district??  • 

The  IWO  has  set  v(^-  a  national  training  summer  school  at  Camp 
Robin  Hood,  near  San  Francisco.  Youth  from  New  York,  Pittsburgh, 
Youngstown.  Cleveland,  Detroit,  and  Chicago  are  to  receive  schooling 
in  IWO  youth  leadership  there  in  1947.  Richard  Grosscup  is  in 
charge. 

The  Southern  California  Continuation  Committee  of  the  State- 
wide Legislative  Conference  is  composed  of  the  International  Workers' 
Order,  the  American  Veterans'  Committee  of  California,  the  CIO, 
and  the  Hollywood  Women's  Council. 

In  fact,  a  brief  outline  of  it  shows  the  wide  influence  of  the  IWO 
in  California.  The  California  Legislative  Council  was  held  in  the 
California  Junior  High  School,  Sacramento,  February  15-16,  1947. 
Chairman  of  the  northern  California  section  is  G.  F.  Irvine,  sponsor  of 
the  Communist  organ.  Peoples'  Daily  World  fund  drives,  vice  presi- 
dent of  the  Mooney  Labor  School  (now  the  California  Labor  School) 
and  prior  to  that,  the  Workers'  School — all  Communists  in  succession. 
Chairman  of  the  southern  section  is  Reuben  W.  Borrough,  instigator 


^»  See  appendix,  p.  176,  for  exhibit  68. 
•  65176 — 47 9 


126  TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE 

of  the  pro-Communist  march  on  Sacramento  in  February,  sponsor 
of  the  American  Youth  for  Democracy,  member  of  the  executive  board 
of  the  Progressive  Citizens  of  America,  sponsor  of  t]ie  Peoples'  Daily 
World  $75,000  sustaining  fund  drive,  sponsor  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln 
Brigade,  and  a  member  of  the  Defense  Committee  for  Harry  Bridges 
(alien  radical  unionist). 

The  permanent  name  of  the  movement  is  the  State-Wide  Legislative 
Committee.  Northern  offices  are  at  951  Pacific  Building,  San  Fran- 
cisco, and  the  southern  offices  are  at  1515  Cross  Koads  of  the  World, 
Hollywood.  Organizations  participating  including  16  California  sec- 
tions of  the  International  Workers  Order  (including  Jewish  Workers 
Fraternal  Order,  the  racial  section  of  which  is  headed  by  the  Com- 
munist functionary,  Albert  E.  Kahn),  101  CIO  California  locals, 
42  California  locals  of  the  A.  F.  of  L.,  11  American  Jewish  Congress 
(California  locals),  16  American  Youth  for  Democracy,  California 
locals,  4  locals  of  the  National  Negro  Congress,  12  locals  of  the  Pro- 
gressive Citizens  of  America,  6  locals  of  the  Civil  Eights  Congress, 
the  California  Labor  School,  11  locals  of  the  American  Veterans'  Com- 
mittee, 2  locals  of  the  Congress  of  American  Women,  10  locals  of 
the  National  Association  for  the  Advancement  of  Colored  People,  1 
Japanese- American  Citizenship  League,  2"  locals  of  Committee  to 
Win  Peace,  1  local  of  the  Free  World  Club,  11  locals  of  the  Townsend 
Club,  2  locals  of  the  Women's  International  League  for  Peace,  and 
Freedom,  1  chapter  of  the  National  Lawyers'  Guild,  1  local  of  the 
Western  Cooperative  Dairy  Union,  a  score  of  interracial  and  inde- 
pendent unions,  so-called  civic  and  democratic,  mental  hygiene,  scien- 
tific, and  national  movements. 

Simon  Schacter,  a  member  of  the  general  executive  board  of  the 
Lincoln  Steffens  Unit  of  IWO  (lodge  500)  and  editor  of  the  Local's 
organ.  Voice  of  500,  is  editor  of  the  organ  issued  by  the  New  York 
Chapter  of  the  National  Lawyers'  Guild. 

The  IWO  is  the  major  force  behind  Senate  Resolution  1320,  known 
as  the  Wagner-Dingell  bill,  in  behalf  of  the  socialization  of  medicine. 
On  July  3,  1947,  Ernie  Reimer,  appearing  for  the  IWO  in  the  hear- 
ings on  the  bill,  w^as  forced  to  admit,  while  testifying,  that  he  is  a 
Communist  and  a  member  of  the  party.  The  IWO  campaigned  for  a 
million  signatures  in  support  of  the  resolution. 

One  of  the  films  released  for  use  b}'  the  IWO  and  the  CIO  is  entitled 
"Guaranteed  Wages  the  Year  Round"  (Facts  for  Action),  an  adapta- 
tion of  Robert  Nathan's  report. 

Pearl  Fagelson  is  President  of  the  IWO  Jewish  People's  Fraternal 
Committee  in  Los  Angeles.  A.  Maymudes  is  secretary  of  the  IWO 
in  that  city. 

President  of  the  Philadelphia  branch  of  the  IWO  is  Morris  Shaf- 
ritz ;  secretary  is  Sol  Rotenberg. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Do  you  have  any  figures  there  showing  the  break- 
down of  the  membership  in  the  various  localities  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Stripling.  How  about  the  Baltimore-District  of  Columbia 
branch  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes;  the  membership  in  the  Baltimore-District  of 
Columbia  branch  is  approximately  1,500;  the  Massachusetts  branch, 
4,000 ;  Connecticut,  3,500 ;  Michigan,  10,000 ;  Los  Angeles,  4,000 ;  Mid- 


.   -  TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE  127 

western  States,  20,000;  lower  New  York  State,  42,000;  Upper  Xew 
York  State,  3,900;  Ohio,  18,000;  eastern  Pennsylvania,  14,500;  Pitts- 
burgh, 19,000 ;  San  Francisco,  1,400 ;  West  Virginia,  1,500. 

I  also  have  the  break-clown  on  nationals,  if  you  want  that. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Do  you  know,  Mr.  Steele,  if  this  International 
Workers  Order  made  a  contribution  of  $30,000  to  the  Communist 
Party  campaign  fund  in  1936  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  I  understand  they  did;  yes,  sir.  They  have  also  made 
contributions  numerous  times  to  the  Daily  Worker,  Sunday  Worker, 
and  various  other  Communist  publications. 

Mr.  Stripling.  The  president  of  the  Internotional  Workers  Order 
was  Mr.  William  Weiner? 

Mr.  Steele.  That  is  right.     His  proper  name  was  Warzower. 

Mr.  Stripling.  That  is  right. 

Mr.  Steele.  He  was  Russian-born.  He  adopted  the  name  of  Wil- 
liam Weiner. 

Mr.  Stripling.  And  he  was  president  of  this  organization  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir,  up  until  a  short  time  ago.  I  am  sure  that  your 
committee  brought  out  the  fact  that  as  treasuier  of  the  Communist 
Party  at  the  time  also,  he  was  handing  out  checks  from  the  Communist 
Party  fund  to  Carr,  who  headed  the  Russian  spy  ring  in  Canada. 

Mr.  Stripling.  This  is  an  organization  with  160,000  members. 

Mr,  Steele.  Yes,  sir  Mr.  Stripling.  With  a  youth  membership 
of  approximately  26,000. 

Mr.  Stru'ling.  All  of  the  prominent  officials  are  also  Communists? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Were. 

Mr.  Steele.  Were. 

Mr.  McDowell.  You  read  there,  Mr.  Steele,  19,000  in  the  city  of 
Pittsburgh.     Did  I  get  that  figure  right? 

Mr.  Steele.  That  is  right;  yes,  sir;  19,000  in  Pittsburgh. 

These  are  their  figures,  by  the  way. 

Mr.  McDowell.  Is  it  presumed  those  19,000  are  Communists  or 
fellow  travelers? 

Mr.  Steele.  I  don't  know.  Their  money  is  being  contributed  to  the 
Communist  cause  and  they  are  electing  Communist  officials  to  lead 
their  organization.     I  will  let  you  answer  that  one. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Mr.  Chairman,  does  the  committee  have  any  addi- 
tional questions  on  the  International  Workers  Order? 

If  not,  we  can  move  on  to  the  next  section  of  the  testimony. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Vail  ? 

Mr.  Vail.  No  questions. 

The  Chairman.  JNIr.  McDowell? 

Mr.  McDowell.  No  other  questions. 

Mr.  Steele.  There  was  just  one  point  I  did  not  want  to  bring  out, 
Mr.  Stripling,  and  that  is  the  fact  that  the  IWO  is  set  up  on  a  na- 
tionals basis.  The  only  reason  I  wanted  to  emphasize  that  fact  is 
that  my  next  subject  is  going  to  be  the  movement  among  the  alien- 
born.  In  investigating  the  matter,  I  am  certain  the  IWO  units  which 
are  set  up  upon  a  national  basis  become  the  nucleus  and  the  source  of 
the  funds  that  were  split  up  by  the  Communists  among  the  alien-born. 

The  Chairman.  At  this  point,  the  record  will  show  that  Mr.  Munclt 
is  present. 


128  TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE 

Mr.  Steele.  Another  field  in  wliich  the  Communists  have  played 
and  where  they  have  won  over  many  adherents  in  the  United 
States  is  that  of  the  40,000,000  foreign-born  and  first-generation 
Americans.  Prior  to  the  entrance  of  the  United  States  into  World 
War  II,  these  alien-fronters  were  active  in  the  promotion  of  such 
organizations  as  American  League  for  Peace  and  Democracy,  Ameri- 
can Peace  Mobilization,  Yanks-are-not-coming  committees,  Ameri- 
can Committee  Against  Aggression,  and  other  similar  organizations, 
the  purpose  of  which  was  to  agitate  and  propagandize  in  behalf  of 
the  Russian-German  pact.  With  the  break  between  Stalin  and  Hitler, 
these  same  fronters  organized  scores  of  "immediate  second  front"  and 
"aid  to  Russia"  movements.  As  soon  as  it  became  evident  that  the 
Allies  would  defeat  the  Axis,  they  turned  their  attention  to  the  forma- 
tion of  fronts  for  so-called  "democracy,"  "liberation,"  and  "aid"  for 
such.  All  their  efforts  fitted  in  with  the  Soviet  expansion  of  political 
power  policy  over  Europe  and  Asia  and  have  given  emphasis  to 
the  move  for  a  Slav  and  Croatian  state.  At  the  same  time  they  or- 
ganized agitational  and  pressure  groups  for  the  purpose  of  keeping 
our  attention  on  the  Western  Hemisphere,  and  to  detract  our  atten- 
tion from  European-Asiatic-African  problems  created  b^  Russia. 

For  leadership  in  that  program  the  Communists  had  developed 
numerous  organizations,  the  most  effective  of  which  have  been  the  In- 
ternational Workers  Order  and  the  National  Council  of  American- 
Soviet  Friendship.  I  have  previously  given  more  or  less  detailed 
information  with  regard  to  these  two  groups.  A  third  movement 
which  has  also  been  active  in  the  alien  field  is  the  American  Committee 
for  Protection  of  Foreign-Born,  with  headquarters  at  79  Fifth  Ave- 
nue, New  York,  N.  Y.  It  was  originally  called  the  Council  for  Pro- 
tection of  Foreign-Born,  and  finally  to  the  name  under  which  the 
group  now  operates.  Founded  in  1924,  it  is  of  Communist  origin. 
While  it  has  carried  on  agitation  for  the  release  from  prison  of  a  few 
non-Communists,  it  has  invariably  supported  the  leftist  cause.  Its 
major  activity  has  been  that  of  agitating  for  the  release  of  arrested 
alien-born  Communists,  and  furnishing  legal  aid  to  them,  and  to 
fight  deportations. 

The  offices  of  the  American  Committee  for  Protection  of  Foreign 
Born  are  located  at  23  West  Twenty-sixth  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y. 
Officials  of  the  committee  include  Stanley  Nowak  of  Michigan,  chair- 
man, and  also  connected  with  the  International  Workers'  Order; 
Carol  King,  counsel  (attorney  for  Communists,  including  Gerhart 
Eisler)  ;  Isidore  Englander,  treasurer;  and  x\bner  Green,  executive 
secretary.  A  few  of  the  sponsors  are  Edward  G.  Robinson,  Reid 
Robinsoii,  Henry  E.  Sigerest  Vilhjalmur  Stefanfcison,  Donald  Ogden 
Stewart,  Robert  Morse  Lovett,  and  Frederick  May  Eliot. 

The  connnittee  affiliates  and  cooperates  with  all  other  fronts  in  the 
United  States,  Although  Irene  Browder  (wife  of  Earl  Browder), 
Russian-born,  testified  under  oath  a  few  years  ago,  when  being  exam- 
ined before  the  Department  of  Justice  prior  to  naturalization,  that  she 
had  never  participated  in  Communist  Party  activities,  the  fact  is  that 
she  was  in  charge  of  the  Communist  Party's  national  front  activities 
in  1939,  at  a  time  when  Russia  and  Germany  were  allied  and  the  ground 
was  being  laid  by  Russia  and  the  Communist  Party  for  a  broader 
national  front  in  the  United  States  to  support  Russia's  postwar  claims 


TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE  129 

in  the  Balkans  and  Slav  countries.  Mrs.  Browder's  statements  not 
only  prove  her  denial  of  party  connections  entirely  false,  but  they 
likewise  show  the  intense  activity  of  the  party  in  the  alien-born  field. 
She  made  two  or  more  appeals  and  reports  to  party  members  regard- 
ing the  need  and  plans  of  the  party's  organized  efforts  in  this  field. 
These  appeals  were  made  in  May  and  September  of  1939.  In  May  she 
reported : 

Recently  the  problems  of  the  national  groups  have  become  a  special  topic  in 
the  curriculnni  of  the  party  schools.  The  national  question,  as  a  general  problem 
and  in  some  of  its  special  phases,  has  long  been  an  organic  part  of  our  school 
work.  *  *  *  But  only  of  late  have  we  taken  up  the  serious  study  and  direc- 
tion of  work  among  the  most  important  groups  of  various  national  origins — the 
Poles,  Italians,  Germans,  Jews — as  distinct  subcommunities  within  the  broader 
American  community  life,  with  tlieir  own  special  aspects  and  problems.  *  *  * 
Tlio  national  groups,  more  strongly  socialistic  in  tendency  than  the  older  American 
stock,  were  not  homogeneous,  however,  and  while  furnishing  many  of  the  best 
pioneers  of  revolutionary  socialism,  also  brought  a  wide  variety  of  ideologies, 
opportunistic  and  anarchistic,  as  well  as  openly  reactionary.  *  *  *  When  the 
Comnumist  Party  of  the  United  States  of  America  arose  out  of  the  left-wing 
majority  of  the  old  Socialist  Party  in  1919-21,  it  found  its  main  base  in  the 
national  groups.  *  *  =;=  \  complete  revision  and  reequipment  of  Communist 
Party  work  in  this  field  *  *  *  began  in  1937.  *  *  *  it  -^-as  made  a  major 
point  at  our  tenth  convention  in  1938.     *     *     * 

The  largest  and  most  important  national  groups  (in  the  United  States  of 
America)  are  the  Germans,  Italians,  Jews,  Poles,  South  Slavs,  and  the  Spanish- 
language  groups  of  various  national  origins.  *  *  *  Popularization  of  the 
historic  achievements  of  socialist  construction  in  the  Soviet  Union  is  one  of  the 
central  features  of  all  effective  work  among  the  national  groups.  *  *  *  rj^jjg 
role  of  the  Soviet  Union  as  the  defender  of  the  peace  and  of  the  weak  and  ex- 
ploited peoples  is  one  which  the  national  groups  are  prepared  to  respond  to  and 
appreciate  when  it  is  made  clear  to  them.  *  *  *  Every  national  group  is 
important  and  demands  systematic  attention  of  our  party.  *  *  *  The  most 
serious  and  important  task  of  all,  among  the  national  groups,  is  that  of  bringing 
together,  training,  and  consolidating  a  leading  personnel  which  is  capable  of 
meeting  and  solving  the  thousand  difficult  problems  that  confront  this  movement. 
Our  party  is  taking  this  up  in  the  most  serious  way.  Leading  positions  in  the 
national  groups  are  of  first-class  political  importance.  We  must  have  the  best 
educated  and  most  capable  available  in  them.  *  *  *  We  make  the  same  de- 
mands upon  the  leadership  of  the  national  groups  that  we  made  upon  members 
of  the  national  committee  of  the  party,  who  must  lead  the  movement. 

In  this  renewed  interest  and  activity  among  the  alien-born  in  the 
United  States,  the  Commimist  Party  was  but  carrying  out  the  edicts 
of  the  Communist  International,  which  emphasized,  at  its  1935  con- 
gress in  ]Moscow%  the  importance  of  the  alien  movement  in  each 
countiy.  Dimitroff,  then  general  secretary  of  the  international  and 
now  dictator  of  Bulgaria,  addressed  the  congress  on  this  subject. 
While  party  activities  in  this  field  were  renewed  in  1939,  because  of 
the  war  alliance  between  Russia  and  Germany  it  was  not  intensified 
until  the  spring  of  1942.  It  was  during  that  year  that  the  All- 
America  Slav  Congress  was  formed  at  a  meeting  held  in  Detroit, 
April  25  and  26,  in  response  to  an  appeal  of  the  All-Slav  Congress 
previously  held  in  Moscow  (August  10  and  11,  1941).  The  Detroit 
congress  was  a  culmination  of  a  number  of  preliminary  meetings  held 
in  variotis  key  cities  having  large  Slav  populations. 

The  chairman  of  the  All-Slav  Congress  which  was  held  in  Moscow 
was  Lt.  Gen.  Alexander  Gundorov  of  the.  Red  Army.  Vice  chairman 
was  Alexander  Korneichuk,  Soviet  writer.  The  congress  was  ad- 
dressed by  Alexei  Tolstoi,  Soviet  writer ;  Professor  Zdenek,  biographer 
of  Lenin  and  a  professor  of  western  Slavic  languages  and  culture  at 


130  TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER    S.    STEELE 

tlie  Moscow  Institute;  Wanda  Wasilevska,  Polish  Communist  leader 
and  wife  of  Korneichuk;  Johannes  Becher,  German  Communist 
leader;  and  Frederich  Wolf.  Of  the  20  elected  to  the  executive  com- 
mittee, 10  were  Russians,  and  10  were  Slavic  Communists.  The  con- 
gress called  on  the  millions  of  Poles,  Czechs,  Slovaks,  Carpathian 
Ukranians,  Bulgars,  Serbs,  Macedonians,  Vlakhs,  Croats,  and 
Slovenes  to  "unite  against  the  common  enemy  of  all  the  Slav  peoples." 

The  Moscow  appeal  v/as  responsible  for  the  forming,  not  only  of 
the  Ail-American  Slav  Congress,  but  also  of  similar  congresses  in 
Canada,  New  Zealand,  and  Latin  America.  The  Latin-American 
congress  first  met  in  Montevideo  on  April  24  and  25,  1941.  A  second 
Moscow  congress  was  held  on  April  7,  1942;  and  a  third  on  May  10, 
1943. 

Simultaneous  with  the  first  Moscow  congress  (August  1941),  there 
was  a  Slav  Congress  held  in  Pittsburgh  (August  10,  1941).  It  was 
decided  at  that  time  to  hold  an  Ail-American  Slav  Congress  in  De- 
troit. John  D.  Butkovich,  national  president  of  the  Croatian  Fraternal 
Union  of  the  International  Workers'  Order,  was  chairman  of  the  All- 
Slav  Congress  committee.  Stephan  Zeman,  Jr.,  was  made  secretary. 
He  had  previously  participated  in  meetings  of  the  fraternal  orders 
committee  of  the  International  Workers  Order  with  Butkovich  and 
B.  K.  Gebert  of  the  Communist  Party.  Prominent  among  those  par- 
ticipating in  the  congress  was  Anthony  Minerich,  Pittsburgh  sec- 
tional organizer  of  the  Communist  Party  who  has  an  extensive  police 
record  in  Pennsylvania,  Ohio,  Illinois,  and  New  Jersey. 

One  of  the  most  important  of  the  preliminary  meetings  leading  to 
the  Detroit  congress  was  that  of  the  Macedonian-American  People's 
League  (composed  of  Greeks,  Serbs,  Macedonians,  and  Bulgars),  held 
in  Gary,  Ind.  The  principal  speaker  was  George  Pirinsky  of  Detroit, 
secretary  of  the  league,  whose  real  name  is  George  Zykoff. '  He  is  a 
Bulgarian,  of  about  47  years  of  age,  and  he  edits  a  Communist  foreign- 
language  paper  published  in  Detroit  by  the  name  of  Saznanie.  In 
signing  many  of  his  articles,  he  also  uses  another  alias — George 
Necoloff.  He  plays  an  important  part  in  the  All-American  Slav  Con- 
gress. In  one  of  his  articles  which  appeared  in  the  Daily  Worker, 
Pirinsky  said  that  the  "Bulgarians  in  the  United  States  must  answer 
Dimitroff's  call." 

It  was  evident  from  the  various  meetings  held  in  the  United  States, 
following  the  Moscow  call,  leading  to  the  Detroit  congress,  that  the 
heads  of  the  national  groups  of  the  International  Workers'  Order  were 
the  dynamos  in  the  fronts  which  sprang  up.  Among  these  fronts 
were  the  Federation  of  Bulgarian-Macedonian  Workers'  Clubs, 
Croatian  Fraternal  Union,  Slovak  National  Alliance,  Yugoslav 
Friends  of  Democracy,  Slavonic  Committee  for  Democracy, 
Slovak  Women's  Society,  Serbian  National  Federation,  Polish 
Falcons  of  America,  Slovene  National  Congress,  Bulgarian-American 
Committee,  Servian  Vidov-dan  Council,  Slovenian-American  Council, 
United  Committee  of  South  Slav  Americans,  Polish-American  Trades 
Council,  and  finally  the  AU-Americnn  Slav  Congress. 

Foremost  of  those  active  in  the  movement  to  establish  the  All- 
American  Slav  Congress,  in  addition  to  those  previousl}^  mentioned, 
were  John  Kocharsky  (Polish)  ;  Vincent  Ujcich  (red  fronter)  ;  Leo 
Krzycki,*  J.  J.  Zeman,*  Martin  Krasich,*  Steve  Krall,*  Anna  Biat- 


♦Denotes  current  national  officers  of  the  All-American  Slav  Congress. 


TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE  131 

niak  of  the  International  Workers'  Order;  Slovak  Women's  Com- 
mittee, Rudolph  Martonovic,  Charles  Korenice  of  the  Slovak  section 
of  the  International  Workers'  Order;  A.  Dmytrishn  of  the  Ukrainian 
section  of  the  International  Workers'  Order;  Stanley  Nowak,  Nick 
Swetnick,  member  of  the  Young  Communist  League;  Vladimir  Kaza- 
kevich  and  Nicholas  Tarnowsky,  at  the  time  coeditors  of  the  Ukrainian 
Dailv  News;  General  Yakhontoff,  member  of  manv  red  fronts;  Leo 
Krzycki;  Blair  P\  Gunther;  W.  T.  Osowski ;  and  Vl  S.  Platk. 

The  Slovene  National  Congress,  held  in  Cleveland  in  December 
1942,  joined  with  the  All- American  Slav  Congress.  Louis  Adamic  was 
elected  chairman,  and  M.  A.  Bogdanovich  of  San  Pedro,  Calif.,  was 
elected  treasurer.  Also  joining  the  congress  was  the  United  Confer- 
ence of  South  Slavic  Americans,  organized  in  Cleveland  and  originally 
called  the  United  Yugoslav  Committee.  At  the  Cleveland  meeting  of 
the  Slovene  National  Congress,  a  10-point  program  was  mapped  out 
in  defense  of  Tito,  as  against  Mihailovich.  It  was  proposed  to  turn 
the  combined  forces  loose  in  an  effort  to  swing  public  sentiment  in 
the  U.  S.  A.  in  order  to  influence  public  officials  in  favor  of  Tito. 

The  Slovenian-American  Council,  the  Servian  Vidov-dan  Council, 
and  the  Council  of  Americans  of  Croatian  Descent  also  met  in  Cleve- 
land, and  they  joined  together  in  forming  the  United  Committee  of 
South  Slav  Americans,  with  Louis  Adamic  as  president.  He  was 
authorized  at  the  time  to  explore  the  possibilities  of  setting  up  other 
Balkan-American  groups.  Adamic  then  became  a  frequent  White 
House  guest. 

I  will  refer  briefly,  at  this  point,  to  other  organizations,  many  of 
which  are  disguised  as  liberation  fronts,  others  masked  as  advocates 
of  democratic  governments  and  relief  and  aid  movements,  and  which 
were  set  up  in  the  midst  of  Russian  and  Allied  victories  in  Europe 
and  Asia. 

Macedonian-American  People's  League,  with  headquarters  at  5856 
Chene  Street,  Detroit,  is  headed  by  Smeale  Voydanoff,  president,  and 
George  Pirinsky,  national  secretary.  This  outfit  agitates  in  behalf  of 
the  Greek  Communist  forces  and  opposes  the  Tunisian  defense  of 
Greece  against  a  Soviet-Communist  takeover. 

Armenian  National  Council  of  America,  381  Fourth  Avenue,  New 
York,  N.  Y.,  has  as  its  chairman  Mark  J.  Shahinian ;  vice  chairman, 
Martic  Martentz;  secretary,  Seth  Shahen;  treasurer,  Mesrob  Baja- 
kian;  and  executive  director,  Charles  A.  Vertanes.  This  has  carried 
on  a  campaign  in  opposition  to  the  American  pro])osal  to  lend  money 
to  Turkey  in  an  attempt  to  forestal  Russian  and  Communist  threats 
designed  against  Turkey. 

Joint  Conference  Against  Intervention  in  Greece  was  formed  in 
answer  to  the  call  of  the  National  Council  of  American-Soviet  Friend- 
ship at  a  meeting  held  in  the  Capitol  Hotel  in  New  York  City  on 
March  18,  1917.  William  Howard  Melish  is  chairman;  Nancy  Cox, 
secretary.  The  continuation  committee  is  composed  of  John  Darr,  Jr. 
(Christian  Council  for  Democracy),  Beulali  Warshall  (Congress  of 
American  Women),  Steve  Krall  (American-Slav  Congress),  Cynthia 
Jones  (Council  of  African  Affairs),  Arthur  Kaufman  (American 
Veterans'  Committee),  James  Lustig  (CIO  United  Electrical 
Workers),  James  Felas  (Hellenic- American  Vanguards),  Milton 
Wolff   (Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade),  Frank  Ilchuck   (International 


132  TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE 

Workers'  Order),  Alex  Karanikas  (American  Council  for  Democratic 
Greece),  and  Richard  Morford  (National  Council  of  American-Soviet 
Friendship).  The  joint  conference  was  organized  for  the  purpose  of 
opposing  American  foreign  policy  in  aiding  Greece  against  Soviet 
and  Communist  expasion  in  Greece. 

The  American  Committee  for  a  Free  Indonesia  (Los  Angeles),  of 
which  George  K.  Anang  is  vice  president,  and  Ede  Kemnitsir  is  secre- 
tary; the  San  Francisco  Committee  for  a  Free  Indonesia,  and  the 
American  Committee  for  Indonesian  Independence  (New  York)  were 
organized  in  support  of  the  Indonesian  revolution.  The  latter,  with 
offices  at  23  West  Twenty-sixth  Street,  has  the  backing  of  Hugh  De 
Lacy,  Elmer  Benson,  Muriel  Draper,  Frederick  V.  Field,  Dr.  Henry 
Pratt  Fairchild,  W.  E.  B.  DuBois,  James  Dombrowski  (Southern  Con- 
ference for  Human  Welfare),  Louis  E.  Burnham  (Southern  Negro 
Youth  Congress),  Dr.  Harl  R.  Douglas  (University  of  Colorado), 
Zarko  M.  Buncheck  (Serbian  Vidovdan  Council),  Henrietta  Buck- 
master  (Congress  of  American  Women),  Zlatko  Balokovic  (United 
Committee  of  Southern  Slav  Americans),  and  other  f routers. 

The  Committee  for  a  Democratic  Eastern  Policy,  the  headquarters 
of  which  are  located  at  111  West  Forty-second  Street,  New  York  City, 
was  created  after  Dimiti  Manuisky,  Communist  and  Soviet-Ukrainian 
delegate  to  the  UN,  had  warned  that  "Indonesia  may  become  a  second 
Spain"  in  the  event  of  outside  interference  with  the  revolution.  This 
committee  opposes  the  American  policy  toward  Greece  and  Turkey 
as  an  extension  of  our  policy  in  China.  It  calls  on  Congress  to  defeat 
such  a  foreign  policy.  Executive  director  is  Maude  Russell.  Gen. 
Evans  Carlson,  until  his  death  recently,  was  the  president.  Members 
of  the  board  of  directors  are  Frederick  V.  Field,  Rev.  Stephen  H, 
Fritchman,  Jack  R.  McMichael,  Arthur  Upham  Pope,  Martin  Po])per, 
Ross  Terlin,  and  Max  Yergan.  Consultants  include  Philip  Jaffe 
and  Kate  Mitchell  of  the  pro-Soviet  magazine,  Amerasia,  who  figured 
in  the  State  and  War  Departments  document  theft  cases ;  and  Maxwell 
Stewart,  former  editor  of  Moscow  News.  Sponsors  are  Zlatko  Balo- 
kovic, Elmer  Benson,  Milieu  Brand,  Louise  jBransten,  Char- 
lotte Hawkins  Brown,  John  M.  Coffee,  Norman  Corwin,  Hugh  De 
Lacy,  Martha  Dodd,  W.  E.  B.  DuBois,  Dr.  Henry  Pratt  Fairchild, 
Donald  Henderson,  Carey  McWilliams,  Rockwell  Kent,  Edward 
Chodorov,  William  Gropper,  Albert  E.  Kahn,  Muriel  Draper,  Leo 
Huberman,  William  Howard  Melish,  A.  Clayton  Powell,  Jr.,  Saul 
Mills,  Doxey  Wilkerson,  Gene  Weltfish,  Donald  Ogden  Stewart,  Dirk 
J.  Struik,  Gregory  Peck,  William  J.  Schieffelin,  Jacob  S.  Potofsky, 
and  Paul  Robeson,  all  of  whom  are  familiar  to  those  who  have  knowl- 
edge of  Red  and  Red  front  activities  in  the  LTnited  States. 

The  American  Committee  for  a  Korean  People's  Party,  Korean 
Culture  Society,  American  Committee  to  Aid  Korean  Federation  of 
Trade  Unions,  and  Korean  Independence  News  Co.  were  set  up  to 
protest  the  American  policy  in  Korea,  to  demand  the  recall  of  Ameri- 
can occupation  forces,  to 'fight  for  the  release  from  prison  of  the 
"Korean  democratic  leader,"  to  urge  the  recognition  of  a  Korean 
provisional  government,  and  to  sponsor  a  meeting  to  effect  the  "Mos- 
cow decision."  These  movements  have  had  the  cooperation  of  the 
National  Win  the  Peace  Committee  of  California  (a  Red  front)  in 
carrying  out  their  program. 


TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE  ]  33 

The  China  Conference  Arrangements  Committee,  110  Market  Street, 
.San  Francisco,  emanated  from  the  National  Win  the  Peace  Committee 
of  California.  Gen.  Evans  F.  Carlson  (deceased)  was  chairman.  The 
Win  the  Peace  Committee  engineered  the  Red  front  campaign  to 
force  the  withdrawal  of  American  troops  from  China. 

The  American  Friends  of  the  Chinese  People,  168  West  Tw^enty- 
third  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y.,  w^as  among  the  earlier  movements 
created  b}^  the  Reds  to  influence  America's  Chinese  policy.  It  cooper- 
ated with  the  Washington  Committee  for  Aid  to  China,  1115  Fifteenth 
Street  NW.,  Washington,  D.  C.  American  Friends  of  the  Chinese 
People  was  set  up  in  1938.  Its  chairman  is  Maxwell  Stewart;  vice 
chairman,  Julius  Loeb;  treasurer,  Helen  Majlery;  organizing  secre- 
tary, Esther  Carroll;  affiliation  secretary,  Helen  Holman;  chairman 
of  boycott  comnnttee,  Julia  Church  Kolar.  Included  as  members  of 
the  national  advisory  board  are  Max  Yergan,  Robert  Morse  Lovett, 
Haru  Matsui,  Mrs.  J.  C.  Guggenheimer,  Joseph  Cadden,  and  Thomas 
Addes. 

The  American  Friends  of  Czechoslovakia,  8  West  Fortieth  Street, 
New  York,  N.  Y.,  is  under  the  leadership  of  William  Jay  Schiefl'elin. 
It  has  a  connecting  link  with  various  other  alien  fronts  through  Dr. 
Frank  Kingdon.  It  began  to  promote  the  cause  of  the  Czech  Red  front 
government  in  this  country  in  June  1914,  before  the  Tito  regime  was  in 
power,  in  fact. 

The  American  Committee  for  Yugoslav  Relief,  58  Park  Avenue,  New 
York,  N.  Y.,  is  still  another  pro-Tito  movement.  It  is  headed  by  Louis 
Adamic,  chairman;  and  Zlato  Balokovic,  cochairman,  both  of  whom 
are  mentioned  several  times  in  this  report  in  connection  with  Red 
front  activities.  Local  branches  have  been  set  up  all  over  the  country. 
Also  interested  in  this  committee  are  Rockwell  Kent,  Max  Bedacht, 
Walter  B.  Cannon,  Jo  Davidson,  Mrs.  Elinor  S.  Gimbel,  Johannes 
Steel,  Dr.  Emmanuel  Chapman,  Mary  McLeod  Bethune,  Lion  Feucht- 
wanger,  William  S.  Gailmor,  Marshall  Field,  Mrs.  Edward  C.  Carter, 
and  Hugh  De  Lacy. 

American  Relief  for  Greek  Democracy,  with  headquarters  at  111 
West  Forty-second  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y.,  is  headed  by  Robert  St. 
John  and  Nicholas  Cheronis.  Mrs.  Frank  Gervasi  and  John  Vassos, 
vice  chairmen ;  Costa  Couvaras,  secretary.  Sponsors  include  Zlatko 
Balokovic,  Elmer  Benson,  Hugh  De  Lacy,  Henrietta  Buckmaster, 
Abram  Flaxer  (CIO  Federal  Workers'  Union),  Betty  Field  (wife 
of  Frederick  V.  Field) ,  Hugo  Gellert,  Mrs.  Elinor  S.  Gimbel,  William 
Gropper,  Langston  Hughes,  Albert  E.  Kahn,  Rockwell  Kent,  Albert 
Maltz,  Vito  Marcantonio,  William  H.  MeTish,  Clifford  Odets,  A.  Clay- 
ton Powell,  Jr.,  and  Harry  F.  Ward.  Eighteen  of  its  sponsors  are 
either  directors  or  sponsors  of  the  National  Council  of  American- 
Soviet  Friendship.  Seventeen  are  sponsors  of  the  Committee  for  a 
Democratic  Far  Eastern  Policy. 

The  American  Committee  for  Armenian  Rights,  381  Fourth  Ave- 
nue, New  York,  N.  Y.,  elected  Robert  W.  Searle  as  its  secretary,  and 
Edwin  S.  Smith  of  the  National- Council  of  American-Soviet  Friend- 
ship, chairman.  This  outfit  supports  the  American  National  Council 
of  America,  still  another  front  movement  active  in  the  United  States 
in  support  of  Armenian  Soviet  Republic. 

The  American  Committee  for  Spanish  Freedom  and  the  Action 
Committee  to  Free  Spain  are  only  two  of  the  scores  of  Spanish  Red 


134  TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE 

fronts  disguised  as  refugee  relief  groups  operating  in  the  United 
States.  The  Action  Committee,  headed  by  Milton  Wolff,  prominent  in 
the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade,  has  offices  at  55  West  Forty-second 
Street,  New  York,  N.  Y.  It  has  branches  in  every  section  of  the 
country.  The  Philadelphia  section  of  this  committee  held  an  emer- 
gency conference  a  short  time  ago.  The  speakers  were  Abel  Plenn, 
James  Price  (CIO),  Milton  Wolff,  and  Kaymond  Pace  Alexander. 
{Lewis  O.  Hartman  is  chairman  of  the  American  Committee  for 
Spanish  Freedom.  John  M.  Coffee  is  vice  chairman;  Samuel  J. 
Novick,  treasurer;  and  Allan  Chase,  secretary.  Menibers  of  the  board 
of  sponsors  include  Johannes  Steel,  Albert  E.  Kahn,  G.  Bromley 
Oxnam,  Elmer  A.  Benson,  Jo  Davidson,  Norman  Corwin,  Stephen  H. 
Fritchman,  Mrs.  George  Marshall,  Sol  Rotenberg,  Morris  Shafritz, 
Arthur  Huff'  Fauset,  and  Donald  Keler. 

The  Joint  Anti-Fascist  Refugee  Committee  maintains  offices  at  192 
Lexington  Avenue,  New  York,  N.  Y.  Walter  Rautenstrauch  is  hon- 
orary chairman;  Edward  K.  Barsky,  chairman ;  Richard  T.  Cox,  vice 
chairman,  Lyman  R.  Bradley,  treasurer;  and  Helen  R.  Bryan,  execu- 
tive secretary.  The  sponsors  are  Dr.  Comfort  A.  Adams,  Rabbi 
Michael  Alper,  Prof.  Joseph  Warren  Beach,  Dr.  Henry  L.  Bibby, 
James  L.  Brewer,  Prof.  Harold  Chapman  Brown,  Dr.  J.  F.  Brown, 
Kyle  Critchton,  Martha  Dodd,  Muriel  Draper,  Prof.  Henry  Pratt 
Fairchild,  Prof.  Irving  Fisher,  Prof.  Mitchell  Franklin,  Dr.  Marion 
Hathway,  Kenneth  Leslie,  Princess  Helga  zu  Lowenstein,  George 
Marshall,  Louis  F.  McCabe,  Harvey  O'Connor,  Rt.  Rev.  Edward  L. 
Parsons,  Dr.  Max  Pinner,  Prof.  Renato  Poggioli,  Dr.  Francis  M. 
Pottenger,  Georges  Schreiber,  Rev.  Charles  C.  Webber,  Dr.  Mary  E. 
Woolley,  Max  Yergan,  and  Art  Young.  The  committee  has  set  up 
the  following  branches :  Boston,  14  Beacon  Street,  Mrs.  Gail  Kelvin, 
secretary;  Chicago,  166'  West  Jackson  Boulevard,  Miss  Mary  Doyle, 
secretary; ;  Cleveland,  750  Prospect  Avenue,  Miss  Rutli  Keller,  secre- 
tary; Philadelphia,  322  South  Sixteenth  Street,  Mrs.  Madelin  Blitz- 
stein,  secretary;  Holljnvood,  8505  Sunset  Boulevard;  Los  Angeles, 
206  South  Spring  Street,  Miss  Helen  M.  Fisher,  secretary;  San  Fran- 
cisco, 68  Post  Street,  Mrs.  Marion  Owens,  secretary;  Oakland,  1615 
Broadway,  Mrs.  Inez  Schuyten,  secretary;  Seattle,  Lloyd  Building, 
Sixth  and  Stewart,  Mrs.  Ruth  Kremen,  secretary.  This  committee 
financially  supported  Gerhart  Eisler.  It  was  partially  financed  by 
the  International  Workers'  Order. 

The  Conference  on  Puerto  Rico's  Right  to  Freedom  is  a  Western 
Hemisphere  Red  front,  of  which  Emanuel  Chairman  is  chairman. 
National  committee  members  are  A.  Clayton  Powell,  Ferdinand  Smith, 
John  Coffee,  Irving  Potash,  Joseph  Selly,  Saul  Mills,  Arthur  Upham 
Pope,  and  Johannes  Steel.  This  outfit  has  propagandized  for  the 
freedom  of  Puerto  Rico  from  the  United  States,  and  in  support  of 
other  Red  demands. 

Other  pro-Red  and  Soviet  front  organizations  operating  in  this 
country  are  the  Japanese-American  Committee  for  Democracy," 
Italian-American  Women  for  Democratic  Action,  Greek-American 
Council,  Victory  Committee  of  German-American  Trade  Unionists, 
American-Russian  Institute,  headed  by  Thomas  L.  Harris;  American 
Friends  of  Polish  Democracy,  Robert  M.  Mclver,  chairman,  Louis 
Adamic  and  Paul  Douglas,  vice  chairman,  and  Adolph  Held,  treas- 


TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE  135 

urer;  American  Friends  of  Danish  Freedom  and  Democracy,  Ameri- 
can Guild  for  German  Cultural  Freedom,  Eumanian-American  Al- 
liance for  Democracy,  German-Americans,  Inc.,  and  Council  on 
African  Affairs;  American  Friends  of  Free  India,  Spanish  Refugee 
Appeal  Committee,  American  Society  for  Cultural  Relations  with 
Italy,  Russian-American  Society,  and  the  China  Aid  Council,  Inc. 

Like  many  other  fronts,  the  Council  on  African  Affairs,  23  West 
Twenty-sixth,  New  York,  N.  Y.,  i's  working  in  the  interest  of  a  foreign 
country.  It  agitates  in  support  of  a  free  Africa,  freedom  from  pre- 
sent government  affiliations,  as  the  first  step  toward  Communist  and 
Soviet  Russian  domination.  The  officers  of  the  council  are  widely 
known  in  Connnunist  and  Red  front  circles.  They  are:  chairman, 
Paul  Robeson;  vice  chairman,  William  Jay  Schieffelin;  executive 
director.  Max  Yergan;  treasurer,  Edith  Field;  education  director, 
W.  A.  Hunton.  Members  of  the  council  are  Leonard  Barnes,  Mrs. 
Charlotta  Bass,  W.  Y.  Bell,  S.  H.  Bishop,  R.  T.  Bokwe,  Lida  N. 
Broner,  Charlotte  Brown,  Henry  A.  Callis,  J.  H.  Carpenter,  William 
E.  Cochran,  F.  E.  DeFrantz,  Hubert  T.  Delany,  Earl  B.  Dickerson, 
Dean  Dixon,  Roscoe  Dunjee,  Max  Felshin,  Kumar  Goshal,  George  W. 
Harris,  F.  M.  Isserman,  Vito  Marcantonio,  George  Marshall,  Irving 
Potash,  Adam  Clayton  Powell,  Jr.,  Thomas  Richardson,  Doxey  Wil- 
kerson.  Gene  Weltfish,  Channing  Tobias,  William  B.  Spofford,  Jr.,  and 
Ferdinand  Smith.  The  Council  on  African  Affairs  and  its  leaders 
affiliate  with  other  Communist  fronts  in  supporting  issues  entirely 
divorced  from  those  for  which  the  council  was  supposedly  created 
(exhibit  69).^^^ 

The  Coordinating  Committee  for  a  Spanish  Republic,  23  West 
Twenty-sixth  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y.,  was  established  to  coordinate 
the  Red  drive  in  behalf  of  the  Communist  and  pro-Soviet  offensive 
against  Spain,  Members  of  the  executive  committee  included  Aurelio 
Perez,  A.  R.  Hernandez,  Rafael  Garcia,  Gerardo  Fernandez,  and 
Antonio  Santos.  Cooperating  with  this  front  were  the  International 
Workers'  Order,  Veterans  of  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade,  and  the  Com- 
mittee for  Democratic  Spain. 

So  numerous  were  these  organizations  that  an  International  Coor- 
dination Council  was  set  up  to  keep  this  huge  machine  in  coordinated 
action.  Frank  Kingdon,  an  alien-born  radical,  is  chairman  of  the 
council.  An  American  Committee  for  International  Information  was 
also  established  for  the  purpose  of  "neutralizing  propaganda  resulting 
from  the  war."  This  is  under  the  direction  of  William  Jay  Schieffe- 
lin.    Frank  Kingdon  is  a  member  of  its  board. 

A  World  Armenian  Congress  was  held  in  New  York  City  in  May 
1947.  In  attendance  were  delegates  representing  three  and  one-half 
million  Armenians  in  26  countries.  The  Congress  condemned  the 
Truman,  doctrines  in  foreign  affairs.  Speakers  included  S.  Edwin 
Smith  of  the  National  Council  of  American-Soviet  Friendship,  John 
Roy  Carlson,  and  J.  Raymond  Walsh  of  Friends  of  Democracy. 

The  Free  Italy  Society,  with  offices  at  3220  North  Broadway,  Los 
Angeles,  Calif.,  is  thought  to  be  a  State  unit  of  a  national  having  the 
same  name,  the  headquarters  of  which  are  in  New  York.  Vito  Marc- 
antonio is  active  among  this  element,  and  he  addressed  a  meeting  of 
the  society  at  the  Shrine  Auditorium  in  Los  Angeles  on  December  10, 

«a  See  appendix,  p.  176,  for  exhibit  69. 


136  TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE 

1946.  The  four-page  flier  issued  in  conjunction  with  the  affair  was 
entitled :  "Support  the  Tito-Togliatti  Proposals  for  Trieste."  It  Avas 
printed  both  in  English  and  Italian.  It  called  on  all  Italians  to  pro- 
test to  the  Italian  Embassy  in  Washington,  D.  C,  the  Secretary  of 
State  of  the  United  States,  and  the  Council  of  Foreign  Ministers  in 
New  York.  It  demanded  that  Tito  and  Togliatti  (Communists)  be 
permitted  to  settle  the  future  of  Trieste.  It  asked  that  Anglo-Ameri- 
can representatives  to  the  Big  Four  'Council  be  prevented  from  "con- 
sidering themselves  with  vested  powers,  not  only  against  the  Yugoslav 
peoples,  but  also  again  the  peoples  of  Italy."  It  declared  that  the 
American-British  plan  was  that  of  "imperialists,"  aiming  to  "trans- 
form the  Trieste  territory  into  one  of  their  colonial  possessions."  It 
attacked  Secretary  of  State  B3^rnes  and  British  Prime  Minister  Bevin, 
accusing  them  of  playing  the  game  of  so-called  "imperialism,"  and 
suggesting  that  they  be  deprived  of  their  powers. 

The  dynamo  of  the  foreign  angle  of  Red  front  propaganda  and 
agitational  activity  in  the  United  States  in  opposition  to  the  American 
foreign  policy  in  South  America  is  the  Council  for  Pan-American 
Democracy.  The  council  has  reflected  the  Soviet  and  Communist 
Party  line  as  it  affects  Soviet  interests  in  South  America.  It  at- 
te]npted  to  force  a  change  in  our  policies  which  may  have  been  con- 
sidered contrary  to  those  of  the  Soviet.  The  offices  of  the  council 
are  located  at  112  East  Nineteenth  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y.  Branches 
are  active  in  other  cities  throughout  the  United  States  and  in  South 
America.  The  most  recent  report  issued  by  the  council  in  my  posses- 
sion lists  Clifford  T.  McAvoy  as  chairman ;  A.  J.  Isserman,  secretary- 
treasurer;  Marion  Bachrach,  Frederick  V.  Field,  and  Joan  Madison, 
executive  secretaries.  The  executive  committee  is  composed  of  Mrs. 
Edmond  Barach.  John  Bright,  Louis  Coleman,  Joseph  Curran,  David 
Efron,  Hugo  Gellert,  Ben  Golden,  George  Marshall,  Charles  Recht 
(chief  counsel  in  the  United  States  for  the  Soviet  Government),  Max 
Yergan,  Ferdinand  Smith  (member  of  the  national  committee  of  the 
Communist  Party),  Arthur  G.  Silverman,  Joseph  Selly,  Ruth  Reeves, 
Samuel  Putnam,  and  Herman  P.  Osborne.  The  council  was  formecl 
in  March  1939.  The  conference  which  was  called  to  set  up  the  council 
was  held  in  Washington,  D.  C.,  in  December  1938.  Sponsors  in- 
cluded the  usual  run  of  fronters:  Louis  Adamic,  Max  Yergan,  Max- 
well Stewart,  George  Marshall,  Rockwell  Kent,  Laiigston  Hughes, 
Henry  Pratt  Fairchild,  Evans  Clark,  and  Erksine  Caldwell.  The 
council  has  agitated  for  the  freedom  of  Puerto  Rico  and  for  a  break 
in  relations  with  Argentina.  In  the  latter  fight,  the  council  circu- 
lated a  petition  signed  by  Serge  Koussevitsky  of  the  National  Council 
of  American-Soviet  Friendship  (Cultural  Section),  John  M.  Coffee, 
Olin  Downes,  Theodore  Dreiser,  Frederic  March,  Lewis  Mumf  ord,  and 
Bennett  Cerf . 

SOUTHERN  CONFERENCE  FOR  JIUMAN  WELFARE 

The  membership  of  the  Southern  Conference  for  Pluman  Welfare 
is  composed  chiefly  of  southerners  of  varied  political  shades,  many 
of  whom  were  unquestionably  first  attracted  by  its  openly  stated  pro- 
gram, and  with  no  knowledge  of  its  hidden  intent  to  become,  as  Earl 
Browder  stated,  "one  of  the  transmission  belts  of  the  Communist 
Party."     Plans  for  the  setting  up  of  the  conference  were  made  at  a 


TESTIMONY  OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE  137 

gathering  of  men  and  women  from  T  of  the  13  Southern  States,  hekl  in 
Birmingham,  Ahx.,  on  September  6,  1938.  Permanent  officers  and 
standing  connnittees  were  elected  and  created  at  tliat  meeting.  On 
October  15, 1938,  Louise  O.  Charlton,  previously  chosen  general  chair- 
man of  the  Southern  Conference  for  Human  Welfare,  issued  a  call 
for  the  first  general  conference  of  the  movement,  to  be  held  in  Birming- 
ham, November  20  to  23, 1938. 

The  national  committee  members  elected  for  the  ensuing  year  (1938- 
39)  included  a  number  of  prominent  men  and  women,  among  whom 
were  jNIembers  of  Congress,  a  Governor,  newspaper  men,  educators, 
and  State  officials.  Sandwiched  among  them  were  such  fronters,  if 
not  actual  Communists,  as  John  Davis,  Mary  McLeod  Bethune,  Clark 
H.  Foreman,  and  a  mixture  of  CIO  leaders  in  the  South.  As  far  as 
the  officials  of  the  organization  were  concerned,  the  left-wing  was 
seemingly  quite  in  the  minority  at  the  beginning. 

Communist  interest  in  the  setting  up  of  such  an  organization  in 
the  South  dated  back  to  August  1938  when  the  New  South,  an  organ 
of  the  party  which  was  edited  by  Paul  Crouch,  Benjamin  Davis,  James 
W.  Ford,  Ted  Wellman,  and  Henry  Winston,  was  launched.  It 
propagandized  for  certain  issues  which  in  time  Avere  taken  over  by 
the  Southern  Conference  for  Human  Welfare.  New  South,  published 
in  Birmingham,  succeeded  the  Southern  Worker  which  had  been 
published  in  Chattanooira,  tiie  editorial  board  of  which  was  made  up 
of  Jim  Mallory,  Robert  F.  Hall,  Paul  Ciouch,  and  Ted  Wellman. 

The  November  1938  conference  of  the  Southern  Conference  for 
Human  Welfare  proved  to  be  more  of  an  institute  on  issues  than  any- 
thing else.  Because  of  this,  numerous  individuals  devoid  of  the  Com- 
munist taint  were  persuaded  to  participate.  In  all,  15  vice  chairmen 
were  elected,  one  from  each  of  the  13  States,  and  2  at  large.  Also 
elected  as  general  officers  were  120  members.  One  hundred  repre- 
sentatives were  chosen,  7  from  each  of  the  13  States.  The  States 
rej^resented  at  the  conference  were  Ahibama,  Arkansas,  Florida, 
Georgia,  Kentucky,  Louisiana,  Mississippi,  North  Carolina,  Oklaho- 
ma, Tennessee,  Texas,  and  Virginia. 

Commenting  on  the  conference,  the  January  1939  issue  of  The  Com- 
munist stated : 

We  can  say  that  the  southern  conference  was  a  brilliant  confirmation  of  the 
line  of  the  democratic  front  advanced  by  Comrade  Browder  at  the  tenth  conven- 
tion. *  *  *  Comrade  Browder  anticipated  the  southern  conference  in  his 
discussions  on  the  national  executive  committee  report.  This  is  no  coincidence. 
Our  party  has  for  many  years  given  earnest  study  to  the  problems  of  the  South 
on  the  scientific  basis  of  Marxist-Leninist  principle.  Southern  State  organiza- 
tions of  the  Communist  Party  were  represented  at  the  conference  by  five  south- 
ern delegates  *  *  *  The  southern  conference  for  Human  Welfare  has  given 
a  strong  impetus  to  progressivism  in  the  South  *  *  *  i,i  strengthening  this 
movement,  our  party  has  before  it  a  great  task.  On  this  basis,  our  party  can  and 
must  proceed  to  recruit  from  the  progressive  ranks  many  hundreds  of  new  mem- 
bers.   *     *     * 

A  call  was  issued  for  a  second  annual  conference  to  be  held  from 
April  14  to  16,  1940,  at  the  Memorial  Auditorium,  Chattanooga. 
This  time  the  sponsors  did  not  inckide  known  Communists  or  individ- 
uals who  had  front  records.  On  the  program,  however,  were  Mal- 
colm C.  Dobbs,  Edward  E.  Strong,  John  P.  Davis,  and  Myles  Horton. 
Officers  elected  at  this  conference  Avere  Louise  Charlton,  honorary 
chairman;  Frank  P.  Graham,  honorary  chairman;  John  B.  Thomp- 


138  TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE 

son,  chairman;  John  P.  Davis,  vice  chairman;  Clark  H.  Foreman, 
secretary-treasurer;  James  A.  Dombrowski,  executive  secretary;  and 
Harold  Katz,  director. 

The  third  conference  was  held  at  Memorial  Hall,  Nashville,  April 
19  to  21,  1942.  Addresses  were  delivered  by  Frank  P.  Graham,  Dr. 
Arthur  Eaper,  Homer  T.  Rainey,  and  Jennings  Perry,  a  newspaper 
man.  Paul  Robeson  entertained  the  delegates.  By  this  time  16 
States  were  represented :  Alabama,  Arkansas,  Florida,  Georgia,  Ken- 
tucky, Louisiana,  Maryland,  Mississippi,  Missouri,  North  Carolina, 
Oklahoma,  South  Carolina,  Tennessee,  Texas,  Virginia,  and  West  Vir- 
ginia. An  executive  board  composed  of  11  members  was  set  up  of 
which  Mary  McLeod  Bethune  was  chairman.  Alvah  W.  Taylor  was 
chairman  and  Ruth  Cutler  was  secretary  of  the  national  committee, 
composed  of  19  members. 

The  Communists  were  not  exactly  pleased  with  the  slow  leftward 
trend  of  the  movement,  for  the  Sunday  Worker  of  February  9,  1941, 
had  explained :    • 

The  Southern  Conference  for  Human  Welfare,  despite  the  apostasy  of  many 
of  its  former  leaders,  has  stood  for  the  strategy  originally  adopted  in  1938  and 
confirmed  in  1940  *  *  *  The  broad  movement  in  Tennessee  was  not  as 
spontaneous  as  it  appeared  on  the  surface.  It  was  one  of  the  consequences  of 
the  campaign  for  the  repeal  of  the  poll  tax  conducted  by  the  Communist  Party 
in  Tennessee  and  other  States  since  1935-36. 

In  1939  the  Southern  Conference  for  Human  Welfare  created  a 
3'outh  branch  known  as  the  Young  Southerners,  officers  of  which  were 
Malcolm  C.  Dobbs,  Helen  Fields,  Nena  Beth  Stapp,  and  Edward 
Strong.  Sponsors  included  the  leaders  of  the  conference.  In  this 
group  we  find  numeious  Communists,  pro-Communists,  and  f routers. 

Other  annual  conferences  were  helct,  of  course,  each  showing  a  defi- 
nite slide  toward  the  left.  By  1945  the  officers  included  a  large  num- 
ber of  leftists.  In  addition  to  those  previously  mentioned,  we  find 
listed  Charlotte  Hawkins  Brown,  Louis  Burnham,  Helen  Fuller,  and 
Lillian  E.  Smith,  and  some  of  whom  later  also  assisted  in  setting  up 
the  National  Citizen's  Political  Action  Committee.  Seventeen  of  its 
present  leaders  have  other  Red  front  records;  10  have  openly  de- 
fended the  Communist  heads  who  have  run  afoul  of  the  law;  14 
have  been  affiliated  with  relief  and  propaganda  agencies  in  behalf  of 
Russia. 

The  Southern  Conference  for  Human  Welfare  has  received  funds 
from  the  Robert  IMarshall  Foundation  which  has  paid  out  large  sums 
to  other  fronts.  One  check,  dated  April  4,  1942,  was  for  $1,000.  Its 
activities  receive  favorable  comment  in  the  Daily  Worker,  the  Worker, 
and  the  People's  Daily  World.  Among  its  branches  is  the  Washing- 
ton (D.  C.)  Committee  of  the  Southern  Conference  for  Human  Wel- 
fare, 935  G  Place  NW.  The  chairman  is  Virginia  Davis,  and  the  treas- 
urer is  John  P.  Anderson. 

The  Southern  Conference  has  assailed  the  FBI  and  the  congres- 
sional committee  investigating  un-American  activities,  and  it  has 
taken  part  in  numerous  united  fronts  with  the  Communists.  Its  organ 
is  the  Southern  Patriot,  a  monthly  publication. 

The  present  headquarters  of  the  Southern  Conference  for  Human 
Welfare  are  located  at  808  Perdido  Street,  New  Orleans,  La.  The  fol- 
lowing are  its  officers:  Clark  Howell  Foreman,  president;  James  A. 
Dombrowski,  administrator;  Frank  C.  Bancroft  and  Mrs.  Edmonia 


TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE  139 

Grant,  assistant  administrators;  Paul  R.  Christopher,  Koscoe  Diinjee, 
Virginia  Durr,  Lewis  W.  Jones,  William  Mitch,  and  Harry  W. 
Schacter,  A^ice  presidents ;  E.  L.  Abercrombie,  Mary  McLeod  Bethune, 
Charlotte  Hawkins  Brown,  Louis  Burnham,  Sam  Freeman,  Helen 
Fuller,  Percy  Greene,  R.  L.  Hickman,  Myles  Horton,  J.  C.  Jacques, 
Lucy  Randolph  Mason,  Mortimer  May,  George  S.  Mitchell,  Frank 
Prolil,  Samuel  Rodman,  Mrs.  A.  W.  Simkins,  Alvah  W.  Taylor,  John 
B.  Thompson,  and  Charles  Webber,  board  of  representatives;  Henry 
Fowler,  Mrs.  Harry  M.  Gershon,  Joseph  L.  Johnson,  Lee  C.  Shepparcl, 
and  Aubrey  Williams,  ex  officio;  Melvyn  Douglas,  Mrs.  Marshall 
Field,  Kenneth  DeP.  Hughes,  Michael  M.  Nisselson,  Channing  H. 
Tobias,  Henry  A.  Wallace,  and  Palmer  Weber,  advisory  associates; 
Tarleton  Collier,  secretarj^ ;  and  J.  Daniel  Weitzman,  treasurer.  I  do 
not  have  a  current  list  of  State  and  local  officers  of  the  conference. 

Clark  Foreman  was  secretary  of  the  National  Citizens  Political 
Action  Committee  in  1944.  Eighty  percent  of  its  national  members 
have  records  of  affiliation  with  Communist  and  Communist  front  or- 
ganizations. Foreman  became  secretary-treasurer  of  the  conference 
in  1938.  John  B.  Thompson,  president  of  the  (Communist)  Ameri- 
can Peace  Mobilization,  was  chairman,  and  John  P.  Davis  of  the  Na- 
tional Negro  Congress  was  vice  chairman  at  the  time.  Foreman  was 
under  Harold  Ickes  in  the  Department  of  Interior  when  he  became 
secretary-treasurer  of  the  conference. 

As  I  have  just  stated,  Thompson  was  president  of  the  American 
Peace  Mobilization,  which  was  designed  to  keep  the  United  States  out 
of  the  war  while  the  Stalin-Hitler  pact  was  still  in  effect.  At  the 
moment  of  the  break  between  Russia  and  Germany,  representatives 
of  the  mobilization  were  picketing  the  White  House  in  opposition  to 
our  entrance  into  the  war.  Two  hours  later  the  pickets  laid  aside 
their  "anti-imperialistic  war"  placards,  replacing  them  with  "immedi- 
ate second  front  for  Russia"  signs.  Vice  chairmen  of  the  mobilization 
were  Theodore  Dreiser,  Vito  Marcantonio,  Paul  Robeson,  Jack  Mc- 
Michael,  Reid  Robinson,  and  Katherine  Terrill.  Frederick  Field  of 
the  Daily  Worker  was  executive  secretary  of  the  Mobilization,  and 
Howard  Lee,  executive  secretary  of  the  Southern  Conference  for 
Human  Welfare,  was  a  member  of  the  national  council  of  the 
mobilization. 

Another  Red  front  antiwar  group,  set  up  in  August  1940,  was  the 
Committee  To  Defend  America  by  Keeping  out  of  War.  Thompson 
was  also  prominently  connected  with  this  committee,  as  was  Lee.  Mal- 
colm Cotton  Dobbs,  executive  secretary  of  the  Young  Southerners,  the 
youth  section  of  the  Southern  Conference  for  Human  Welfare,  was 
also  affiliated  with  the  Committee  To  Defend  America  by  Keeping  Out 
of  War. 

Active  in  the  Emergency  Peace  Mobilization,  from  which  emanated 
most  of  the  Red  front  antiwar  movements,  were  Malcolm  Dobbs, 
Howard  Lee,  Edward  Strong,  and  John  B.  Thompson,  all  prominent 
in  the  Southern  Conference  for  Human  Welfare. 

John  B.  Thompson,  Charles  C.  Webber  (regional  director  of  the 
CIO  in  the  soutliern  district),  Malcolm  Dobbs,  and  Don  West,  all 
members  of  the  conference,  were  connected  with  the  People's  Insti- 
tute of  Applied  Religion,  headed  by  Claude  C.  Williams,  who  has  been 
classified  by  this  committee  as  a  Communist,  operating  under  the 


140  TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE 

name  of  John  Galey,  former  director  of  Commonwealth  College  in 
Mena,  Ark.,  which  was  closed  by  the  State  because  of  its  Communist 
teachings.  The  institute  received  funds  from  Soundview  Foundation, 
a  Communist  outfit  headed  by  Joe  Brodsk}^  It  applied  for  funds 
from  the  International  Workers'  Order,  another  Communist  organ- 
ization. It  will  be  recalled  that  Brodsky  was  pay-off  man  for  the 
Communist  International  some  years  ago,  according  to  documents 
seized  by  the  British  Government  in  a  raid  on  the  Soviet  Bureau  in 
London. 

Thompson  has  been  connected  with  the  Protestant  Digest  (The 
Protestant),  a  Communist  antireligious  and  pro-Soviet  organ  pub- 
lished by  Kenneth  Leslie,  formerly  of  Canada.  Myles  Horton  of  the 
Southern  Conference  for  Human  Welfare  is  director  of  the  High- 
lander Folk  School.  His  wife,  who  is  associated  with  him,  was  for- 
merly affiliated  with  Communist  Theater  League  projects.  James  A. 
Dombrowski,  administrator  of  the  conference,  was  in  1944  a  member 
of  the  national  committee  of  the  National  Citizens  PAC.  In  1931 
he  was  with  the  League  for  Industrial  Democracy.  He  was  a  member 
of  the  (Communist)  Anti-Imperialist  League,  and  he  has  often  de- 
fended the  Communist  Party.  He  was  among  the  signers  of  a  peti- 
tion sent  to  President  Roosevelt  in  1941  upholding  the  rights  of  the 
Communist  Party.  Dombrowski  has  been  affiliated  with  the  National 
Federation  for  Constitutional  Liberties,  and  he  participated  in  its 
June  1939  conference  held  in  Washington.  D.  C.  He  was  prominent  at 
the  convention  of  the  National  Negro  Congress  held  in  Detroit  in 
1946. 

Louis  Burnham,  member  of  the  board  of  representatives  of  the 
Southern  Conference  for  Human  Welfare,  was  a  member  of  the  na- 
tional committee  of  the  International  Labor  Defense,  a  branch  of  the 
international  with  headquarters  in  Moscow.  John  P.  Davis,  connected 
with  the  conference,  was  also  a  member  of  that  committee.  He  was 
former  secretary  of  the  National  Negro  Congress,  and  he  was  connected 
with  the  National  Federation  for  Constitutional  Liberties  at  the  time 
it  was  active  in  the  fight  against  this  congressional  committee. 

Cliarles  Webber,  a  member  of  the  board  of  representatives  of  the 
Southern  Conference  for  Human  Welfare,  is  the  CIO  district  organ- 
izer in  the  South.  He  was  a  member  of  the  (Communist)  American 
League  Against  War  and  Fascism,  of  wdiich  Earl  Browder  was  vice 
chairman  and  Harry  F.  Ward  was  the  head.  He  was  executive  secre- 
tary of  the  Methodist  Federation  for  Social  Service.  He  played  a 
prominent  part  in  the  activities  of  the  American  Youth  Congress.  An 
article  which  appeared  in  the  New  York  Times  on  May  19,  1930,  listed 
him  as  a  member  of  the  (Communist)  John  Reed.  Club,  which  was  at 
the  time  fighting  congressional  legislation  aimed  at  the  outlawing  of 
the  Communist  Party.  Webber  has  been  associated  with  the  Joint 
Anti-Fascist  Committee.  He  was  among  those  who  attacked  the  De- 
partment of  Justice  for  its  indictment  of  the  Veterans  of  Abraham 
Lincoln  Brigade.  On  May  11.  1936,  Webber  called  upon  the  j^outh  to 
abolish  the  capitalist  system  of  government  and  to  establish  a  planned 
social  economy  in  the  United  States.  He  said  his  plan  w^ould  rest  on 
"social  ownership."  He  has  been  active  in  Red  ranks  since  1930  when 
he  was  a  member  of  the  executive  committee  of  the  Anti-Imperialist 
League,  a  branch  of  a  Communist  international.  He  was  secretary  at 
one  time  of  the  Fellowship  of  Reconciliation,  which  advocated  the 


TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE  141 

abandonment  of  our  armed  forces  and  our  capitalist  system  of 
government.  He  supported  Harry  Bridges  in  his  fight  ag^-ainst  de- 
portation as  an  undesirable  alien. 

Red  front  records  are  available  on  the  following  members  of  the 
Southern  Conference  for  Human  Welfare:  Koscoe  Dunjee,  Virginia 
Durr,  Lewis  W.  Jones,  Mary  McLeod  Bethune,  Charlotte  Hawkins 
Brown,  Helen  Fuller,  Sam  Freeman,  William  Mitch,  Lucy  Mason, 
Auln-ey  Williams,  Melvyn  Douglas,  and  Channing  H.  Tobias. 

In  view  of  the  apparent  following  along  the  Communist  Party 
line  of  the  Southern  Conference  for  Human  Welfare,  and  the  activity 
of  its  members  and  many  of  its  officers  in  Communist  and  front  move- 
ments, it  may  well  be  considered  a  ''transmission  belt,"  as  it  has  been 
called  by  Earl  Browder.  At  least  five  of  the  officers  of  the  Conference 
Avere  among  those  initiating  the  Civil  Rights  Congress,  with  which 
I  Mill  deal  next. 

Recently  created  to  augment  the  activities  of  the  Southern  Con- 
feience  for  Human  Welfare,  the  National  Negro  Congress,  the  South- 
ern Negro  Youth  Congress,  and  the  CIO  in  the  Southern  States  is  the 
Committee  To  Arid  Fighting  South,  with  national  headquarters  at 
3  Leroy  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y.  This  committee  was  set  up  on  May 
18,  1947.  Its  cochairmen  are  Benjamin  J.  Davis,  Jr.,  Communist 
Party  Negro  leader  in  New  York;  and  Millard  Lampell,  previously 
mentioned  in  this  report.  Vice  chairmen  are  Shirley  Graham  and 
Earl  Conrad;  secretary,  Paul  Malcolm  Cain;  treasurer,  James  J. 
Jones. 

The  publicly  announced  purposes  of  the  Committee  To  Aid  Fight- 
ing South  are  to  furnish  "aid  to  the  Southern  Negro  Youth  Congress 
in  the  battle  against  white  supremacy'* ;  to  ''assist  in  the  defense  of 
Don  West,  now  charged  with  libel,"  "to  provide  funds  for  other 
civil  rights  cases,"  "to  help  finance  the  southern  edition  of  The  Worker 
(Communist  organ),  and  to  aid  "the  Communists  and  other  militant 
forces  in  the  South." 

CIVIL  RIGHTS  CONGRESS 

Over  a  period  of  several  years  the  organized  movements  in  defense 
of  the  Communist  Party,  its  fronts  and  its  leaders  have  been  consistent 
in  action  and  leadership,  but  the  name  changing  in  this  field  has  been 
even  more  pronounced  than  in  other  fields.  These  organizations,  too 
numerous  to  mention,  many  of  which  have  been  exposed  by  your 
committee  and  preceding  committees,  have  undergone  recent  changes 
in  name.  Two  of  the  most  prominent  of  these,  the  International 
Labor  Defense  and  the  National  Federation  of  Constitutional 
Liberties,  combined  with  the  Metropolitan  Interfaith  and  Interracial 
Coordinating  Council  of  New  York,  operate  now  under  the  name  of  the 
Ci\il  Rights  Congress,  with  national  headquarters  at  205  East  Forty- 
second  Street,  New  York. 

Officers  of  the  Civil  Rights  Congress  are :  George  Marshall,  na- 
itonal  chairman,  who  headed  the  National  Federation  for  Constitu- 
tional Liberties,  and  a  leader  of  the  Robert  Marshall  Foundation 
which  financially  supports  mam'  Red  fronts;  Dr.  Benjamin  E.  jMays 
and  Harry  F.  Ward,  honorary,  cochairmen ;  Raymond  C.  Ingersoll, 
treasurer;  jNlilton  Kaufman,  executive  director;  Milton  N.  Kemnitz, 
field  director;  George  F.  Addes,  Mary  Bethune,  Rev.  Charles  A.  Hill, 

65176—47 10 


142  TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE 

Ira  Latimer,  Stanley  Nowak,  LaAvrence  Rivkin,  and  Vincent  Sheean, 
vice  chairmen;  and  Benjamin  Goldring,  secretary,  legal  committee. 

The  National  Congress  on  Civil  Rights,  at  which  the  Civil  Rights 
Congress  was  born,  was  held  in  Detroit  on  April  27th  and  28th,  1916. 
Iniators  of  the  National  Congress  were  the  late  Col.  Evans  Carlson, 
Norman  Corwin,  Dr.  Kirtley  F.  Mather,  Carey  McWilliams,  Edward- 
C,  Robinson,  Paul. Robeson,  Clai'k  Foreman,  president  of  the  Southern 
Conference  for  Human  Welfare;  George  I^Iarshall.  James  G.  Patton, 
president  of  the  National  Farmers'  Union,  and  Congressman  Vito 
Marcantonio.  These  were  joined  b^  Dr,  Benjamin  E.  Mays,  Jess 
Fletclier,  Julius  Emspak,  Wesley  E.  Sharer,  cochairman  of  the  Chi- 
cago Civil  Liberties  Committee ;  and  I'rof .  John  F.  Shepard,  president 
of  the  Michigan  Civil  Rights  Federation. 

The  sponsors  of  the  National  Congress  included  Susan  B.  Anthony 
II  of  the  Congress  of  American  Women,  Louis  E.  Burnham,  oigan- 
izing  secretary  of  the  Southern  Negro  Youth  Congress ;  D.  A.  Cameron, 
editor  of  Little,  Brown  &  Co. ;  Prof.  Emmanuel  Chapman,  chairman 
of  the  Committee  of  Catholics  for  Human  Rights ;  Philip  M.  Connelly, 
secretary  of  the  Los  Angeles  CIO  Council ;  Bishop  J*.  A.  Gregg ;  Rabbi 
Ferdinand  M.  Isserman;  Rep.  Ellis  E.  Patterson;  Michael  J.  Quill; 
Dorothy  K.  Roosevelt,  executive  secretary  of  the  Michigan  Citizens' 
Committee;  Senator  Glen  H.  Taylor;  Max  Weber;  Louis  Adamic; 
Elmer  Benson ;  Elizabeth  Gurley  Flynn ;  and  Francis  J.  McConnell. 

Signers- of  the  call  to  the  National  Congress  were  Anna  M.  Kross, 
Gene  Weltfish,  Saul  MillSj  Adam  Clayton  Powell,  Vito  Marcantonio, 
Johannes  Steel,  Lisa  Sergio,  Joe  Curran,  Joseph  P.  Selly,  and  Hulan 
E.  Jack.  The  call  announced  that  the  conference  would  coordinate 
the  action  of  democratic  and  progressive  forces.  Milton  Kaufman, 
Louis  Coleman  of  the  International  Labor  Defense,  and  Milton  Kem- 
nitz  were  elected  to  the  continuation  committee. 

Among  the  local  organizations  of  the  Civil  Rights  Congress  are 
the  Illinois  Civil  Liberties  Committee,  21  East  Van  Buren  Street, 
Chicago,  111. ;  Civil  Rights  Federation,  609  Hammond  Building, 
Detroit,  Mich.;  Civil  Rights  Congress  of  New  York,  112  East  Nine- 
teenth Street,  New  York,  N.  Y.,  and  Civil  Rights  Congress  of 
Califoria. 

The  CRC  announces  that  it  is  "a  national  membership  organization 
formed  by  hundreds  of  national  and  community  groups  from  all 
parts  of  the  country."    Its  platform  is  as  follows : 

Figbt  terror  against  the  Negro  people,  demanding  justice  in  such  cases  as 
Colmnbia,  Tenn.,  and  Freeport,  Long  Island ;  defend  southern  workers  in  their 
right  to  organize;  outlaw  anti-Semitism;  destx-oy  Jim  Crow;  end  the  poll-tax; 
abolish  the  Thoiuas-Rankin  Committee;  secure  a  pei'manent  Federal  FEPC; 
protect  the  riglits  of  the  foreign-born  ;  defeat  antilabor  legislation ;  investigate 
violations  of  labor's  rights ;  end  labor  injunctions  and  police  brutality  against 
pickets;  stop  frame-ups  of  unionists  as  in  Little  Rock,  Ark. 

Officers  of  the  Civil  Rights  Congress  of  New  York  are:  Dashiell 
Hammett,  president;  James  Egert  Allen,  Howard  Dasilva,  William 
Howard  Melish  and  Stephen  O'Donnell;  Meyer  Stern,  chairman  of 
the  board;  Louis  Coleman,  executive  secretary;  Lawrence  Rivkin, 
director  of  organization ;  and  Robert  Freeman,  membership  director. 
Vivian  Schatz  is  chairman  of  the  Albany,  N.  Y.,  section  of  the  con- 
gress. California  headquarters  are  located  at  206  South  Spring  Street, 
Los  Angeles. 


TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE  143 

The  congress  recently  sponsored  a  campaign  in  defense  of  Gerhart 
Eisler.  It  is  also  waging  an  agitational  campaign  for  the  dismissal  of 
Attorney  General  Tom  Clark.  In  1946  it  carried  on  a  nation-wide 
publicity  campaign  in  defense  of  the  Communist  Party  politically. 
It  is  now  fighting  legislative  action  which  might  hamper  Communist 
activities  in  the  United  States,  and  it  is  demanding  the  abolition  of 
all  congressional  and  State  legislative  investigating  committees. 

In  May  the  Civil  Rights  Congress  joined  the  Communists'  '"fight 
back"  campaign,  designed  to  arouse  public  sentiment  against  anti- 
Communist  legislation.  It  engaged  in  a  Nation-wide  newspaper  ad- 
vertising campaign  directly  aimed  against  the  Congressional  Com- 
mittee on.  Un-American  Activities,  and  in  opposition  to  all  legislative 
efforts  to  destroy  Communist  forces  in  the  United  States.  Cooperat- 
ing with  the  Civil  Rights  Congress  in  this  fight  were  Franklin  P. 
Adams,  Prof.  Thomas  Addis  of  Stanford  University,  Stella  Adler, 
James  E.  Allen,  Bishop  C.  C.  Alleyne,  Zlatko  Balokovic  (American 
Slav  Congress) ,  Samuel  L.  M.  Barlow,  Bishop  W.  Y.  Bell  of  Georgia, 
Elmer  A.  Benson  (vice  chairman  of  Progressive  Citizens  of  America) , 
Walter  Bernstein  of  the  Daily  Worker,  Prof.  Lyman  R.  Bradley  of 
New  York  University,  Prof.  S.  P.  Breckinridge  of  the  University  of 
Chicago,  Prof.  Edwin  B.  Burgum  of  New  York  University,  Charles  H. 
Colvin,  Nick  Comfort  of  the  Oklahoma  School  of  Religion,  Prof. 
Archibald  Cox  of  Harvard,  Prof.  W.  H.  L.  Dana  of  Harvard,  Frank 
M.  Davis  (Associated  Negro  Press),  Adolph  Dehn,  Prof.  Frank 
Dobie  of  the  University  of  Texas,  William  E.  Dodd,  Arnaud  D'Usseau, 
Prof.  Henry  Pratt  Fairchild  of  New  York  University,  Howard  Fast, 
Harry  Gottlieb,  John  C.  Cranberry  (the  Emancipator),  William 
Gropper  (Communist) ,  Prof.  Ralph  H.  Gundlach  of  the  University  of 
AVashington,  Robert  Gwathmey,  J.  W.  Haywood,  Rev.  Duncan  M. 
Hobart  of  Mississippi,  Prof.  Ellsworth  Huntington  of  Yale,  Rev. 
Kenneth  de  P.  Hughes,  Carol  Janeway,  Frances  Fisher  Kane,  Rabbi 
Jocob  H.  Kaplan,  Harry  F.  Ward,  Prof.  Leroy  Waterman  of  the  Uni- 
versity of  Michigan,  Max  Weber,  Dr.  Harry  N.  Wieman  of  the  Uni- 
versity of  Chicago,  William  Zorach,  Rev.  F.  Hastings  Smyth, 
Margaret  Sanger  Slee,  Vincent  Sheean,  Prof.  Malcolm  Sharp  of  the 
University  of  Chicago,  Vida  Scudder  of  Wellesly,  Prof.  Frederick  L. 
Schuman,  William  Jay  Schieffelin,  Elbert  Russell  of  Duke  University, 
William  Howard  Melish  (National  Council  of  American-Soviet 
Friendship) ,  Jack  R.  McMichael,  Prof.  F.  O.  Matthiessen  of  Harvard, 
W.  H.  Manwaring  of  Stanford,  John  Howard  Lawson,  Philip  Loeb, 
and  others. 

The  Civil  Rights  Congress  strengthened  the  Communist  agitation 
against  the  Taft-Hartley  Labor  bill  barring  Communists  from  union 
leadership.  It  encouraged  violation  of  the  law  in  all  respects.  The 
CongTess  announced  that  it  would  furnish  free  legal  aid  to  all  union- 
ists and  unions  openly  flouting  the  law.  It  participated  in  the  legal 
and  propaganda  battles  in  behalf  of  Gerhart  Eisler,  Eugene  Dennis, 
and  the  Joint  Anti-Fascist  Refugee  Committee,  all  of  which  were  cited 
for  contempt  of  Congress  and  were  found  guilty. 

Several  additional  movements  have  been  organized  within  the  past 
few  months,  the  purpose  of  which  is  to  defend  the  Communists.  These 
include  the  Committee  to  Uphold  the  Constitutional  Rights  of  Com- 
munists.    Cochairmen  are  Benjamin  Davis,  Jr.,  and  Peter  Cacchione, 


144  TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE 

both  members  of  the  National  Committee  of  the  Communist  Party. 
Elizabeth  Gurley  Flynn,  Ben  Gold,  and  John  Gates,  also  party  com- 
mitteemen, are  members  of  the  board. 

In  the  meantime,  the  use  of  pressure  propaganda  has  been  resur- 
rected by  the  Communists,  i.  e.,  obtaining  petitions  assailing  so-called 
Red  hunts  on  the  part  of  Congress.  In  this  respect,  I  wish  to  mention 
only  a  few  of  the  many  thousands  of  releases  assailing  these  so-called 
Red  hunts : 

Five  Hundred  Unionists  Assail  Red  Hunt  of  Congress — att.aclied  to  tliis  are 
the  names  of  liundreds  of  CIO  members,  a  few  A.  F.  of  L.  leaders,  and  heads  of 
local  CIO  unions. 

Noted  Citizens  Rap  Attack  on  Communists — dozen  of  Red-fronters  signed  their 
names  to  this  protest. 

Noted  Artists,  Professionals  Back  May  Day  Attack  Drive  Against  Civil  Liber- 
ties and  for  War — the  usuaL  apologists  supported  this  drive. 

World's  Bipgest  Local  Hits  I'ian  to  Ban  Communist  Party — this  refers  to  the 
Ford  Local. 600  of  the  CIO. 

Fifty  Prominent  Americans  Protest — the  protest  was  over  th(;  so-called  perse- 
cution of  the  German  Communist-Soviet  agent,  Gerhart  Eisler.  Signers  of  the 
protest  include  left-wing  professors,  CIO  unionists,  and  fronters. 

Progressives  Protest  Ban  on  Communist  Party — about  50  "progressives"  signed 
this  protest,  many  of  whom  are  well-known  fronters. 

Public  Figures  Hit  Plan  to  Ban  Communist  Party — 25  or  more  CIO  and  front 
leaders  signed  this. 

Minnesota  Democrats  Defend  Rights  of  Communists — several  of  the  delegates 
opposed  the  resolution  adopted  by  a   State  Democratic  Party  convention. 

Bay  State  Leaders  Hit  Attack  on  Communists — 87  residents  of  the  State  signed 
this  protest,  most  of  whom  are  known  to  this  committe  as  a  result  of  their  past 
front  i^erformances. 

The  Communist  Party  itself  has  contributed  to  the  concerted  at- 
tacks upon  this  committee  and  on  other  congressional  and  State  com- 
mittees which  are  uncovering  the  machinations  of  the  Reds  and  their 
cover-ups  by  circulating  some  4,000,000  leaflets,  2,000,000  pamphlets, 
and  several  hundred  paid  page  and  half-page  advertisements  in  at 
least  125  large  city  dailies  from  coast  to  coast.  In  addition,  it  has 
sponsored  more  than  100  radio  broadcasts. 

Unquestionably,  the  Civil  Rights  Congress  constitutes  a  coalition 
composed  of  the  Communist  Party  and  all  its  fronts,  organized  to 
battle  every  possible  move  against  the  Party  and  its  leaders,  as  well 
as  the  fronts  which  are  so  active  nationally. 

Still  another  Red  front,  hatched  in  the  fertile  brains  of  the  Com- 
munists and  their  fronters  is  the  National  Committee  to  Win  the 
Peace.  Jo  Davidson  has  been  its  leader  since  its  inception.  He  has 
been  active  in  Communist  circles  over  a  period  of  years,  and  he  was 
at  one  time  an  instructor  at  the  Workers'  (Communist)  School  in 
New-  York  where  he  attempted  to  mold  the  min.ds  of  the  students  to 
the  Communist  pattern.  He  has  also  been  alined  with  the  National 
Council  of  American-Soviet  Friendship  and  the  Independent  Com- 
mittee of  Arts,  Sciences,  and  Professions,  another  Red  front.  He 
participated  in  the  National  Emergency  Conference  Against  the 
Government  Wage  Program,  set  up  by  the  Reds  in  1935.  Phil  Frank- 
feld,  at  the  time  head  of  the  Boston  branch  of  the  Communist  Party, 
and  currently  the  head  of  the  Maryland-D.  C.  section,  was  na- 
tional secretary  of  the  conference.  Frank  Moser,  Communist  candi- 
date for  office  in  Philadelphia  on  numerous  occasions,  was  its  national 
chairman. 


TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE  145 

Davidson  was  the  guiding  light  of  the  Win  the  Peace  Conference 
which  was  held  in  Washington,  D.  C,  April  5,  6,  and  7,  1946,  from 
which  evolved  the  permanent  National  Committee  to  Win  the  Peace. 
The  late  leftist  Evans  Carlson,  an  often-used  frontier,  after  his  return 
from  the  war  shared  the  permanent  chairmanship  of  the  committee 
with  Paul  Robeson,  an  activist  in  Communist  ranks.  It  will  be  re- 
called that  Robeson  forsook  the  United  States  to  reside  in  Russia  for 
maiiy  years.  Upon  his  return  to  this  country  he  became  prominent 
in  the  crusade  in  behalf  of  the  Communists.  His  activities  in  Red 
circles  are  extensive. 

The  purpose  of  the  National  Committee  to  Win  the  Peace  is  rather 
vague,  as  far  as  its  public  statements  are  concerned.  The  initial 
committee  meeting  to  issue  the  Call  for  the  Conference  to  Win  the 
Peace,  it  is  understood,  was  held  in  the  office  of  Congressman  Adolph 
Sabath  on  March  5,  1946.  The  original  Win  the  Peace  Conference 
(April  1946)  was  held  in  the  Department  of  Commerce  Auditorium. 

Some  712  delegates  from  27  States  attended  the  conference.  Its 
i-eport  claims  that  the  delegates  represented  55  national  movements 
and  26  local  chapters  of  other  organizations.  Included  among  those 
listed  were  the  Independent  Citizens'  Committee  of  Arts,  Sciences, 
and  Professions,  another  of  Jo  Davidson's  outfits;  the  American  Vet- 
erans' Committee,  CIO  Political  Action  Committee,  15  Communist- 
penetrated  CIO  unions,  the  Red-front  Veterans  and  Wives  (formerly 
known  as  WIVES),  National  Negro  Congress,  Federation  of 
Scientists,  American  Association  of  Scientific  Workers,  Veterans  of 
Equality,  Jewish  War  Veterans,  American  Jewish  Congress,  Ameri- 
can Lawyers'  Guild,  Church  League  for  Industrial  Democracy,  Inter- 
national Workers'  Order,  Comnnuiist  Party,  American  Youth  for 
Democracy,  Southern  Conference  for  Human  Welfare,  and  a  few  Red- 
captured  A.  F.  of  L.  locals. 

The  keynote  address  was  delivered  by  Paul  Robeson.  He  said  that 
the  conference  had  a  "tremendous  task"  before  it,  that  of  forcing  our 
Government  to  "cease  its  policy  of  propping  up  fascism,"  and  of  pre- 
venting our  Government  from  hindering  the  "development  of  govern- 
ments with  new  democratic  forms."  Robeson  coulcl  only  mean  that 
the  duty  of  the  conference  was  to  sustain  the  Russian  and  Communist 
drive  for  world  rule.  Former  Congressman  Coffee  of  Washington 
scored  Franco  of  Spain,  and  he  demanded  a  putsch  to  force  a  breaking 
off  of  United  States  diplomatic  relations  with  Spain. 

Other  speakers  included  Millard  Lampell,  R.  J.  Thomas  (CIO), 
Russell  Nixon  (CIO),  Congressman  Savage,  Congressman  Sabath, 
former  Congressmen  Hugh  DeLacy  and  Ellis  Patterson,  Len  DeCaux 
of  the  CIO  News,  Max  Yergan,  Marion  Bachrach  of  the  Council  for 
Pan  American  Democracy,  Clark  Foreman  of  the  Southern  Con- 
ference for  Human  Welfare,  Dr.  Higginbotham,  atomic-energy 
scientist;  Ira  Gollobin,  Mordecai  Johnson,  and  Senator  Claude  Pep- 
per. They  all  claimed  that  we  had  won  a  "people's  war,"  and  that  a 
"people's  peace"  must  be  had.  They  cried  against  "imperialism"  and 
"exploitation."  They  asked  for  the  withdrawal  of  American  troops 
from  foreign  countries.  They  prated  against  "economic  royalists,"  a 
large  standing  army,  "the  war  makers  and  our  native  fascists,"  "Am.er- 
ican  Vv'orld  domination,"  policies  in  Latin  America,  and  America's  con- 
trol of  atomic  energy. 

Locals  of  the  National  Committee  to  Win  the  Peace  were  set 
up  throughout  the  country.     It  is  evident  that  the  committee  was 


146  TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE 

created  for  the  purpose  of  propagandizing  in  support  of  the  drive  to 
win  a  pro- Soviet  peace,  and  at  the  same  time  to  lend  aid  to  the  Red 
revohitionary  drive  in  the  United  States. 

National  headquarters  of  the  committee  were  set  up  at  23  West 
Twenty-sixth  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y.  Washington,  D.  C,  head- 
quarters are  located  at  1309  Fourteenth  Street  NW.  Colonel  Carlson 
became  cochairman  in  1946.  Vice  chairmen  are  Bertram  Alves,  Elmer 
Benson,  Mary  McLeod  Betliune,  Clark  Foreman,  Stephen  H.  Fritch- 
man,  JMillard  Lampell,  Leo  Kryczki,  Bartley  Crum.  Marion  Bach- 
rach  was  elected  national  educational  director  (exhibit  70).^*^ 

The  Southern  California  Committee  to  Win  the  Peace,  the  last 
remaining  branch  of  the  National  Connnittee  to  Win  the  Peace,  be- 
came inactive  on  June  17,  19-1:7.  In  its  final  appeal,  this  branch 
requested  that  its  units  go  over  as  a  body  into  the  Progressive  Citizens' 
Association.  The  national  staff  is  winding  up  the  affairs  of  the  com- 
mittee in  the  offices  of  Frederick  Field  in  New  York  City. 

Politically  the  leftists  are  in  quite  a  quandary.  The  Reds  and 
members  of  CIO  Red-penetrated  unions  have  gone  on  record  favoring 
a  united  front  in  politics  through  a  "strong  third  (left-wing)  political 
party."  However,  strategists  among  the  fronters  seem  to  be  biding 
their  time  before  going  out  on  a  limb  too  far  in  advance  of  the  1948 
national  political  campaign.  The  PAC  has  announced  that  it  is 
carefully  reorganizing  its  field  rank  and  program  preparatory  to 
waging  a  campaign  in  1948,  which  it  warns  will  start  with  grass-root 
tactics  and  will  be  more  aggressive  than  any  previously  waged. 

At  this  point  I  wish  to  refer  more  in  detail  to  the  Independent  Citi- 
zens Committee,  previously  mentioned  herein.  While  the  last  State 
unit  of  this  committee  discontinued  activities  in  July  in  California, 
calling  on  its  members  to  join  Progressive  Citizens  of  America,  it  still 
maintains  its  own  identity  as  a  section  of  the  PCA.  It  is  now  known 
as  the  Committee  of  Arts,  Sciences  and  Professions  of  the  Progressive 
Citizens  of  America. 

The  ICCASP  was  of  Communist  origin.  It  was  set  up  by  the  Reds 
in  January.  1945  through  their  fronter,  Jo  Davidson,  for  30  years  a 
Resident  of  France.  He  recently  returned  to  Paris  which  has  lately 
become  the  point  from  whicli  Moscow  temporarily  directs  its  interna- 
tional movements.  Davidson  remained  here  long  enough  to  teach  in 
a  Communist  School  in  New  York  City,  and  to  assist  in  organizing 
various  fronts.  His  last  job  was  that  of  coordinating  in  the  organiz- 
ing into  the  PCA,  of  which  he  became  cochairman,  with  the  British- 
born  Red-fronter,  Frank  Kingdon.  His  post  has  been  taken  over  by 
Robert  Kenney  of  California. 

ICCASP  was  behind  the  effort  to  purge  Congress  of  conservatives 
in  the  last  general  election.  It  set  up  offices  in  New  York  at  the  Hotel 
Astor,  and  sectional  offices  in  Hollywood,  Chicago,  New  Haven,  Wash- 
ington, D.  C,  Minneapolis,  Detroit,  Cleveland,  Los  Angeles,  San 
Francisco,  and  elsewhere.  It  operated  some  300  locals  in  all  sections 
of  the  country.  It  maintained  a  lobby  in  Washington,  D.  C,  and  in 
many  State  ca]:)itals,  through  which  it  attempted  to  influence  Federal 
and  State  legislation. 

ICCASP  issued  many  publications,  including  the  Independent, 
Hollywood  Independent,  Bulletin  of  Legislative  News,  and  Reports 


'•  See  appendix,  p.  176,  for  exhibit  70. 


TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE  147 

from  Wasliingtori.  Writers  for  these  publications  Avere  Langston 
Hughes,  Frank  Kiiigdon,  John  Howard  Lawson,  Sam  Farquhar,  Carey 
McWilliams,  and  others  Avell  known  in  Communist  and  R^d  front 
ranks.  It  maintained  special  committees  on  art,  radio,  and  the  press. 
It  set  up  special  committees  to  support  legislation  in  behalf  of  sociali- 
zation of  medicine  and  natural  resources. 

The  officers  of  ICCASP  were  Jo  Davidson  and  Frank  Kingdon,  co- 
chairmen;  Fi'ederic  March,  secretary-treasurer;  Herman  Schumlin, 
finance  chairman;  directors:  William  Rose  Benet.  Van  Wyck  Brooks, 
Louis  Calhern,  Marc  Connelly,  Morris  L.  Cooke,  Norman  Corwin,  John 
Cromwell,  Bartley  Crum,  Olivia  De  Havilland,  Moses  Diamond, 
Donald  Du  Shane,  Albert  Einstein,  Florence  Eldridge  (Mrs.  Frederic 
March),  Rudolph  Ganz,  Moss  Hart,  Lillian  Hellman,  Howard  Koch, 
Jr.,  John  Howard  Lawson,  John  T.  McManus,  William  JMorris,  Alonzo 
F.  Myers,  John  P.  Peters,  Martin  Popper,  Paul  Robeson,  Harlow 
Shaple}^,  Herman  Schumlin,  and  Carl  Van  Doren.  Hannah  Dorner 
was  executive  director,  and  Hila  Meadow,  membership  director.  The 
character  of  members  of  the  sponsoring  committee  more  clearly  indi- 
cated the  Red  front  design  of  ICCASP.  They  included  Louis  Adamic, 
Mary  McLeod  Bethune,  Henry  Pratt  Fairchild,  Howard  Fast,  William 
S.  Gailmor,  Langston  Hughes,  Canada  Lee,  Max  Lerner,  Villi]  almur 
Stefansson. 

At  the  Communist  Party  convention,  held  in  New  York  City  in 
August  lO-lS,  special  emphasis  was  placed  on  the  ICCASP  by  mem- 
bers of  the  cultural  committee  of  the  party.  Reference  was  made  to 
the  fact  that  it  was  one  of  the  organizations  in  which  leading  Com- 
munist factions  were  working  with  satisfactory  results.  One  member 
of  the  cultural  committee  was  honored  for  his  pioneer  work  in  setting 
up  the  ICCASP.  The  report  of  the  cultural  committee,  presented  to 
the  convention  by  one  June  Holi'man,  stated  in  part : 

We  built  the  Independent  Citizens  Committee  of  the  Arts,  Sciences  and  Pro- 
fessions, and  it  is  of  great  political  import. 

Early  in  1946  the  ICCASP  and  the  CIO-PAC  gave  a  $12.50  plate 
dinner  at  the  Astor  in  New  York,  at  which  Andrei  Gromyko  (Russian 
agent)  was  a  speaker.  The  dinner  w^as  held  on  the  first  anniversary 
of  the  San  Francisco  Conference. 

On  April  13,  1946,  the  same  clique— ICCASP  and  the  CIO-PAC, 
with  2,000  New  Dealers,  Communists,  pro-Communists,  and  "One 
W^orlders" — gathered  in  New  York  and  listened  to  the  political 
proclamation  of  Henry  Wallace.  He  called  for  the  building  of  "a 
vigorous  political  organization  in  every  country."  He  asked  for 
complete  cooperation  with  Russia  in  all  matters.  Claude  Pepper, 
"Soviet  Firster" ;  Dr.  Frank  Kingdon,  and  others  of  the  same  political 
shade  also  spoke.  Organizations  such  as  the  (Communist)  Interna- 
tional Workers'  Order  and  the  Red  dominated  CIO  Fur  Workers' 
Union,  as  well  as  the  Communist  Party,  purchased  tickets  in  blocs 
at  $10  each. 

The  officers,  nationally  and  locally,  of  the  ICCASP  were  for  the 
most  part  individuals  with  pro-Communist  and  pro-Soviet  back- 
grounds, whose  loyalty  to  the  Red  cause  was  clearly  indicated  by  their 
past  activities  and  affiliations. 

Similar  organizations  existed  in  other  countries,  denoting  an  inter- 
national front  in  this  field.     These  included  the  Union  Nationale  des 


148  TESTIMOiSTY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE 

Intellectuals  (France),  headed  by  F.  Joliot-Cnrie,  a  Communist;  and 
the  Associations  of  Professionals  and  Cultural  Organizations  (Argen- 
tina), under  the  direction  of  Dr.  Tamborini,  a  Communist-front  can- 
didate for  ofRce. 

The  conference  which  met  in  Chicago  on  September  28  and  29,  1946, 
to  assemble  the  machinery  for  the  operation  of  this  organization  was 
attended  by  representatives  of  the  National  Committee  to  Win  the 
Peace,  the  Independent  Citizens'  Committee  of  Arts,  Sciences  and 
Professions,  the  CIO-PAC,  the  National  Citizens'  PAC,  the  Youth 
PAC,  the  National  Farmers'  Union,  the  Southern  Conference  for 
Human  Welfare,  National  Negro  Congress,  Independent  Voters  of 
Illinois,  Liberal  Voters'  League  of  St.  Louis,  Progressive  Citizens  of 
Ohio,  Independent  Voters  of  New  Hampshire,  Progressive  Citizens  of 
Cleveland,  Progressive  Citizens  of  Cincinnati,  New  Jersey  Indepen- 
dent Citizens'  League  and  Oberlin  Political  Action  Committee  and 
other  left-wing  groups.  The  sponsors  of  the  conferences  were  the 
CIO-PAC,  the  Independent  Citizens'  Committee  of  Arts,  Sciences  and 
Professions,  and  the  National  Citizens'  PAC.  These  groups  combined 
into  one  organization,  the  Progressive  Citizens  of  America.  Like  the 
PAC,  this  is  not  a  party,  but  it  is  the  machinery  through  which  other 
parties  are  to  be  penetrated,  or  a  third  party  launched. 

Members  of  the  board  of  directors,  who  were  appointed  at  the 
merger  meeting,  were  selected  in  an  equal  number  from  the  National 
Citizens'  PAC,  the  Independent  Citizens'  Committee  of  Arts,  Sciences 
and  Professions,  and  the  National  Committee  to  Win  the  Peace.  The 
other  organizations  were  given  vice-presidential  posts.  The  Commu- 
nist and  the  CIO  press  devoted  much  space  to  the  merger  since  the 
movements  merging  had  followed  the  party  line  faithfully  on  national 
and  international  issues.  Harold  Ickes,  who  had  been  co-chairman  of 
the  Independent  Citizens'  Committee  of  Arts,  Sciences,  and  Profes- 
sions, resigned  iimiiediately  following  the  merger.  He  claimed  his 
resignation  was  due  to  the  communistic  views  of  the  movements. 

Frank  Kingdon  and  Jo  Davidson  were  selected  co-chairmen  of 
Progressive  Citizens  of  America,  each  having  previously  served  as 
co-chairmen  of  two  of  the  major  merging  groups.  Both  have  exten- 
sive front  backgrounds.  Herman  Shumlin,  who  has  a  record-breaking 
background  of  front  activities,  was  elected  secretary.  Michael  M. 
Nisselson,  with  some  12  Red-front  affiliations,  was  chosen  treasurer. 
Executive  vice  chairmen  are  C.  B.  Baldwin  and  Hannah  Dorner. 
Both  have  participated  in  Red-front  activities  in  the  past.  Vice 
chairman  are  Van  Wyck  Brooks,  Elmer  A.  Benson,  John  Cromwell, 
Bartlev  C.  Crum,  Norman  Corwin,  Clark  Foreman,  Lillian  Hellman, 
Gene  Kelley,  Robert  Kennv,  Frederic  March,  Paul  Robeson,  Harlow 
Shapley,  A.  F.  Whitney,  R.  R.  Wright,  J.  Raymond  Walsh,  Paul 
Tishman,  and  Marshall  Dimock, 

Progressive  Citizens  of  America  operates  a  Young  Progressive 
Citizens'  Committee,  of  which  Gene  Kelly,  movie  actor,  is  national 
chairman.  Herbert  Oppenheimer  is  executive  vice  chairman,  and 
George  Pepper  is  executive  director  of  its  arts,  sciences,  and  profes- 
sions council.  Chapters  are  active  in  most  universities  and  colleges. 
It  has  supported  the  Communist  Party  line  in  all  issues.  The  YPCC 
is  also  an  affiliate  of  the  New  York  Youth  Council.  Two  hundred 
members  of  its  New  York  chapter  were  among  the  1,000  leftists  who 


TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE  149 

marched  on  Albaii}^  early  this  year  (1947).  •  Five  hundred  members 
from  17  States  met  in  Washington,  D.  C,  in  Jnne.  The  YPCC  has 
sent  delegates  to  the  Communist  International  youth  festival  and 
meeting  being  held  in  Prague  in  July  ( 1947) . 

Progressive  Citizen's  political  workshops  have  been  set  up,  at 
Avhich  students  are  being  taught  its  brand  of  political  technique. 

Progressive  Citizens  of  America  enters  into  the  political  pressure 
propaganda  campaigns  and  marches  of  the  leftist  variety.  Members 
of  its  State  of  Washington  section  recently  marched  on  the  State 
Legislature  in  support  of  Red  demands.  Thej^  were  joined  by  Com- 
munists and  other  fronters. 

The  organization  has  been  particularly  critical  of  current  changes 
in  tlie  foreign  i)olicies  of  the  Truman  administration,  and  advocates 
an  appeasement  attitude  towards  Russia  and  her  satellite  countries. 

Aubrey  Williams  and  Carey  Mc Williams  are  members  of  the  board. 
The  movement  draws  no  line  against  outright  Communists  or  front 
leaders,  in  fact  openly  invited  them  in. 

Progressive  Citizens  of  America  published  the  PCA  News  Release, 
with  offices  located  at  205  East  Forty-second  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y., 
and  1916  L  Street  NW.,  Washington,  D.  C. ;  and  the  Progressive  Citi- 
zen, published  in  New  York.  Ralph  Shikes  is  editor,  and  Milton 
Meltzer  is  associate  editor.  The  Washington,  D.  C,  office  is  in  charge 
of  Luke  W.  Wilson,  former  Orientation  Officer  in  the  United  States 
Army. 

Executive  heads  of  the  women's  division  of  PCA  are  Helen  Rosen 
and  Grace  Leidman. 

Communists  cooperate  wholeheartedly  in  keeping  the  Progressive 
Citizens  of  America  in  the  limelight,  and  the  latter  utilize  considerable 
space  in  announcing  scheduled  gatherings  in  the  Communist  organs. 
Henry  Wallace  appears  to  be  the  organization's  chief  mouthpiece. 
The  Political  Action  Committee  of  the  CIO  likewise  openly  cooperates 
with  Progressive  Citizens  of  America. 

In  States  in  which  the  Communist  Party  has  been  barred  from  the 
ballot,  the  Reds  lend  their  support  to  socalled  "progressive"  candi- 
dates sponsored  by  Progressive  Citizens  of  America.  It  is  to  be  ex- 
pected that  this  movement  will  assume  the  rote  of  an  iron  curtain, 
behind  which  the  Communists  will  parade  in  the  political  field  in 
the  States  barring  them  from  the  ballot. 

As  an  example  of  the  manner  in  which  Red  fronters  operate  through 
Progressive  Citizens  of  America,  I  call  attention  to  the  22  simul- 
taneous public  protest  meetings  held  in  New  York  City  earlier  this 
year  in  an  attempt  to  "stop  anti-labor  legislation."  The  meetings 
were  under  the  auspices  of  the  movement.  Speakers  at  these  meet- 
ings included  Norman  Corwin.  Dorothv  Parker.  Olin  Downes,  Wil- 
liam S.  Gailmor,  Elinor  S.  Gimbel,  Frank  Kingdon,  Canada  Lee, 
Lillian  Hellman,  Dwight  Bradley,  Dean  Dixon,  Henry  Pratt  Fair- 
child,  Goodwin  AVatson,  Alfred  Stern,  and  J.  Raymond  Walsh.  The 
majority  of  these  fronters  and  Communists  have  previously  been 
mentioned  in  this  report  in  various  connections. 

In  California  a  propaganda  campaign  against  the  Congressional 
Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  is  sponsored  by  the  California 
section  of  Progressive  Citizens  of  America  and  the  Communist  Party. 
The  campaign  by  the  former  is  headed  by  Robert  W,  Kenny,  chair- 


150  TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE 

man.  The  committee  is  composed  of  the  usual  run  of  Red  fronters. 
Advertisements  publicizing  the  campaign  appear  in  the  west  coast 
communist  organ,  People's  Daily  World. 

A  political  call  issued  by  Progressive  Citizens  in  California  ap- 
peared in  several  issues  of  People's  Daily  World.  It  asked  for  10,000 
one-day  door-to-door  campaigners  in  Los  Angeles  in  an  effort  to  elect 
a  candidate  to  the  City  Board  of  Education.  It  is  rapidly  setting 
up  chapters  throughout  the  country,  using  to  a  great  degree  the  organ- 
izations' locals  which  were  absorbed  b}^  it.  The  California  section  is 
meeting  jointly  and  openly  with  such  movements  as  the  Communist 
Party,  International  Workers'  Order,  National  Negro  Congress,  Na- 
tional Association  for  Advancement  of  Colored  People,  American 
Veterans'  Committee,  and  the  American  Jewish  Congress.  A  joint 
meeting  of  these  groups  was  held  in  California  on  July  3   (11)47). 

The  Hollyv»'Ood  Arts,  Sciences  and  Professions  Council,  a  branch 
of  Progressive  Citizens  of  America,  is  active  at  this  time  in  launching 
a  Nation-wide  campaign  against  so-called  threats  of  silencing  speech 
and  controlling  the  thought  of  leftist  movements.  The  council's  offi- 
cers and  leaders  met  at  the  Beverly  Hills  Hotel  in  Hollywood,  July  9  to 
13  (1947).  Among  them  were  George  Pepper,  executive  director  of 
the  council;  Norman  Corwin,  John  Cromwell,  Hugh  DeLacy,  Howard 
Koch,  Millan  Brand,  Dorothy  Hughes.  Donald  Ogden  Stewart,  Irving 
Pichel,  Hume  Crony n,  Paul  Henried,  Vincent  Price,  Roy  Harris, 
Albert  Maltz,  Philip  Stevenson,  Vera  Gaspary,  Guy  Endore,  Arthur 
Lurents,  Melvin  Levy,  Sam  Ornitz.  Wilma  Shore,  Arnaud  D'Usseau, 
Alfred  Noyes,  Alexander  Knox,  Anne  Revere,  and  Selene  Royle. 

At  a  meeting  of  the  National  Committee  of  the  Communist  Party, 
held  in  New  York  City  on  February  23,  1946,  plans  were  laid  for 
the  immediate  formation  of  a  coalition  of  left-wing  elements  into  a 
third  party.  The  call,  issued  by  Jack  Stachel  in  behalf  of  the  national 
committee,  stated  in  brief : 

If  possible  it  is  preferable  that  steps  toward  forming  a  third  party  should 
.be  taken  early  in  1947. 

The  September  1946  issue  of  Political  Affairs,  the  mouthpiece  of 
the  national  committee  of  the  party,  contains  the  text  of  a  report  for 
the  national  board  of  the  party,  made  by  Eugene  Dennis  at  the  plenary 
meeting  of  the  party  on  Jtdy  16,  1946.     The  report  stated  in  part : 

To  halt  and  defeat  the  offensive  of  imperialist  reaction  at  home  and  abroad 
it  is  necessary  for  labor  and  progressive  movements  to  build  a  great  counter- 
offensive,  to  build  up  the  organized  strength  of  the  workers  and  all  popular 
forces.  Above  all,  it  is  essential  to  weld  the  maximum  unity  of  action  of  the 
political  organizations  of  labor  and  the  trade-unions  in  alliance  with  all  anti- 
imperialist  and  democratic  groups  and  elements. 

In  this  report  are  listed  the  so-called  democratic  forces,  considered 
the  "essential  forces,"  which  must  be  brought  together  in  a  concen- 
trated drive  against  so-called  reactionary^  political  trends  in  American 
domestic  and  foreign  fields  of  action.  These  movements,  according 
to  the  report,  are  among  those  having  "high  priority"  in  Communist 
circles  because  of  their  value  in  building  up  the  "progressive  mass" 
movement  in  the  United  States. 

The  organizations  so  listed  in  the  report  are  the  following :  Southern 
Conference  for  Human  Welfare,  National  Negro  Congress,  the  CIO, 
National  Win  the  Peace  Congress,  Independent  Citizens'  Committee 


TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE  151 

of  Arts,  Sciences,  and  Professions,  American  Youth  for  Democracy, 
National  Association  for  the  Advancement  of  Colored  People,  Con- 
gress of  American  Women,  American  Labor  Party,  National  Citizens' 
PAC,  American  Veterans'  Committee,  United  Negro  Allied  Veterans 
of  America,  Farmers'  Union,  and  "other  progressive  and  democratic 
forces." 

I  have  discnssed  the  consolidation  of  these  organizations  which 
occurred  after  the  issuance  of  these  directions  by  the  Communist  Party 
to  its  forces.  I  do  not  know  of  one  organization  mentioned  in  this 
report  that  failed  to  participate  in  the  conference  held  in  Chicago  at 
which  the  Progressive  Citizens  of  America  was  set  up.  Neither  do 
I  know  of  any  one  of  those  organizations  which  is  not,  in  some  manner, 
active  in  the  drive  against  the  new  labor  law  enacted  by  Congress. 
All  of  them  are  fighting  for  the  abolition  of  this  committee  of  Con- 
gress and  are  opposing  the  President's  loyalty  drive  among  Federal 
employees. 

Immediately  thereafter  a  reorganizing  of  political  Red  fronts 
was  begun.  This  resulted  in  the  forming  of  the  Progressive  Citizens 
of  America,  with  national  headquarters  located  at  205  East  Forty- 
second  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y. 

]\Ir.  MuNDT.  Mr.  Chairman,  may  I  ask  a  question  right  there? 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Mundt. 

Mr.  Mundt.  Is  that  the  organization,  Mr.  Steele,  of  which  one  Henry 
A.  Wallace  is  a  spokesman  and  member  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  He  is,  sir ;  yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Mundt.  And  he  is  the  alleged  candidate  for  president  of  that 
group  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  Of  that  group ;  yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Mundt.  Do  you  know  anything  about  the  connection  between 
that  group  and  a  group  in  California  which  has  recently  announced 
through  the  press  that  they  are  inviting  him  to  run  as  candidate  for 
President  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  Well,  the  group  out  there  is  headed  by  Robert  Kenny, 
who  headed  some  of  these  other  fronts  which  were  brought  into  the 
convention  that  dissolved  those  movements  and  set  up  the  Progressive 
Citizens  of  America.  Jo  Davidson  was  one  of  the  original 
cochairmen.     He  has  gone  to  Paris. 

Mr.  McDowell.  The  sculptor. 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes.  Kenny  has  now  been  elected  cochairman  of  this 
Progressive  Citizens  of  America. 

Mr.  Mundt.  Is  Mr.  Wallace  doing  anything  else  at  the  present  time 
besides  editing — is  it — the  New  Republic  ? 

Mr,  Steele.  He  is  editor  of  the  New  Republic  Magazine. 

Mr.  ^Iundt.  The  New  Republic. 

Mr.  Steele.  Not  the  one  I  am  with,  the  National  Republic. 

Mr.  Mundt.  There  is  a  great  distinction,  I  am  sure,  in  the  editorial 
policy  of  the  two  magazines.  Do  you  know  anything  about  the  owner- 
ship of  the  New  Republic  Magazine,  for  which  Mr,  Wallace  is  editor? 

Mr.  Steele,  I  have  the  records  on  that  in  my  office,  which  I  have 
gone  into  ver}^  thoroughly. 

Mr,  Mundt,  I  have  heard  it  stated — I  believe  I  am  correct  in  this — 
that  the  New  Republic  is  owned  almost  exclusively  by  foreign  capital; 
is  that  correct  ? 


152  TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir;  about  98  percent,  I  believe. 

Mr.  MuNDT.  Ninety-eight  percent  foreign  capital. 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir.  Originally,  I  think  the  capital  was  in  London. 
I  think  it  is  now  incorporated  in  Canada.  But  I  think  the  mother  of 
the  original  editor  of  the  publication  is  the  one  that  owns  the  stocky 
as  I  understand.     She  lives  in  England. 

Mr.  ]\IuNDT.  Who  is  she? 

Mr.  Steele.  Ican'trecallher  name. 

The  Chairman.  Mrs.  Straight. 

Mr.  Steele.  That  was  one  of  her  names ;  yes.  She  was  married  two 
or  three  times. 

The  Chairman.  Can  you  supply  the  committee  wnth  your  record^on 
the  New^  Republic  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  I  can ;  I  will  be  glad  to. 

Mr.  MuNDT.  I  expect  that  stock  is  selling  pretty  high  in  the  Moscow 
Board  of  Trade,     [Laughter.] 

At  the  National  Board  meeting  of  Progressive  Citizens  of  America 
in  Chicago  on  June  30  (194(),  the  organization  went  even  further 
on  record  in  behalf  of  Marxism  wdien  it  adopted  resolutions  binding 
it  to  fight  for  the  socialization  of  railroads,  power,  and  coal  mines.  It 
had  previously  gone  on  record  against  President  Truman's  foreign 
policy,  which  the  PCA  criticized  as  antagonistic  to  Russia.  It  had 
openly  opposed  the  Government's  drive  to  oust  Communists  from 
Federal  positions.  It  condemned  the  demands  for  the  illegalizatioii 
of  the  Communist  Party.  It  demanded  the  renewal  of  wartime 
bureaucracy.  Mr.  Wallace,  its  mouthpiece,  issued  a  statement  a  short 
time  ago  to  the  effect  that  workers  of  this  Nation  "look  to  Russia 
for  inspiration." 

The  most  recent  recruits  to  the  PCA's  political  front  among  unions 
are  the  railroad  trainmen  and  the  United  Furniture  Workers,  both 
of  which  have  endorsed  a  third  party  and  Wallace  for  President  in 
1948. 

Progressive  Citizens  of  ximerica  announced  in  June  (1947)  that  it 
had  already  set  up  387  locals  in  22  States,  with  Massachusetts  at  the 
top  of  the  list,  having  60  locals.  New  York  and  California  were 
following  closely  with  50  and  30  locals,  respectively. 

People's  Songs  took  its  place  on  the  political  front  in  Los  Angeles 
on  May  19  (1947),  on  the  occasion  of  Henry  Wallace's  address  oppos- 
ing President  Truman's  new  foreign  policy  against  Soviet  aggression. 
The  gathering  was  under  the  auspices  of  the  Progressive  Citizens  of 
America.  People's  Songs  presented  the  Bill  of  Rights,  by  Jay  Gorney, 
sung  by  a  chorus  composed  of  27  individuals  from  the  CIO  and  Red 
cultural  front  ranks.  The  People,  Yes,  by  Earl  Robinson,  was  also 
presented.  A  few  days  earlier.  People's  Songs  handled  the  entertain- 
ment for  a  meeting  of  the  Communist  Party  at  Madison  Square  Garden 
in  New  York  (May  14, 1947) .  It  presented  Songs  of  Tom  Paine,  sung 
by  the  Greek  Partisan  Chorus.  William  Z.  Foster,  Gerhart  Eisler, 
Eugene  Dennis,  Benjamin  Davis,  Jr.,  Elizabeth  Gurley  Flynn,  and 
Roi3ert  Thompson  spoke. 

Members  of  this  committee  of  Congress,  gentlemen,  may  have  noticed 
a  slight  change  in  the  wording  of  the  slogans  of  the  Communists,  a 
change,  in  my  opinion,  which  is  indeed  significant,  and  which  was  first 
noticeable  at  the  time  Europe  became  embroiled  in  World  War  II. 


TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE  153 

The  change  to  whicli  I  refer  is  that  of  the  hiying  aside,  to  a  great 
degree,  of  the  words  "'worker''  and  "Communists."  In  their  phice  the 
Reds  have  adopted  the  words  "people's"  and  "democracy."  In  this 
respect  I  call  attention  to  the  numerous  front  organizations,  the  names 
of  which  include  the  word  "democracy"  or  "people's,"  to  many  of 
which  I  have  referred  in  this  testimony.  And  now  we  have  a  so-called 
People's  Party  in  the  making. 

The  People's  Party,  a  new  force,  maintains  national  lieadquarters  at 
726  Eleventh  Street  NW.,  Washington,  D.  C.  The  national  chairman 
at  present  is  Brig.  Gen.  H.  C.  Holdridge  (retired).  He  has  also  been 
mentioned  as  cochairman  of  the  Armed  Forces  Committee  of  the 
^Vmerioan  Veterans'  Committee.  Treasurer  of  the  Party  is  Henry  J. 
Sutton;  secretary,  Mrs,  Minnie  Frost  Rands.  The  incorporators  are 
Eleanor  C.  Curtiss,  E.  Stephen  Gratten  (former  Communist  Party 
leader  and  candidate  for  office  in  Columbus,  Ohio),  Bessie  H.  Michel- 
sen,  Robert  A.  Young,  and  Bessie  H.  Sheldon.  The  party  claims  that 
our  free  enterprise  system  is  bankrupt,  and  that  the  party  intends  to 
save  the  Nation  through  what  appears  to  be  its  Marxian  program, 

Holdridge  is  mouthing  the  Red  party  line  in  respect  to  opposition  to 
military  training,  and  a  general  disarmament  of  the  United  States. 
He  states  he  is  of  the  opinion  that  capitalism  is  decadent.  He  refers 
to  the  "drive  to  run  Communists  underground"  as  a  "witch  hunt."  In 
this  connection  he  criticizes  the  rantings  of  leaders  coming  to  us  "like 
echoes  from  the  Tower  of  Babel."  He  is  critical  of  our  foreign  policy 
in  injecting  this  country  in  the  affairs  of  nations  "from  the  Dardanelles 
to  Korea."  He  is  opposed  to  "what  amounts  to  a  military  alliance 
with  Turkey,"  and  our  "glorified  idea  of  competition"  which  "has  set 
the  hand  of  every  man  against  that  of  the  other." 

Action  for  Human  Welfare  became  the  official  spokesman  for  the 
People's  Party  in  May  1947.  This  publication,  a  left-wing  monthly, 
is  printed  in  Norwalk,  Ohio.  The  editor  is  Ray  S.  Kellogg.  AVriters 
for  it  are  Scott  Nearing,  Elizabeth  Miller,  Fred  Blair,  C.  P.  Bradley. 
In  the  issue  in  which  the  announcement  was  made  that  it  had  become 
the  official  organ  of  the  People's  Party,  it  denounced  President  Tru- 
man, calling  him  "Adolph  Truman."  The  article  attacked  the  Presi- 
dent for  following  Hitler  "step  by  step."  It  gloriously  defended 
Russia,  and  boosted  Wallace.  The  publication  unquestionably  fol- 
lows the  Communist  Party  line.  The  publication  charges  that  the 
United  States  suppressed  an  appeal  against  Franco;  it  is  critical 
because  the  United  States  demanded  that  Russia  return  90  shij^s  which 
had  been  loaned  to  her;  and  charges  that  the  United  States  labels  all 
liberal  groups  unAmerican ;  that  all  leftists  and  labor  groups  are  called 
foreign  agents;  that  the  United  States,  in  a  subtle  manner,  is  trying 
to  crush  trade-unions;  that  the  United  States  supports  corrupt  Fascist 
governments  all  over  the  w^orld — in  Greece,  Spain,  Iran,  Arabia, 
China,  and  the  Philippines;  that  the  United  States  has  railroaded  a 
pro-Fascist  government  into  power  in  Japan ;  that  the  United  States 
has  announced  a  program  that  is  openly  and  blatantly  imperialistic. 
In  one  of  its  issues,  it  printed  a  burlesqite  on  "How  To  Spot  a  Com- 
munist," this  taken  from  an  official  Communist  Party  organ. 

Henry  J.  Sutton,  treasurer  of  People's  Party,  contributed  a  signed 
editorial  which  appeared  in  Action  (May-June  issue)  in  which  the 
above  accusations  appeared.    He  stated  that  the  editorial  policy  of 


154  TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE 

Action  for  Human  Welfare  "will  be  determined  by  the  People's  Party 
in  accordance  with  the  stated  program  of  the  party."  Holdridge 
writes  in  the  July  edition. 

The  party  advocates  the  substitution  of  the  Federal  legislative 
powers  by  a  new  branch  of  government  entitled  the  "Economic  branch," 
to  consist  of  a  national  board  of  directors,  elected  by  guilds.  It  also 
suggested  that  a  similar  change  take  place  in  State  government,  and 
that  the  guilds  be  composed  of  cooperatives  in  various  lines  of  trade. 

Meetings  of  the  party  strategy  board,  held  in  Washington,  have 
been  attended  by  certain  individuals  affiliated  with  the  United  States 
Government,  as  well  as  those  who  are  known  to  have  in  the  past  had 
Communist  Party  or  front  connections.  The  following,  one  known 
employee  of  the  Library  of  Congress,  have  attended  these  meetings,. 
Fred  Blossom,  Bessie  Michelson,  Eleanor  Curtis,  Bessie  Sheldon,  and 
Rowena  Apsel. 

I  want  to  refer  briefly  to  this:  At  the  New  Jersey  meeting  of  the 
Progressive  Citizens  of  America,  the  headline  speaker  there,  whose 
name  I  have  buried  in  here  somewhat,  stated  that  if  Mr.  Wallace  was 
not  accepted  as  a  candidate  b.y  the  Democratic  Party  theie  would  be  a 
third  party  movement  organized  and  that  this  third  party  would  be 
known  as  the  People's  Party.  Now,  the  People's  Party  has  already 
been  incorporated  here  in  the  District.  Their  offices  are  at  726' 
Eleventh  Street  NW.,  Washington,  D.  C. 

Mr.  McDowell.  Are  they  going  to  hunt  votes  here  in  the  District  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  No;  this  is  merely  the  national  headquarters  of  the 
organization. 

The  Chairman.  They  are  going  to  hunt  them  in  New  Jersey. 

Mr.  Steele.  They  are  organizing  in  the  various  States.  The 
national  chairman  at  present  is  Brig.  Gen.  H.  C.  Holdridge,  re- 
tired. The  treasurer  of  it  is  Henry-  J.  Sutton,  Mrs.  Minnie  Frost 
Rands  is  the  secretary.  The  incorporators  include  a  former  Com- 
munist leader  from  Columbus,  Ohio,  and  a  number  of  fronters.  Two 
weeks  ago  they  adopted  a  publication  called  Action  for  Human  Wel- 
fare as  the  official  organ  of  the  party.  In  that  publication  announcing 
that  it  became  the  official  organ  of  the  party  was  an  editorial  which  was 
pretty  critical  of  President  Truman's  foreign  policy  and  referred  to 
him  as  Adolph  Truman.  In  other  words,  the  editorial  in  the  organ  of 
the  party  was  trying  to  smear  the  President  as  a  Hitlerite.  The  or- 
ganization follows  much  of  the  party  line  throughout.  We  have 
analyzed  that.     I  have  submitted  the  evidence  there  to  show  that. 

The  Minnesota  Democratic-Farmer  Labor  Party  is  among  many 
State  units  which  have  fallen  in  line  with  the  PCA  and  its  program 
and  its  proposed  candidacy  of  Henry  Wallabe  for  President  of  the 
United  States.  George  P.  Phillips  is  chairman  of  this  affiliate,  with 
State  headquarters  in  Minneapolis.  Two  other  affiliates  of  PCA  are 
the  Farmers'  Union  Progressive  Alliance,  recently  formed  in  North 
Dakota,  of  which  Glenn  J.  Falbott  is  president;  and  the  Rocky 
Mountain  Council  for  Social  Section,  with  headquarters  in  Denver, 
Colo. 

Now  as  to  the  labor  front. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Mr.  Steele,  in  connection  wath  the  Communist  in- 
fluence in  the  labor  movement,  how  many  unions,  national  or  inter- 
national unions,  do  you  find  Conniiunist  influence  is  predominant  in  i 

Mr.  Steele.  Forty. 


TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE  155 

Mr.  SxRirLiNG.  Forty? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Stkiplixg.  Are  they  limited  to  any  particular  labor  organiza- 
tions ? 

Mr,  Steele.  Yes;  they  are  all  CIO  excepting  one  union. 

Mr.  Stripling.  AVliat  union  is  the  exception? 

]Mr.  Steele.  That  was  the  painters'  union,  which  I  think  recent- 
ly— since  I  wrote  this — voted  Mr.  Weinstock,  or  whatever  his  name  is, 
out  of  control  up  there.  That  eliminates  that  one.  The  AFL  seems 
to  have  cleaned  house  pretty  well  and  have  continued  to  hold  the  line. 
But  many  of  these  other  unions,  which  started  out  under  Communist 
domination,  have  continued  and  are  today,  as  the  elections  come  up, 
reelecting  their  Communist  leadership. 

At  that  point  I  wish  to  bring  out  the  fact  that  Mr.  Curraii  himself 
says — this  is  out  of  his  own  publication,  of  March  this  year : 

Within  the  union — 

that  is  the  National  Maritime  Union 

approximately  107  of  the  150  elected  officials  of  our  union  are  Communists,  who 
are  more  interested  in  assuring  that  your  union  become  a  stooge  union  of  the 
Communist  Party  than  they  are  in  keeping  it  an  instrument  belonging  to  the 
rank  and  file  seamen  who  built  it. 

Mr.  Stripling.  In  view  of  the  provisions  of  the  Taft-Hartley  labor 
law,  Mr.  Steele,  wdiat  will  happen  in  these  40  unions  in  which  you 
claim  there  is  Communist  domination  ? 

]Mr.  Steele.  Well,  at  this  time  they  are  ignoring  the  law.  They 
are  inviting  court  suits.  I  presume  what  will  happen  depends  entirely 
upon  the  Supreme  Court's  opinion  of  the  law,  whether  it  is  constitu- 
tional or  not.  On  the  other  hand,  there  are  a  number  of  unions  which 
I  think  wall  just  disregard  the  act  and  the  benefits  of  the  National 
Labor  Relations  Act,  which  are  forbidden  them  when  they  maintain 
Communist  leadership,  and  force  themselves  upon  the  employer 
without  National  Labor  Relations  Board  protection. 

Mr.  Stripling-.  Do  you  have  any  information  on  the  World  Fed- 
eration of  Trade  Unions  ? 

JNIr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir. 

I  also  have  the  list  of  delegates  that  attended  the  international 
congress. 

Mr.  Stripling.  You  have  them  listed  according  to  country? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir ;  according  to  country. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  think  that  list  should  be  included 
in  the  record,  the  list  of  the  delegates  to  the  World  Federation  of 
Trade  Unions,  according  to  country,  which  he  says  he  has. 

The  Chairman.  Without  objection,  it  is  so  ordered. 

Mr.  Steele.  Now,  at  this  time,  there  is  also  an  international  film 
festival,  which  3'ou  will  be  interested  in,  being  held  in  France,  by  the 
International  Federation  of  Film  Workers.  American  delegations 
have  been  invited  from  Hollywood,  but  since  the  Congress  isn't  on 
yet,  we  haven't  had  any  evidence  to  show  who  the  delegates  will  be, 
if  any,  from  Hollywood.  But  it  bears  watching,  because  it  is  another 
one  of  the  international  set-ups  which  has  Communist  direction. 

The  Chairman.  When  is  the  Congress  going  to  be  convened? 

Mr.  Steele.  The  date  hasn't  been  set,  insofar  as  I  know.  The  call 
w^as  issued  in  June.  It  appeared  in  California  Communist  Party  daily 
newspaper,  the  only  publication  it  appeared  in. 


156  TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE 

The  Chairman.  People's  World. 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Mr.  Steele,  regarding  the  Communist  influence  in 
labor  unions,  do  you  have  any  evidence  that  any  union  has  elected  an 
officer  since  the  passage  of  the  Taft-Hartley  Act? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Who  are  Communists? 

Mr.  Steele.  .Yes,  sir.  I  think  you  will  have  to  agree  that  Alexander 
Balint  is  a  Communist.  In  fact,  I  think  you  had  him  up  before  this 
committee.  He  is  not  only  a  Communist.  He  is  a  fellow  that  has 
never  been  naturalized  and  was  finally,  I  think,  refused  naturalization 
because  of  his  Communist  Party  connections.  He  has  been  elected 
regional  director  of  the  Mine,  Mill  and  Smelter  Workers  Union  of  the 
CIO,  and  is  secretary  of  the  Cleveland  Council.  He  has  quite  a  Com- 
munist Party  and  front  background. 

Up  in  New  Jersey,  I  think — your  State,  Mr.  Chairman — early  in 
July  1947,  the  Nutley,  N.  J.,  local,  No.  447,  at  the  time  phone  workers 
were  on  strike,  elected  Joseph  Sprechman,  a  member  of  the  Communist 
Party,  business  agent  by  a  vote  of  1,100  to  166.  There  are  other  in- 
stances referred  to  in  here,  but  those  are  two  examples,  if  you  will 
accept  them. 

Mr.  Stripling.  In  other  words,  it  is  your  opinion  that  they  will 
challenge  the  authority  of  the  Taft-Hartley  Act? 

Mr  .Steele.  I  don't  think  there  is  a  bit  of  a  question  about  it 

Mr.  Stripling.  Proceed. 

Mr.  Steele.  Thank  you. 

reds  on  labor  front 

With  the  exposure  by  this  committee  and  other  committees  of  the 
House  and  Senate,  and  in  the  face  of  proposed  legislation  (which 
has  lately  been  enacted),  anti-Communist  laborites  came  to  the  front 
with  increased  force,  and  in  many  instances  started  cleaning  house. 

On  the  other  hand,  some  of  the  former  front  leaders  in  CIO  labor 
unions,  in  an  eifort  to  protect  their  own  high  positions  in  the  unions, 
maneuvered  themselves  into  the  anti-Red  union  side,  and  even  went 
so  far  as  to  help  oust  a  few  Communists  from  leadership. 

While  there  are  Communists  in  high  office  in  the  majority  of  the 
unions  formerly  under  fire  because  of  their  Red  leadership,  these  are 
becoming  fewer  with  the  passing  of  time,  and  Avith  the  recent  enact- 
ment of  Federal  legislation  they  will  be  forced  to  resign  from  office,  if 
their  unions  are  to  enjoy  the  advantage  of  laws  which  protect  the 
rights  of  labor  unions. 

It  should  be  remembered,  however,  that  the  Red  master-minds  who 
bored  into  their  unions  from  the  bottom  and  succeeded  in  reaching 
the  top  remain  members  of  their  respective  unions. 

An  example  of  this  is  to  be  found  in  the  National  ]Maritime  Union. 
Joe  Curran,  former  Red-fronter  and  head  of  the  union,  was  respon- 
sible for  the  ousting  of  two  of  the  several  Comnmnists  in  the  leader- 
ship of  the  international  under  his  command.  A  more  powerful  and 
cunning  stroke  was  his  effort  a  short  time  ago  to  elect  non-Com- 
munists to  replace  Reds  in  port  agent  positions,  powerful  posts  in 
his  union.  However,  Curran  admits  that  no  less  than  107  of  the  158 
elected  officers  of  his  union  are  Communists. 


TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE  157 

It  is  to  be  expected  that  the  Communists  will  bide  their  time  in  tha 
unions  until  another  more  propitious  day.  One  step  left  open  to  them 
now  is  to  organize  rank-and-file  committees  in  the  unions  and  new 
movements  among  the  unions  outside  the  unions'  jurisdiction,  as  well 
as  outside  the  plants  in  which  they  are  employed.  I  refer  to  off-the- 
job  movements,  such  as  people's  songs  and  choruses,  grievance  com- 
mittees and  anti-labor-legislation  committees.  The  Reds  will  keep 
their  customary  close  hold  on  union  members,  even  though  they  may 
be  barred  from  openly  leading  them.     The  danger  thus  continues. 

It  must  be  noted  that  the  recent  propaganda  campaign  against  this 
committee  and  the  passage  of  labor  legislation  barring  the  Reds  from 
union  leadership  has  brought  to  the  fore  hundreds  of  CIO  leaders 
who  continue  to  play  the  game,  it  is  now  evident,  for  the  Reds.  Of 
course,  there  are  certain  unions,  such  as  the  furriers'  union,  long- 
shoremen's, riiaritime,  transport,  and  farm  unions  which  it  is  doubted 
Avill  ])a3'  any  attention  whatsoever  to  any  law  designed  to  interfere 
with  Red  control  of  their  unions. 

In  this  respect  I  call  your  attention  to  the  United  Electrical,  Radio, 
and  Machine  Workers'  disregard  of  the  newly  enacted  law  prohibiting 
unions  from  liarboring  Communists  in  official  positions.  Early  in  July 
1947  the  Nutley,  N.  J.,  local.  No.  447,  at  the  time  phone  workers  were 
on  -strike,  elected  Joseph  Sprechman,  a  member  of  the  Communist 
Party,  business  agent  by  a  vote  of  1,100  to  166. 

Another  example  of  union  challenge  to  the  anti-Communist  law  is 
the  recent  reelection  of  Alex  Balint,  regional  director  of  the  Mine, 
Mill,  and  Smelter  Workers'  Union  (CIO),  as  secretary  of  the  Cleve- 
land council.  Balint  is  not  even  an  American  citizen.  He  was  refused 
citizenship  some  years  ago.  Members  of  this  committee  are  familiar 
with  his  long  Communist  record,  since  he  appeared  before  the  com- 
mittee some  time  ago. 

There  are  at  least  40  CIO  labor  unions  which  have  been  penetrated 
b}^  the  Communists,  and  in  which  Communist  and  Communist  front 
leadership  still  exists,  in  the  national  as  well  as  in  many  of  the  locals, 
although  anti-Communist  forces  have  been  gaining  a  little  ground 
therein  during  the  past  6  months.  These  unions  are,  namely,  the 
United  Auto  Workers ;  International  Fur  and  Leather  Workers ;  Inter- 
national Mine.  Mill,  and  Smelter  Workers;  International  Longshore- 
men and  Warehousemen:  National  Maritime  Cooks'  and  Stewards' 
Association;  National  Maritime  Union;  United  Rubber  Workers; 
International  Fishermen  and  Allied  Workers  of  America;  Interna- 
tional Woodworkers  of  America;  Food  and  Tobacco  Workers;  United 
Electrical,  Radio,  and  Machine  Workers  of  America ;  Transport  Work- 
ers' Union;  American  Communications  Association  ;  United  Furniture 
Workers  of  America ;  United  Farm  Equipment  Workers ;  United  Office 
and  Professional  Workers  of  America;  United  Shoe  Workers  of 
America:  United  Packinghouse  Workers  of  America;  United  Gas, 
Coke,  and  Chemical  Workers;  Cleaners  and  Dyers  LTnion  ;  Federation 
of  Glass,  Ceramic,  and  Silica  Sand  Workers  of  America ;  National 
Marine  Engineers  Beneficial  Association;  Industrial  Union  Ma- 
rine and  Shipbuilding  of  America:  American  Newspaper  Guild;  Na- 
tional Lawyers  Guild ;  United  Retail  and  Wholesale  Department  Store 
Employees  of  America ;  United  Steelworkers  of  America ;  Stone  and 
Allied  Quarry  Workers  of  America ;  Textile  Workers  Union  of  Amer- 

65176 — 47 11 


158  TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE 

ica ;  Utility  Workers  Union  of  America ;  Hotel  and  Restaurant  Work- 
ers of  America ;  Jewelry  Workers  of  America ;  International  Moulders 
Union  of  America;  International  Hod  Carriers  Union;  Bakery  and 
Confectionery  Workers  of  America ;  United  Public  Workers  of  Amer- 
ica ;  and  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America. 

As  an  outside-the-union  influence  I  wish  to  call  attention  to  the 
American  Jewish  Labor  Council,  with  national  headquarters  at  22 
Eii  st  Seventeenth  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y. 

This  was  formerly  known  as  the  Trade  Union  Committee  for  Jewish 
Unity,  Chairman  of  the  council  is  Max  Perlow,  who  is  secretary- 
treasurer  of  the  United  Furniture  Workers  Union  (CIO).  He  has 
an  extensive  Ked  front  background. 

He  has  been  a  member  of  the  executive  board  of  Morning  Freiheit, 
the  Free  Browder  Committee,  and  numerous  other  Communist  and 
front  movements. 

Max  Steinberg  is  executive  secretary  of  the  council.  He  has  been 
a  member  of  the  central  committee  of  the  Communist  Party,  and 
in  1938  he  was  organizational  secretary  of  the  party. 

He  was  business  mannger  of  Morning  Frieheit,  and  a  member  of 
the  general  executive  board  of  the  International  Workers'  Order. 

Additional  Communist  and  Iled-front  leaders  of  the  council  are 
Abram  Flaxer  of  the  United  Public  Workers  of  America  (CIO), 
with  many  Reel  fi'ont  connections,  including  affiliation  with  the  Ameri- 
can League  for  Peace  and  Democracy,  American  People's  Mobiliza- 
tion, and  the  Free  Earl  Browder  Committee;  Joseph  H.  Levy,  vice 
president  of  the  United  Office  and  Professional  Workers  of  America 
(CIO),  and  a  member  of  the  Free  Earl  Browder  Committee,  Spanish 
aid  movements,  and  other  fronts,  Sidney  Mason,  business  manager 
of  the  United  Electrical,  Radio,  and  Machine  Workers  (CIO),  who 
has  been  active  in  Red-front  movements;  Arthur  Osman,  president 
of  local  65  of  the  United  Wliolesale  and  Warehouse  Workers  L^nion 
(CIO),  who  has  been  connected  with  the  Free  Earl  Browder  Com- 
mittee and  the  IWO;  Irving  Potash,  manager  of  the  Furriers  Joint 
Council  (CIO),  a  member  of  the  staff  of  Morning  Freiheit,  leader 
of  Red  May  Day  demonstrations,  and  other  Red  and  front  activities; 
Isidore  Rosenberg,  prominent  in  the  old  (Communist)  Trade  Union 
Unity  League  and  other  Red  circles;  Joseph  Selly,  president  of  the 
American  Communications  Association  (CIO),  and  well  known  in 
numerous  front  organizations;  M.  Hedley  Stone,  treasurer  of  the 
National  Maritime  Union  (CIO),  and  a  participant  in  Red-front 
activities;  Meyer  Stern,  district  director  of  the  United  Packing  House 
Workers  (CIO),  and  former  organizing  secretary  of  district  2  of  the 
Communist  Party;  Lpou  Sverdlove,  manager  of  ^ocal  1  of  the  Jewelry 
Workers  Union  (AFL),  and  a  member  of  the  Free  Earl  Browder 
Committee  and  other  radical  outfits;  Louis  Weinstock,  secretary- 
treasurer  of  district  9  of  the  A.  F.  of  L.  Brotherhood  of  Painters, 
and  a  member  of  the  National  Committee  of  the  Communist  Party; 
Joseph  Winogradsky,  vice  president  of  the  International  Fur  and 
Leather  Workers'  Union  (CIO),  who  took  part  in  the  Communist 
Party  State  convention  (New  York)  in  1938;  and  Maurice  Rosen- 
berg, administrative  secretary  of  the  American  Jewish  Labor  Council, 
who  held  this  position  in  the  old  Jewish  People's  Committee  branded 
Communist  by  another  congressional   committee  investigating  un- 


TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE  159 

American  activities,  and  which  the  committee  found  was  under  the 
leadersliip  of  all  those  now  composing  the  leadership  of  the  American 
Jewish  Labor  Council. 

Perlow  was  president  of  the  Jewish  People's  Committee;  Osman 
and  Weinstock,  vice  presidents;  Flaxer,  Potash,  Isidor  Rosenberg,  and 
Steinberg  were  members  of  the  national  board.  Maurice  Rosenberg 
was  administrative  secretary.  The  Jewish  Labor  Council  was  later 
denounced  by  legitimate  Jewish  organizations.  This  is  another 
oi'ganization  which  tolerates  Red  influence  and  leadership. 

The  Council  of  Negro  Trade  Unionists,  vrith  headquarters  in  New 
York  City,  has  been  active  in  labor  circles  within  the  past  few  months. 
It  has  been  mentioned  in  connection  with  its  participation  in  southern 
affairs.     Red  control  from  without  is  noticeable  in  this  group  also. 

Ou  May  13,  l'J47,  the  radical  left-wing  forces  among  the  Negroes  of 
California  organized  the  United  Negro  Labor  Committee.  The  organ- 
izational meeting  was  held  in  Oakland,  with  125  in  attendance.  It 
has  been  announced  that  the  committee  v>'ill  act  in  the  capacity  of  a  po- 
litical action  group,  in  cooperation  with  other  so-called  progressives. 

The  chairman  is  Hursel  Alexander,  who  is  at  the  present  time  CIO 
Food,  Tobacco,  and  Agricultural  Union  organizer  in  Oakland.  He 
formerly  resided  in  Omaha,  Nebr.  At  different  times  he  has  been 
organizer  for  the  National  Maritime  Union  and  the  Longshoremen's 
Union.  He  is  reported  to  have  been  active  also  in  Africa,  India,  and 
Pcierto  Rico.  Alexander  joined  other  leftists  in  calling  a  parley  in 
California  on  July  19,  19-17,  to  launch  a  campaign  in  support  of  the 
Communist  organ.  People's  Daily  World. 

Members  of  the  board  of  the  United  Negro  Labor  Committee  include 
Lon  "^^anier,  formerly  of  New  Orleans  and  reported  to  be  a  carpenter 
by  trade ;  Ethel  Benford,  a  member  of  the  CIO  Steel  Workers'  Union 
Local  1798 ;  Camille  Arnas,  AFL  Cleaners  and  Dyers  Local  23 ;  Bob 
Neville,  Electrical  Workers'  Local  1412;  Alfred  Bard,  Longshore- 
men's Local  10 ;  and  Frances  Albrier,  Dining  Car  Workers'  Local  456. 
Vanier  is  a  charter  subscriber  to  the  People's  Daily  World. 

The  Citizens'  Conference  To  Defend  Labor,  205  East  Forty-second 
Street,  room  1515,  New  York,  N.  Y.,  organized  the  excursion  to  Wash- 
ington, D.  C,  to  oppose  labor  legislation  before  Congress.  Those 
making  the  trip  arrived  in  Washington  on  May  2G.  Frances  Borden 
is  executive  secretary  of  the  conference.  Sponsors  included  Henrietta 
Buckmaster  of  the  Congress  of  American  Women;  Peter  Cacchione, 
New  York  Communist  leader;  Eugene  Connolly,  active  Red-frontier; 
John  W.  Davis,  Jr.;  Muriel  Draper;  Leo  Huberman;  Langston 
Hughes ;  Rockwell  Kent,  h^ad  of  IWO ;  Carol  King ;  Ray  Lev ;  Vito 
Marcantonio;  William  Howard  Melish,  of  the  National  Council  of 
American-Soviet  Friendship ;  Mike  Quill ;  and  Alfred  Stern. 

(Exhibit  71  was  received. )°^ 

On  the  west  coast  still  another  organization  has  sprung  up,  the 
Western  Council  for  Progressive  Labor  and  Agriculture,  headed  by 
Frank  Scully,  of  California. 

John  Barnes  is  secretary;  Raymond  Ridle,  treasurer;  directors, 
Bartley  Crum,  S.  K.  Bennett,  Emil  Corwin,  Willis  Hill,  and  Frank 
Pellet. 


^1  See  appendix,  p.  176,  for  exhibit  71. 


160  TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER    S.    STEELE 

Among  the  sponsors  are  Oscar  Pattiz,  Charles  Brown,  Peter  Kahn, 
Jr.,  J.  M.  Alkow,  and  Robert  Opperman. 

Participatino-  organizations  are  the  American  Commnnications^ 
Association,  Retail  Clerks'  Union,  International  Ladies  Garment 
Workers'  Union,  Farmer-Labor-Consumers'  Association,  Southland 
Jewish  Organization,  and  the  Berkeley  chapter  of  the  American  Vet- 
erans' Committee. 

The  Western  Council  for  Progressive  Labor  and  Agriculture  was 
formed  in  April  1946.  Offices  are  located  at  2003  Grace  Avenue, 
Hollywood,  Calif. 

At  the  present  time  it  is  protesting  the  release  of  radical  news  com- 
mentators by  radio  networks,  particularly  Frank  Kingdon  and 
Johannes  Steel. 

It  charges  that  the  plot  to  have  these  commentators  and  other 
liberals  fired  was  instigated  by  this  committee. 

The  June  "veto  the  Hartley-Taft  bill  caravan"  from  the  west  coast 
to  Washington,  D.  C,  was  led  by  Communists.  These  included 
Robert  O'Conner,  of  the  editorial  staff  of  the  (Communist)  People's 
Daily  World,  James  E.  Gil  Ian,  and  C.  E.  Devine,  who  were  leaders  of 
the  Red-instigated  bonus  march  of  1931.  Others  on  the  caravan  staff 
were  Harry  Lea,  Bill  Axelrod,  Celia  Wilby,  Jack  Steinhart,  Mark 
Robinson,  and  Tony  Nicol. 

In  New  Yoi'k,  a  Madison  Garden  rally  against  proposed  congres- 
sional legislation  on  labor  problems  was  fostered  by  Saul  Mills,  Pliil 
Murray,  and  Louis  Hollender.  It  was  given  impetus  by  the  Com- 
munist New  York  publications,  of  which  there  are  many. 

A  Labor  and  Citizens'  Committee  To  Uphold  Free  Elections  has 
been  formed,  with  national  headquarters  at  23  West  Twenty-sixth 
Street,  New  York  City. 

Dashiell  Hammett  is  treasurer.  Leverett  Gleason,  Canada  Lee, 
Mike  Quill,  and  Harry  Reich  are  officers.  Its  primary  purpose  is  to 
support  the  Communist  Party  and  immediately  arouse  opposition  to 
unseating  Congressman  Marcantonio. 

On  the  international  front  in  the  labor-union  field  we  find  the  World 
Federation  of  Trade  Unions,  with  heaf^quarters  in  Paris.  It  will  be 
recalled  that  the  name  of  the  Communist  Party  of  the  United  States 
w^as  restored,  after  it  had  operated  during  the  war  as  the  Communist 
Political  Association,  and  it  resumed  its  prewar  status  as  a  militant 
revolutionary  movement  at  the  direction  of  Paris. 

That  city  has  become  the  cejiter  of  the  three  postwar  internationals 
which  are  now  in  operation — the  above,  the  International  Federation 
of  Democratic  Women,  and  the  World  Youth  Democratic  Federation. 
All  were  organized  at  tlie  direction  of  Moscow,  and  all  are  directing 
their  activities  from  Paris. 

The  Moscow  Reds  have  long  striven  to  perfect  a  solidarity  front 
among  tlie  unionists  of  the  w^orld.  Wliiie  they  succeeded  to  an  extent 
in  this  and  other  fields  through  previous  internationals,  they  had  not 
succeeded  to  any  great  decree  in  harnessing  the  unionists  in  the  United 
States,  France,  and  England  to  such  a  machine.  Consequently,  they 
have  em})loyed  every  possible  trick  to  bring  about  the  herding  of  union- 
ists into  their  fold. 

Prior  to  the  formation  of  the  World  Federation  of  Trade  Unions, 
Moscow  had  put  into  operation  throughout  the  world  what  was  known 
as  the  Red  International  of  Union  Labor  (RIUL) . 


TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE  161 

The  leadership  was  centered,  and  the  international  was  quartered 
in  Moscow, 

Branches  in  England,  France,  and  the  United  States  were  known  as 
the  Trade  Union  Unity  League.  The  Reds  then  began  to  organize 
industrial  unions  in  various  industrial,  transportation,  and  communi- 
cation fields. 

The  membership  of  these  was  never  great  in  the  aforementioned 
countries,  but  they  were  powerful  cells  within  any  plant  or  unit  of  in- 
dustry or  trade. 

They  were  clever  in  their  maneuvering,  and  often  brought  out  entire 
shops  on  strike  in  support  of  Communist  demands. 

Their  chief  purpose  was  to  create  unreasonable  demands,  raise  them 
if  attempts  were  made  to  meet  them,  and  to  prevent,  through  secret 
designs,  settlement  of  their  strikes.  The  purpose  was  to  keep  the 
strikers  out  until  they  were  affected  financially  as  a  result  of  their 
unemployment,  the  blame  being  placed  on  the  so-called  bosses.  In 
this  manner  the  minds  of  the  workers  were  poisoned  against  their 
employers  and  the  "bosses"  government,  while  the  Communists  gained 
strength  and  members. 

The  Red  International  of  Union  Labor  claimed  some  15,000,000' 
members,  12,000,000  of  whom  belonged  to  Soviet  Russia's  ruled  unions. 
In  Russia  the  worker  has  never  been  permitted  to  strike  or  to  make 
demands.    Neither  has  he  been  allowed  to  find  fault  with  his  "boss,'" 
the  government. 

A  few  years  before  the  birth  of  the  CIO  in  this  country,  the  Reds 
changed  their  tactics  slightly  by  abandoning  their  individual  Red 
labor  unions. 

The  members  of  those  unions  were  instructed  to  join  the  large  trade- 
imions. 

They  organized  what  became  known  as  the  A.  F.  of  L.  rank  and  file 
committees  within  AFL  unions. 

These  rank  and  file  committees  made  a  series  of  demands  on  the 
AFL,  including  a  call  to  discard  craft  unions  and  organize  industrial 
unions. 

They  then  attempted  to  undermine  the  leadership  of  those  AFL 
unions,  as  well  as  the  leaders  of  the  federation  itself. 

Finally,  these  rank  and  file  committees  called  a  rump  conven- 
tion of  the  AFL,  after  their  demands  were  turned  down. 

Many  of  those  prominent  in  the  committees  were  unseated  at  the 
legitimate  convention  of  the  federation,  and  they  immediately  ex- 
panded their  campaign  by  demanding  the  formation  of  one  large 
industrial  labor  union  federation. 

Through  the  efforts  of  the  Hillman  Garment  Workers'  Union, 
other  independent  unions,  the  Red  rank  and  file  committees,  and 
the  United  Mine  Workers'  Union,  which  was  also  at  loggerheads 
with  the  AFL,  the  CIO  was  established.  The  Hillmanites  took 
ever,  although  John  L.  Lewis  temporarily  held  the  throne.  This 
terminated  a  13-year  dream  of  the  Hillmanites,  and  a  15-year  dream 
of  Moscow. 

Hillman  had  promised  in  1922  that  he  would  direct  a  drive  toward 
the  establishment  of  the  one  large  organization  of  industrial  unions 
within  the  United  States.  He  had  accepted  an  invitation  from 
Moscow  to  join  his  union  with  the  Red  International. 

65176 — 47 12 


162  TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE 

Prior  to  this,  and  during  the  period  the  Red  International  of 
Union  Labor  was  in  operation,  the  International  Federation  of 
Trade-Unions  was  functioning  from  Vienna.  This  was  the  out- 
growth of  an  International  Trade-Union  formed  in  1901.  The  A.  F. 
of  L.  belonged  to  the  IFTU  for  2  years,  but  it  withdrew  because  of 
its  extreme  leftist  tendencies. 

In  1932  the  IFTU  was  represented  in  32  countries.  The  British 
unions  had  also  w^ithdrawn.  Citrine  of  England  and  Jouhaux  of 
France  were  its  international  officials.  The  A.  F.  of  L.  rejoined 
the  IFTU  when,  in  1937,  it  amended  its  constitution  to  provide  that 
affiliated  unions  need  not  be  bound  to  the  majority  decisions.  This 
enabled  the  A.  F.  of  L.  to  oppose  Red  unions  within  the  IFTU. 
Political   dissension  within  the   international   caused  its   downfall. 

In  1944  a  call  was  issued  for  a  world  congress  of  labor,  to  be  held 
in  London  in  February  1945,  with  the  thought  that  the  IFTU  riiight 
be  revived.  The  congress  was  attended  by  230  delegates  from  35 
countries  who  claimed  to  represent  60,000,000  unionists. 

Representatives  of  the  CIO  attended,  but  the  A.  F.  of  L.  refused 
to  send  representatives. 

A  statement  appeared  in  the  report  of  the  Congress  to  the  effect 
that  the  CIO  represented  6,000,000  American  unionists. 

The  left-wing  British  Trade-Union  Congress  claimed  to  repre- 
sent 7,000,000  members  in  the  coalition  of  British  unions. 

Russia  claimed  a  representation  of  27,000,000  unionists,  and  the  Gen- 
eral Confederation  of  Labor  in  France  claimed  it  represented  4,000,000 
at  the  congress. 

The  number  represented  by  the  delegates  sent  by  Russia,  France, 
Italy,  Yugoslavia,  Bulgaria,  Rumania,  and  Poland  w^as  sufficient  to 
throw  the  control  to  the  Communists,  with  Russian  Reds,  of  course, 
dominating  the  control.  At  this  congress,  arrangements  were  made 
for  a  second  world  congress  to  be  held  in  Paris  in  September  1945. 

Delegates  to  the  congress  adopted  the  Communist-Moscow  party  line 
in  all  of  their  resolutions.  A  committee  to  frame  a  constitution  was 
appointed,  and  Hillman  was  miide  chairman  thereof.  An  Anglo- 
Soviet-American  trade-union  committee  was  set  up,  the  duty  of  which 
was  to  influence  the  British  conservative  unions  and  the  American 
Federation  of  Labor  in  an  effort  to  forge  a  united  front  (CIO-AFL 
in  the  United  States)  representation  in  the  international  in  prepara- 
tion for  the  second  world  congress  in  September  1945.  Jack  Tanner 
and  Arthur  B.  Robert,  British  leftists,  were  given  the  task  of  promot- 
ing the  accord  in  England  and  the  United  States. 

The  American  Federation  of  Labor  ultimately  passed  a  resolution, 
introduced  by  Matthew  Woll,  turning  down  the  proposal  to  join  the 
international. 

The  resolution  stated  the  A.  F.  of  L,  would  refuse  to  be  dominated 
by  Moscow. 

Woll  had  previously  led  the  fight  against  Soviet  and  satellite  unions 
in  other  countries  in  the  IFTU. 

However,  the  Anglo-Soviet  committee  succeeded  in  unifying  the 
South  American  union-labor  forces,  bringing  them  into  the  inter- 
national through  the  Confederation  of  Latin-American  Workers, 
headed  by  Vincente  Lombardo  Toledano  (pro-Soviet) . 

Leftist  union  leaders  of  the  Latin- American  countries  were  elected 
to  a  central  committee,  thus  completing  the  South  American  front. 


TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER    S.    STEELE 


163 


The  countries  bound  to  the  international  as  a  result  of  the  efforts  of  the 
Anglo-Soviet  committee  were  Mexico,  Argentina,  Uruguay,  Paraguay, 
Brazil,  Chile,  Bolivia,  Peru,  Salvador,  Puerto  Rico,  Haiti,  Colombia, 
Ecuador,  Dominican  Republic,  Nicaragua,  and  Costa  Rica.  Red 
unions  in  these  countries,  with  the  CIO  in  the  United  States,  formed 
a  front  in  the  Western  Hemisphere  for  the  Reds'  new  international. 
The  CIO  played  an  important  part  in  the  Latin-American  consoli- 
dation. 

It  might  be  well  to  digress  briefly  at  this  point.  Prior  to  the  Hitler- 
Stalin  alliance  a  meeting  had  been  called  to  prepare  for  a  world  labor- 
union  congress.  However,  with  the  signing  of -the  Hitler-Stalin  alli- 
ance, the  murder  of  Polish  labor  leaders,  and  the  ruthlessness  of  Ger- 
many and  Russia  in  Poland,  Finland,  and  elsewhere,  it  was  deemed 
best  to  abandon  plans  for  the  congress  until  after  the  war.  After  the 
Hitler-Stalin  break,  Russia  had  solidified  labor,  to  an  extent,  through 
its  appeal  for  unity  during  the  war,  and  began  to  cash  in  on  it. 

Citrine  and  other  leftist  labor  leaders  from  other  countries  attended 
conferences  in  Moscow,  where  plans  were  made  to  cash  in  on  this  new 
fraternal  feeling  brought  about  by  the  w^ar.  Similar  meetings  were 
also  held  in  London.  Moscow  was  first  selected  as  the  scene  of  the 
proposed  international  congress,  but  it  was  later  decided  that  it  should 
be  held  in  London. 

I  list  herewith  the  delegates  who  attended  the  World  Trade-Union 
Congress,  which  was  held  in  Paris  in  1940  : 

Reds  on  Labor  Front 


Abt,  John United  States 

Aguirre,  F Cuba 

Allen,  Cliff Great  Britain 

Amilpa,  Fernando  Mexico 

Amr,  M Palestine 

An,  P.  T China 

Anderson,   G Sweden 

Androvioranu, 

Maria Rumania 

Annan,  J.  S Gold  Coast 

Antonini,  Ramos-   Puerto  Rico 
Apostol,  Gheorghe  Rumania 
Arangis,     Manual 

R Basques 

Arbid Palestine 

Armador,   Arman- 
do    Nicaragua 

Asriel,  Adolph Rumania 

Assale,  M France 

Bakachowa Russia 

Bakkari,  I.  B Syria 

Balice,   Mihai Rumania 

Bara,  Albino Chile 

Barrero,  Flliberto  Colombia 

Baskakov Russia 

Bassova,   Mme Do. 

Bernstead Great  Britain 

Beresine,  V Russia 

Bernasconi Switzerland 

Bertoletti,  Gino__   Italy 

Betz Switzerland 

Birar.  Cristofor Rumania 

Bjarnason,   B Iceland 

Blokzvl,  B Holland 


Bondas,  Josep Belgium 

Braga,  Pedro  Car- 

valho Brazil 

Bratfaleno,  Victor  Rumania 
Bratschi,   Robert-   Switzerland 
Briones,  Victor  H-  Chile 

Brodier,  Jean France 

Brophy,  John United  States 

Burns,  Tom Do. 

Bussey Great  Britain 

Butler,  M.  (or  P.)    New  Zealand 

Buze,  Edouard Poland 

Cajewski,  Pierre_  Do. 

Carey,  J.  B United  States 

Carva.sal Bolivia 

Casparsson,  R Sweden 

Charowa,  Raiua Bulgaria 

Cheidl Russia 

Chang,  T.  F China 

Chester Great  Britain 

Choulga,    Helene_.  Russia 
Christodouiou,   M.  C.vprus 

Chu,  H.  F China 

Citrine,  Walter Great  Britain 

Cofino,  Angel Cuba 

Collins,      C  h  a  s. 

(observer) United  States 

Conley Great  Britain 

Conroy,  Pat Canada 

C  r  o  i  z  a  t ,   A  m  - 

broise Nigeria 

Cesterhuis.  H Holland 

Croizat,  Ambroise.  France 
Curran,  Joseph United  States 


164 


TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE 


Damianof,  Raiko_  Bulgaria 

Dange,  S.  A India 

Dauguy f' France 

Deakin,  Arthur —  Great  Britain 
deLandaburu,     F. 

X United  States 

Dejace,   Tlieo Belgium 

deLandaburn,  F Basques 

Del  Rosal,  Amaro_  Spain 
deStafano,       Ma- 
rino   Italy 

Diar,    Amaro 

Rosa Spain 

diVittorio,      Guis- 

seppe Italy 

deVries,  M.  J South  Africa 

Dudie,  Otto Switzerland 

Dumas,    J France 

Dvorin,    F  e  r  d  i  - 

nand Czechoslavakia 

Eckerman,  Erich_  Czechoslavakia 
Eclisondo,  Jean  M.  Mexico 

Edwards,    E Great  Britain 

El-Ariss,      Musta- 

pha Lebanon 

Erban,    Evzen Czechoslovakia 

Falino Russia 

Fara,  M.  Amr  B__.  Palestine 

Fawcett Great  Britain 

Feliner,       Mme. 

J.    C South  Africa 

Fitzgerald,  A United  States 

Franco,    A.    Ruis_    Guatemala 

Frapport,    J Luxemberg 

Frayha,    Georges.  Lebanon 

Garnier,    M France 

Gangen,    Ingvald-  Norway 

Gensen,    E Denmark 

Gianijitelli,    L Italy 

Gibson,  G Great  Britain 

Giroda,  Donate 

Flores Bolivia 

Gittens,  Rupert 

Alonzo Trinidad 

Gonsalez,  L I'ruguay 

Goodwin,  B Northern  Rhodesia 

Grandi,   A Italy 

Grant,  M.  C Sierra  Leone 

Green,  John United  States 

Grewin,  J Sweden 

Graciani,  Hector—  Puerto  Rico 
Cuzman,  Rodolfo_.  Costa  Rica 

Haas Switzerland 

Hallsworth,  J Great  Britain 

Ilarma,  E Finland 

Harper,  D.  M British  Guinea 

Harrison,  M.  M Great  Britain 

Hasar,  G.  M Palestine 

Hatu,  Styak, 

Joseph Hungary 

Harustyak Do. 

Haugen,  Ingvald—  Norway. 

Haywood,  A.  S United  States 

Heiman-Burski, 

Alexandre Poland 

HenafP,  Eugene France 

Herrera,  Victor  M.  Salvador 
Hill,  Ken Jamaica 


Hill,  Kindolfo____   Brazil 

Hillman,  Sidney 
(Chairman,  dele- 
gation)  United  States 

Hlavicka,  Josef-__  Czechoslovakia 

Hodgson,  Sir  M__.  Great  Britain 

Hubbard,  H.  J.  M-  British  Guinea 

Idelson,  J Palestine 

Illiason,  L Russia 

Jacova,  Tuo Albania 

Jarblum,  M Palestine 

Jarman Great  Britain 

Jasinski,  Casimir_  Poland 

Jensen,  Filer Denmark 

Jeony,  Dobromil__  Czechoslovakia 

Jiknavorian,  S Lebanon 

Jiminez,  Ramon  C.  Dominican  Republic 

Jimeuo,  Arsenio Spain 

Jmikhov Russia 

Johnson Sierra  Leone 

Jouhaux,  Leon France 

Jungmann,  F Czechoslovakia 

Jura,  Josef Do. 

Jurac,  J Yugoslavia 

Juraca,  Joze Do. 

Kantola,  L — , —     Finland 

Kariaguine,  V Russia 

Karlin,  O Sweden 

Karnik,  V.  B India 

Katio,  Adam Yugoslavia 

Khedgiker,  R.  A__   India 

Kliment,  Augustin  Czechoslovakia 

KoUo,  Etienne Hungary 

Kolnen,  A.  C Holland 

Kossa,    Istran Hungary 

Krier.   Antonine_.  Luxemburg 

Kuypers     (Ku- 
pers),   E Holland 

Kuppero    Do. 

K  u  r  y  1  o  w  i  c  z, 

Adam Poland 

Kuznetsov Russia 

Kuznetsov,    M.    or 
V.  V Do. 

Ladaburu   Basque 

Lakinetz   Russia 

Lara,  Juan  C Colombia 

Lawther    Great  Britain 

Lazarus,  Nick  (ob- 
server)     United  States 

Lechi,    J Bolivia 

Lecker,  M.  B Palestine 

Leiros,    Francisco 
P Argentina 

Levin,  Misa Rumania 

Lindberg,  August-  Sweden 

Liopis,     Rodolfo--  Spain 

Liu,  H.  T China 

Lizzardri,  O Italy 

Loughlin,      Dame 

A Great  Britain 

I^vnch,    Gilbert Ireland 

Lynich,   J Do. 

McBride,  Jonas 

(observer) United  States 

Madariaga,      San- 
chez  Mexico 

Maglajlio, ,  Sefket.  Yugoslavia 


TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE 


165 


Major,  Louis Belgium 

Maybank,  F.  S Northern 

Rhodesia 

Maldenado,    J Ecuador 

Mandro,    Dimitr__  Albania 
Manos,  Domlngo—  Brazil 

Marlvov   Russia 

Marouf,  M France 

Martinez,     J.     Ri- 
vera  Salvador 

Martorell,     Salva- 
dor  Spain 

Marty,   Bernard—  Switzerland 

Medina,    B Colombia 

Manson,  C.  W.  P—  Gold  Coast 
Millan,    Alfonso—  Mexico 

Millard,  C.  H Canada 

Miller,     IM  a  r  t  i  n 

(observer) United  States 

Modarrek,  Ahmed 

El    Egypt 

Moix,  Jose Spain 

Molla.nder,  H Sweden 

Monk,  A.  B Australia 

Montanios,      M  i  - 

chael Cyprus 

Molino,  Lucien —  France 
Monmousseau, 

Gaston Do. 

Moukarsel, 

Edouard Lebanon 

Mukerji,  A.  K India 

Murray,  Philip United  States 

Mustertiu,  Josif —  Rumania 
Nahum,  Daoud 

Fouad Bg3T)t 

Nak,  Dirk Denmark 

Nicola,  Giovanni.-  Italy 

Nielsen,  Einer Denmark 

Nordahl,  K Norway 

Nbye,  A Gambia 

O'Brien Great  Britain 

Ogmundsson,  S Iceland 

Oldenbroek 

(ITWF) 

Olsen,  Axel — _ Denmark 

Orenstein,  M Palestine 

Palenzona,    Ro- 

molo Italy 

Pang,  K.  Y China 

Papworth,  A.  P Great  Britain 

Pena,  Lazaro Cuba 

Pena,  Ramon  G —  Spain 

Perez,  Bareto Puerto  Rico 

Peteers,  Rene France 

Petrovic,  Dusan —  Yugoslavia 
Pfeiferova-Hiav- 

kova  Karia Czechoslovakia 

Pinter,  Janos Hungary 

Pinter,  Janos Do. 

Poboreni.Alexand-  Rumania 

Popof,  Michail Bulgaria 

Prachoff Do. 

Prakov,  Thodar Do. 

Pralyha,  G Lebanon 

Pressman,  Lee United  States 

Quintero,  F Panama 


Rabies,  I.  R Guatemala 

Ratko,  Anna Hungary 

Rodriguez,        En- 
rique   Uruguay 

Rieve,  Emil United  States 

Robinson,  Reid Do. 

Rogova Russia 

Rojas,  John Trinidad 

Ross,  Michael United  States 

Rubashow,  Z Palestine 

Ruiz,  A Guatemala 

Rusinek,  Casimir_.  Poland 

Saad,  Pedro Ecuador 

Saborit,  Andres Spain 

Saillent,  Louis France 

Salsch,  George Yugoslavia 

Salaj,  Djuro- Do. 

Sanchez,  Guil- 

lermo Chile 

Sanmugathesen,  N  Ceylon 

Sanness,  John Norway 

Santiago,  Enrique.  Spain 

Sassi,  A Italy 

Schevenels,    Wal- 
ter (IFTU) 

Schon,  Juraj Czechoslovakia 

Sencovici,      Alex- 
ander   Rumania 

Sergueieva Russia 

Sexasse,  M.  S Syria 

Shaika,  P India 

Singhe,       S.       A. 

Wickrema Ceylon 

Small,  E.  F Gambia 

Soloview Russia 

Srejo,  Tomo Yugoslavia 

Stanley,  R.  S New  Zealand 

Sulaj,  D Southeastern 

Europe 
Sweeny,  Vincent —  United  States 

Swift Ireland 

Szoznesniak,     Jo- 
seph   Poland 

Tanner Great  Britain 

Tarasov,  M Russia 

Teng,  F.  A China 

Thornton,  Ernie Australia 

Toledano,  V.  Lom- 

bardo Mexico 

Tolelson,  I Poland 

Tomas,         Belar- 

mino   Spain 

Tomas,  Pascual —  Do. 

Toros,  Janos Hungary 

Tournemaine,  Ry- 

miond France 

Tsoetkova Russia 

Tubb,  H.  G Brazil 

Vahlberg,  G Sweden 

Vaidialingam,  A —  Ceylon 

VandenLende,  C Holland 

Vargas,  Juan Chile 

Vechnikov,  A Russia 

Vermeulen,  A Holland 

Volan,  Elias Norway 

Wallace,  Isaao  T. 
A Sierra  Leone 


166  TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE 

Wickremasinghe,  Zaharis,      Dujmi- 

A Ceylon  tru Rumania 

Wilson,    Aristides  Zapotoeky,  A Czechoslovakia 

P Panama  Ziade,  Cesar Lebanon 

Witaszewski,  'Cas-  Ziartides,  A.; Cyprus 

imir __«  Poland  Zing,  R.  A Australia 

Wunsch,  O Czechoslovakia  Zugravu,  Misu Rumania 

Yousef,  Mohamed-  Egypt  Zupka,  F Czechoslovakia 

Later,  this  international,  which  has  continued  to  follow  the  Moscow 
and  International  Communist  line  all  over  the  world,  was  accepted 
as  an  advisory  body  to  the  UN.  The  Women's  International,  to  which 
I  have  previously  referred,  is  attempting  to  obtain  similar  recognition. 
The  international  officers  of  the  World  Federation  of  Trade  Unions 
are  Walter  Citrine,  of  Great  Britain,  international  chairman;  Louis 
Saillant,  of  France,  general  secretary ;  Jacob  Potovsky,  of  the  United 
States ;  Vasseill  Knznetsov,  of  Russia ;  Leon  Jouhaux,  of  France ;  Lom- 
bardo  Toledano,  of  Mexico ;  Chu  Hsueh  Fan,  of  China ;  Giusseppe  di 
Vittorio,  of  Italy;  and  E.  Kuppero,  of  Holland,  vice  presidents. 
Philip  Murray  and  Jacob  Potovsky  represent  the  CIO  on  the  executive 
committee  of  the  international,  which  is  composed  of  25  members. 

Delegates  attending  the  Paris  congress  from  the  United  States,  whom 
I  have  listed  above,  included  Sidney  Hillman,  chairman  of  the  dele- 
gation; James  B.  Carey,  secretary  of  the  delegation;  Allan  S.  Hay- 
wood, John  Green,  Joseph  Curran,  Emil  Rieve,  Albert  Fitzgerald, 
Reid  Robinson,  Lee  Pressman,  Tom  Burns,  John  Brophy,  and  Michael 
Ross.  Advisers  were  John  Abt,  Len  de  Caux,  and  Vincent  Sweeney. 
Seated  as  observers  were  Martin  Miller,  Jonas  McBride,  Nick  Lazarus, 
and  Charles  Collins. 

The  general  council  of  the  World  Federation  of  Trade  Unions  met 
in  Prague  in  June  (1947).  It  passed  a  number  of  critical  resolutions 
regarding  the  foreign  policy  of  the  United  States.  Frank  Rosenblum 
was  among  the  delegates  from  this  country.  Nina  Popova  was  one 
of  the  Russian  delegates. 

An  outgrowth  of  the  194G  International  Film  Festival  held  in 
Cannes,  France,  is  the  International  Federation  of  Film  Workers. 

This  was  set  up  by  film  union  leaders  of  Great  Britain,  France, 
Czechoslovakia,  Germany,  Hungary,  and  other  European  countries. 

As  far  as  I  have  been  able  to  learn,  no  official  union  representative 
from  the  United  States  attended  the  festival. 

A  call  has  lately  been  issued,  June  1947,  by  the  International  Federa- 
tion of  Film  Workers  for  the  first  congress  to  be  held  in  Prague  some 
time  this  year. 

The  Hollywood  film  unions  have  been  invited  to  send  representatives 
to  the  congress  and  affiliate  with  the  international. 

The  proposed  agenda  of  the  congress  includes  discussions  in  connec- 
tion with  the  use  of  films  in  the  maintenance  of  democracy  and  peace, 
the  protection  of  film  work  by  copyright,  unification  of  teaching  meth- 
ods, the  establishment  of  international  cooperation  of  film  workers  in 
special  branches,  and  an  exchange  of  technical  knowledge.  The 
IFFW  is  slated  to  become  affiliated  with  the  World  Federation  of 
Trade  Unions,  according  to  Communist  sources  in  the  United  States. 

Other  organizations  with  Commimist  support  are  active  at  the 
present  time  which,  are  stressing  questions  relative  to  rent  control, 
labor  bills,  price  rises,  and  housing  problems,  the  Communist  line. 


TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE  167 

The  United  Tenants  and  Consumers  Organization,  of  which  Bonita 
Williams  is  executive  director,  held  a  conference  in  New  York  City  on 
June  6,  1947,  at  which  plans  were  made  to  broaden  the  campaign 
in  consumers'  fields.  Speakers  were  Benjamin  Davis,  Communist 
leader  in  Harlem;  Alfred  K.  Stern,  Jeanette  Turner,  Elsie  Spencer, 
and  Adelle  Lockhart. 

Still  another  group  operating  in  this  field  is  the  Emergency  Com- 
mittee on  Rent  and  Housing,  headed  by  Alfred  K.  Stern,  of  New 
York.  He  promoted  the  march  on  Washington,  D.  C,  in  June,  on 
the  rent  bill,  as  well  as  the  march  on  Albany,  N.  Y.,  earlier  in  1947, 
on  the  housing  issue.  He  also  heads  a  paper  organization  known  as 
the  Emergency  Committee  for  Eent  Control. 

Joining  his  campaign  on  Congress  in  June  were  the  Americans  for 
Democratic  Action  (Joseph  Lash,  New  York  branch  executive  direc- 
tor) ,  National  League  of  Women  Shoppers  (Julia  Algaze  of  the  Con- 
gress of  American  Women,  vice  chairman)  ;  and  Congress  of  Ameri- 
can Women  (Virginia  Shull,  executive  secretary)  ;  National  Progres- 
sive Citizens  of  America  (Ralph  Sliikes,  educational  director),  the 
National  Consumers  Association  (Helen  Hall,  chairman  of  the  New 
York  City  Consumers'  Council),  United  Neighborhood  Houses  (Mil- 
dred Gutwillig,  Consumer  Committee  chairman) . 

Mr.  Stripling.  Does  that  complete  your  statement  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  That  completes  my  statement,  excepting  I  want  to  refer 
briefly  to  some  other  types  of  movements.  I  think  you  might  call 
them  Fascist  movements,  or  whatever  you  choose.  There  are  other 
movements  which  I  consider  un-American,  although  they  may  not 
be  in  an}^  manner  controlled  or  guided  by  a  foreign  country  or  foreign 
power. 

These  have  been  guilty  of  inciting  racial  hatred,  class  hatred,  or 
religious  hatred. 

A  movement  which  was  unquestionably  organized  along  these  lines 
was  the  Columbians.  As  a  result  of  its  activities,  it  lost  its  charter 
in  many  States  before  it  was  apparently  forced  to  disband  completely. 

Mr.  McDowell.  Mr.  Steele,  did  you  say  it  had  disbanded  com- 
pletely? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir;  in  the  States  of  Georgia  and  Indiana.  As  to 
other  States,  I  couldn't  say.  Another  organization  of  the  same  type 
was  the  Democratic  Nationalists  of  Minnesota.  This  was  designed  to 
spread  antiracial  and  antireligious  hatred  among  youth.  This  was 
also  killed  off  in  that  State. 

Mr.  McDowell.  Mr.  Steele,  could  you  tell  us  how  many  members 
there  might  have  been  in  the  Democratic  Nationalists  of  Minnesota  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  Insofar  as  I  can  find,  there  were  three  or  four. 
It  had  just  gotten  started.  When  it  was  raided,  this  paraphernalia  was 
seized,  which  included  revolvers,  antiracial,  and  antireligious  propa- 
ganda which  was  being  circulated  in  Minnesota. 

Mr.  McDowell.  You  say  three  or  four.  You  feel  sure  of  the  number 
of  the  people  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  No.  sir;  I  am  not  certain  of  the  number.  Understand, 
I  only  know  that  the  leader  was  the  only  one  exposed  by  the  arresting 
agents.  The  report  we  had  was  that  it  was  just  in  its  infancy  and 
was  more  or  less  of  a  one-man  proposition.  As  to  the  exact  number, 
I  don't  know ;  no,  sir. 


168  TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE 

Mr.  McDowell.  Would  it  be  beyond  the  realm  of  possibilities  that 
it  is  all  one  man  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  It  might  be ;  yes,  sir.  There  was  one  man  arrested  and, 
I  think,  taken  before  a  mental  physician  to  see  whether  he  was  all 
there  or  not. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Do  you  have  any  other  organizations  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  Still  another  group  in  this  category  is  The  State,  which 
may  be  a  take-off  of  Louis  the  Fourteenth.  It  is  a  teen-age  movement, 
operated  from  Jackson,  Mich.  It  sprang  up  in  Michigan.  It  is  re- 
ported that  this  group  has  also  been  broken  up.  I  have  no  idea  what 
the  membership  of  that  was,  whether  it  was  large  or  small.  But  nev- 
ertheless it  shows  a  trend — Columbians,  The  State,  and  the  Democratic 
Nationalists — which  seemed  all  to  be  youth  movements  trending  along 
the  same  Fascist  line. 

Mr.  McDowell.  Could  you  tell  us  what  The  State  was  for  ?  What 
was  the  purpose  of  the  group? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir.  The  State  was  to  operate  among  teen-age 
youth,  for  the  purpose  of  racial  and  religious  hatred  and  to 

Mr.  McDowell.  What  sort  of  racial 

Mr.  Steele.  It  was  both  anti-Jewish  and  anti-Negro.  The  pro- 
paganda there  [pointing]  that  was  seized  shows  the  nature  of  the 
propaganda  they  were  issuing. 

Mr.  McDowell.  How  about  the  religious  angle?  Against  what 
religion  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  Well,  I  considered,  when  I  said,  the  Jewish  religion. 

Then  there  are  adult  movements,  prominent  among  which  is  the 
Ku  Klux  Klan.  Public  sentiment,  together  with  the  alertness  of  many 
State  officials,  has  been  quite  effective  recently  in  discrediting  it.  It 
has  recently  lost  its  charter  in  California,  Georgia,  and  Virginia. 
Since  thejCivil  War  it  has  had  its  ups  and  downs,  but  it  is  still  oper- 
ating secretly  in  several  States.  During  the  war  it  was  discovered  that 
some  members  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  particularly  those  in  its  New 
Jersey  branch,  took  part  in  Nazi  Bund  gatherings. 

The  Christian  Front,  an  adult  group,  had  its  fling  before  the  war. 
However,  it  finally  became  inactive,  although  it  is  reported  there  have 
been  recent  isolated  attempts  to  reorganize  it,  but  with  little  suc- 
cess  

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Steele,  may  I  interrupt  there  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  That  point  that  you  made,  of  the  tie-in  of  the  Ku 
Klux  Klan  and  the  Bund,  came  out  at  a  hearing  that  the  old  Dies 
committee  held. 

Mr.  Steele.  That  is  right. 

The  Chairman.  At  Newark,  N.  J. 

Mr.  Steele.  That  is  right. 

The  Chairman.  We  had  one  day's  hearing  on  just  that  question 
alone. 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes.  I  have  in  my  photograph  files  photographs  of 
the  Klan  appearances  at  the  bund  meeting. 

The  Chairman.  Other  people,  particularly  within  the  past  2  years, 
have  been  trying  to  take  the  credit  for  unearthing  that,  but  the  people 
that  unearthed  it  were  the  old  Dies  committee,  at  the  hearing  at 
Newark. 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir.    That  is  a  fact. 


TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE  169 

Mr.  MuNDT.  Mr.  Steele,  are  there  States  in  the  Union  which  grant 
official  charters  to  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  I  assume  so.  I  noticed  yesterday,  I  think  it  was,  that 
some  minister  down  in  Florida  that  belongs  to  the  Klan  down  there 
was  arrested  in  connection  with  some  Klan  activities,  and  so  on. 
They  evidently  are  still  operating  in  several  States,  either  without 
charter,  secretly  or 

Mr.  MuNDT.  I  think  there  isn't  a  question  in  the  world  but  what 
they  still  operate  in  some  areas  in  some  States,  but  I  was  wondering 
whether  some  States  still  granted  them  charters  or  whether  they 
were  simply  operating  in  more  or  less  clandestine  groups. 

Mr.  McDowell.  Did  you  know,  Mr.  Steele,  that  the  Klan  died  in 
Virginia  many  years  ago? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir.     I  mentioned  that. 

Mr.  McDowell.  And  it  died  also  in  Georgia  ? 

Mr,  Steele.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  McDowell.  And  this  aifair  last  week  in  Florida  was,  the  min- 
ister was  accused  of  preaching  to  a  robed  group  of  Ku  Klux  Klan 
members. 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  McDowell.  And  his  congregation  brought  some  sort  of  a 
charge  down  there. 

Mr.  Steele.  I  am  through,  Mr.  Chairman,  excepting  I  would  like 
to  submit  my  16  points  for  legislation. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Did  you  have  any  other  Fascist  organizations? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes ;  there  is  one  other  organization,  called  the  Amer- 
ican Shore  Patrol. 

Mr.  Stripling.  The  American  Shore  Patrol? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes.  That  was  organized  and  incorporated  in 
Alexandria,  Va. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Do  you  know  whether  there  is  any  connection  be- 
tween that  organization  and  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  The  ritual,  of  which  I  have  a  copy,  is  exactly  the 
same  in  every  respect  with  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  ritual;  that  is,  the 
American  Shore  Patrol  ritual  isn't  so  extensive,  but  all  of  the  ritual 
appears  as  part  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  set-up. 

Mr.  Stripling.  All  right. 

Mr.  Steele,  have  you  heard  any  information  to  the  effect  that  the 
Klan  is  disbanding  as  such  in  all  of  the  States  and  reappearing  under 
new  names  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  I  have  had  that  information ;  yes. 

Mr.  Stripling.  I  believe  Mr.  McDowell,  chairman  of  the  Subcom- 
mittee on  Fascism,  has  recently  received  testimony  in  that  connection. 

Mr.  McDowell.  That  is  right.  In  this  American  Shore  Patrol,  have 
you  discovered  any  evidence  that  it  is  anywhere  but  Alexandria,  Va.  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  It  is  incorporated  in  Virginia. 

Mr.  McDowell.  Yes;  but  my  question  is  have  you  discovered  it 
anywhere  else  but  there  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  No,  I  haven't,  and  I  don't  know  of  anyone  else  that 
has.  In  fact,  I  understand  that  the  organization  set  out  about  2  or 
3  years  ago  and  met  with  little  success  because  Klansmen  didn't  want 
to  belong  to  anything  but  the  Klan  and  they  couldn't  find  new  timber 
for  this  group.    As  to  how  many  members  it  has,  I  have  no  informa- 


170  TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE 

tion  because  it  is  a  very  secretive  group.  I  have  found  no  one  that 
knows  a  great  deal  about  it,  excepting  what  information  I  have  given 
you.  I  have  been  given  a  copy  of  their  charter  and  a  list  of  the 
incorporators. 

Mr.  McDowell.  You  know,  also,  Mr.  Steele,  that  the  Subcommittee 
on  Fascism,  of  this  committee,  is  now  engaged  in  a  study  of  activities 
such  as  you  have  outlined  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  McDowell.  And  have  been  for  the  last  614  months.  We  will 
continue. 

Mr.  Steele.  I  think  it  should.  There  is  just  as  much  danger  of  a 
revolution  from  the  right  as  there  is  from  the  left.  Consequently,  I 
think  any  of  these  movements  that  spring  up  should  be  gone  into  very 
thoroughly  because  the  EurojDean  pattern  was  that  one  menace  helps 
the  other. 

Mr,  McDowell.  You  agree,  Mr.  Steele,  the  issue  of  fascism  here  in 
America  has  been  badly  clouded  by  the  constant  policy  of  the  Com- 
munist Party  to  call  every  person  who  opposes  communism  a  Fascist  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes. 

]Mr.  McDowell.  To  call  every  industrialist  a  Fascist. 

Mr.  Steele.  I  have  been  called  one  myself. 

Mr.  McDowell.  To  call  every  employer  in  America  a  Fascist. 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes 

Mr.  McDowell.  To  even  call  the  Congress  Fascist. 

Mr.  Steele.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  McDowell.  And  to  call  the  Committee  on  Un-American  Ac- 
tivities a  Fascist  committee. 

Mr.  Steele.  That  is  right.  Anything  that  isn't  Communist  is 
Fascist,  according  to  them. 

Mr.  McDowell.  That  has  seriously  clouded  the  efforts  of  the  sub- 
committee to  investigate  the  situation. 

Mr.  Steele.  That  is  right. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Vail? 

Mr.  Vail.  In  your  opinion,  Mr.  Steele,  has  a  Fascist  movement 
developed  to  a  point  in  this  country  where  it  represents  a  serious 
threat  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  I  haven't  found  that  as  yet,  but  I  think  it  is  well  to  keep 
it  nipped  at  the  bud,  so  to  speak. 

Mr.  Vail.  What  is  your  opinion  as  to  the  relative  strength  of  the 
Fascist  group  as  compared  with  the  Communist  group  ? 

Mr.  Steele.  Well,  if  you  are  speaking  of  the  organized 

Mr.  Vail.  Organized  strength ;  yes. 

Mr.  Steele.  I  would  say  the  ratio  is  about  1,000  Reds  to  1  Fascist. 

Mr.  Vail.  That  bears  out  my  own  thought,  but  it  doesn't  seem  to 
agree  with  the  thought  of  some  of  the  newspapers  that  have  made 
comments  on  it. 

Mr.  Steele,  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Vail.  That  is  all. 

Mr.  Steele,  I  am  through,  excepting  I  have  some  recommendations. 

Mr,  Stripling,  Yes, 

I  want  to  clear  up  the  status  of  the  record,  Mr,  Chairman,  at  the 
proper  time,  because  some  of  the  members  who  were  not  present  at  the 
various  junctures  of  his  testimony  this  morning,  where  the  committee 


TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE  171 

took  certain  action.  In  order  that  all  members  understand  the  status 
of  the  record  and  for  the  press  to  understand  the  status  of  the  record, 
I  %Yould  like  to  clear  that  up. 

The  Chairman.  Go  ahead. 

Mr.  Steipling.  I  would  like  to  ask  that  the  entire  statement  which 
Mr.  Steele  has  submitted  be  made  a  part  of  the  record.  However, 
with  particular  reference  to  that  section  dealing  with  Communists 
in  the  Armed  Services,  in  which  he  attached  a  list  of  some  2,000  indi- 
viduals who  served  in  the  armed  forces,  that  list  will  not  be  made 
public  by  the  committee  until  the  committee  has  had  an  opportunity 
to  study  and  go  into  the  affiliations  of  the  individual  and  then  de- 
termine whether  or  not  it  desires  to  make  it  public.  For  example, 
;Mr.  Steele  included  in  the  list  a  number  of  people  who  were  members 
of  the  International  Workers  Order.  Now,  the  International  Work- 
ers Order  is  a  Communist  front  organization,  as  found  by  this  com- 
mittee and  also  by  Attorney  General  Biddle,  but  the  mere  fact  that 
a  man  was  a  member  of  the  International  Workers  Order  and  was  in 
the  Army  does  not  necessarily  imfjly  that  that  person  is  a  Communist. 
Therefore,  I  think  that  that  list  should  not  be  made  public  until  the 
committee  has  made  some  decision  about  it. 

The  Chairman.  Without  objection,  it  is  so  ordered. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Otherwise,  I  think  the  entire  statement  should 
appear. 

Mr.  Steele.  The  recommendations  are : 

Keep  our  powder  dry,  our  young  men  trained,  our  armed  services 
modernized  and  strengthened  sufficiently  to  meet  any  emergency  from 
without,  and  the  National  Guard  primed  for  the  home  front. 

Guard  the  secrets  of  the  atom  bomb  and  other  new  implements  of 
Avarf  are  which  we  and  our  immediate  Allies — England,  Canada,  China, 
and  South  American  countries — have  perfected.  Strengthen  the 
forces  and  defenses  of  these  Allies,  including  Greece,  Turkey,  France, 
and  Austria. 

Expand  our  intelligence  forces  in  all  branches,  on  the  home  front  as 
well  as  on  the  foreign  fronts  but  guard  against  consolidation  of  these 
forces  into  one,  permitting  each  to  specialize. 

Continue  the  policy  of  giving  no  further  ground  to  Communist  ex- 
pansion in  other  countries.  Petition  the  various  States  to  outlaw  the 
Communist  Party,  or  any  offspring  of  it,  from  the  ballot.  Petition  the 
States  to  enact  legislation  requiring  registration  of  names  and  ad- 
dresses of  members  of  the  Communist  Party  and  all  fronts  thereof 
operating  in  the  States.      » 

Enact  Federal  legislation  requiring  officials  of  the  Communist  Party 
or  any  offshoot  thereof  to  file  a  complete  list  of  names  and  addresses 
of  all  national,  State,  and  local  officials,  organizers,  and  committee 
members,  together  with  itemized  receipts  and  expenditures,  semiannu- 
ally with  the  Clerk  of  the  House — this  information  to  be  made  avail- 
able to  the  public. 

Enact  legislation  requiring  Communist  Party  officials  to  file  with 
the  State  Department  quarterly  the  names  and  addresses  of  members 
or  representatives  of  the  party  who  are  leaving  or  have  left  the  coun- 
try, and  their  destination.  They  should  also  be  required  to  furnish 
a  list  of  the  names  and  addresses  of  all  individuals  arriving  from 
foreign  countries  to  engage  in  party  activities  or  to  contact  members, 


172  TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE 

directly  or  indirectly.     This  information  should  be  made  available 
to  the  public. 

Enact  legislation  requiring  all  individuals,  publications,  and  pub- 
lishers carrying  on  propaganda  in  behalf  of  a  foreign  country  or 
foreign  cause,  to  register  with  the  State  Department,  the  information 
to  be  made  available  to  the  public. 

Require  an  English  translation  of  all  messages  to  or  from  foreign 
countries,  such  as  cabl£S,  sent  by  agencies  with  foreign  connections,  to 
be  filed  with  the  Department  of  Justice  whenever  intrigue  is  suspected. 

Require  all  foreign-language  publications  circulated  in  the  United 
States  to  publish  in  English  the  names  of  the  oflicers  of  the  publishing 
liouse  and  the  editors,  and  to  print  in  English  all  articles  which  favor 
an  ideology  of  a  foreign  power  in  opposition  to  American  ideologies. 

Amend  the  law  pertaining  to  treason  so  that  it  will  be  effective  in 
time  of  peace  as  well  as  of  war,  and  to  cover  current  "fifth  column" 
movements  which  always  operate  in  advance  of  a  foreign  armed  force. 

Urge  the  Department  of  Justice  to  enforce  the  Logan  Act,  and  to 
prosecute  violators  of  the  act,  and  of  sections  10  and  11  of  the  United 
State  Criminal  Code. 

Enact  legislation  strictly  forbidding  the  recruiting,  drafting,  or 
acceptance  of  Communists  or  fronters  in  our  armed  forces. 

Amend  laws  favoring  cooperatives,  preventing  cooperatives  oper- 
ated by  Communists  or  fronters,  or  cooperatives  operated  as  blinds 
ior  communism  and  Communists  from  benefiting  by  such  laws. 

Amend  insurance  laws  making  it  unlawful  for  any  corporation,  or- 
ganization, or  society  operating  wholly  or  in  part  as  an  insurance 
benefit  to  use  any  of  its  funds  to  promote  legislation  or  to  promote 
the  interests  of  any  political  party  or  any  subversive  movement,  or 
the  interests  of  any  candidate  or  any  member  of  any  member  of  any 
subversive  movement. 

Reenact,  as  separate  legislation,  the  section  of  the  so-called  Taft- 
Hartley  labor  law  which  bars  unions  from  benefits  of  the  National 
Xabor  Relations  Act  which  tolerate  Communists  in  any  capacity. 

Petition  States  to  bar  Communists  and  froiiters  from  the  faculty 
of  colleges,  universities,  and  all  other  educational  institutions  opera- 
ing  in  all  States,  and  to  prohibit  the  dissemination  of  pro-Soviet  and 
Communist  literature  and  ideologies  in  our  educational  institutions. 

Establish  a  Federal  commission  to  direct  investigations  of  the  per- 
sonnel of  all  Federal  agencies  and  applicants  for  Government  posi- 
tions, empowering  the  commission  to  dismiss  individuals  in  the  employ 
of  the  Federal  Government  who  are  found  to  have  or  to  have  had 
subversive  affiliations,  and  to  bar  applicants  for  such  employment 
who  have  had  such  affiliations. 

Require  the  Department  of  Justice  to  establish  a  special  division  to 
prosecute  subversive  elements. 

Urge  the  Department  of  Justice  to  prosecute  individuals  and  organ- 
izations violating  the  Voorhis  and  McCormack  Acts. 

Enact  legislation  requiring  individuals  and  organizations  raising 
funds,  whether  for  relief  or  otherwise,  in  the  interest  of  a  foreign 
power  or  cause  to  register  with  the  State  Department,  requiring  such 
individuals  and  organizations  to  file  a  monthly  statement  of  receipts 
and  expenditures,  subjecting  records  to  State  Department  investiga- 
tion, and  barring  the  use  of  such  funds  for  propaganda  or  organiza- 
tional activities  of  a  subversive  nature. 


TESTIMONY   OF  WALTER   S.    STEELE  173^ 

Congress  should  restate  its  position,  through  resolution  or  amend- 
ments to  existing  laws,  with  regard  to  the  barring  of  all  Nazis,  Com- 
munists, and  anarchists  from  the  United  States  and  from  becoming: 
naturalized  Americans. 

Provision  should  be  made  for  the  revoking  of  the  citizenship  of 
any  naturalized  citizen  who  becomes  active  in  any  subversive  move- 
ment following  his  naturalization.  Immigration  laws  should  be 
enforced. 

Congress  should  prohibit  the  granting  of  Federal  funds  to  any  Com- 
munist or  front  school,  college,  agency,  or  project  for  GI  education. 

Atomic-energy  control  should  be  placed  under  the  War  Department, 
where  efficiently  trained  intelligence  forces  are  available  to  guard  its 
secrets. 

The  Chairman.  Any  more  questions  ?    Mr.  Mundt  ? 

Mr,  Mundt.  No  ;  I  have  no  more  questions. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Steele,  in  behalf  of  the  committee,  the  Chair 
wants  to  express  its  appreciation  for  your  coming  here  today  and 
making  the  very  complete  statement  that  you  have.  In  my  8  years 
with  the  committee  I  have  never  seen  a  more  complete  and  more  docu- 
mented statement  on  this  subject  than  you  have  presented  here  today. 
You  are  to  be  congratulated.  For  all  of  us,  I  just  want  to  thank  you 
very  much. 

Mr.  Steele.  I  appreciate  that  very  much,  gentlemen,  because  I  have 
worked  very  hard  and  very  carefully.  I  have  tried  to  submit  evidence 
to  prove  my  statements,  because  I  know  it  is  a  fact-finding  committee, 
and  that  is  what  you  want. 

The  Chairman.  Yes. 

Mr.  Steele.  You  want  evidence. 

The  Chairman.  That  is  correct. 

Mr.  Steele.  I  appreciate  very  much  the  attention  you  have  given 
me,  and  also  the  press  here  and  the  audience. 

The  Chairman.  Thank  you.    Anything  else,  Mr.  Stripling? 

Mr.  Stripling.  That  is  all.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  think  you  should  an- 
nounce the  witnesses  for  tomorrow. 

The  Chairman.  I  just  want  to  announce  that  tomorrow  the  first 
witness  will  be  Victor  Kravchenko,  author  of  I  Chose  Freedom,  former 
officer  of  the  Ked  Army  and  an  employee  of  the  Soviet  Purchasing 
Commission  in  the  United  States;  and  Dr.  Mladen  Giunio  Zorkin, 
former  member  of  the  Yugoslav  diplomatic  service  in  London  and 
former  officer  of  the  Yugoslav  Army.  They  will  be  our  witnesses 
tomorrow.  Mr.  Kravchenko  is  the  first  witness,  to  be  followed,  prob- 
ably in  the  afternoon,  by  Dr.  Zorkin. 

Mr.  Stripling.  Will  the  committee  meet  at  10  o'clock  ? 

The  Chairman.  The  committee  will  meet  at  10  o'clock  tomorrow, 
but  there  will  be  an  executive  session  at  9 :  45.    We  stand  adjourned. 

(Thereupon,  the  committee  adjourned  at  4 :  35  p.  m.,  to  meet  tomor- 
row, Tuesday,  July  22, 1947,  at  9  :  45  a.  m.) 


APPENDIX       " 

Exhibits  Presented  in  Testimony  of  Walter  S.  Steele,  American  Coalition 
OF  Patriotic,  Civic,  and  Frateknal  Societies,  and  the  National  Republic 

Exhibit 

1.  List  of  84  societies  cooperating  witli  the  American  Coalition  of  Patriotic, 

Civic,  and  Fraternal  Societies. 

2.  Resolution  adopted  by  the  American  Coalition  of  Patriotic,  Civic,  and  Fra- 

ternal  Societies  at  its  January  24,   1947,  convention,   Mayflower   Hotel, 
Washington,  D.  C. 

3.  Photostat  copy  of  Red  Front,  May  1934,  issued  by  Red  Front,  95  Avenue  B, 

New  York,  N.  Y. 

4.  Letter  from  Pvt.  Jerry  Trauber  to  Max  Bedacht,  formerly  general  secretary, 

International  Workers  Order,  of  which  Trauber  is  referred  to  as  an  exe- 
cutive board  member. 

5.  Chart  showing  the  organizational  set-up  of  the  Veterans  of  Abraham  Lincoln 

Brigade,  from  its  publication,  Volunteer  for  Liberty,  November  1946. 

6.  Copy  of  Volunteer  for  Liberty,  November  1946.    Pages  1,  2,  and  10  report  the 

proceedings  of  the  Fifth  Convention  of  the  Veterans  of  Abraham  Lincoln 
Brigade. 

7.  Certificate  of  incorporation  of  Veterans  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade,  Inc. 

8.  Certificate  of  incorporation  of  New  Century  Publishers,  Inc. 

9.  1946  New  Century  Publishers  Catalog. 

10.  Mastheads  of  party  and  party-line  publications  assembled  by  the  National 

Republic,  Washington,  D.  C. 

11.  Certificate  of  incorporation  of  The  New  Masses,  Inc. 

12.  Certificate  of  incorporation  of  the  Negro  Publication  Society  of  America,  Inc. 

13.  Catalog  of  the  Jefferson  School  of  Social  Science  of  New  York,  N.  Y.,  spring, 

1947. 

14.  Catalog  of  the  California  Labor  School  of  San  Francisco,  Calif.,  spring,  1947. 

15.  Catalog  of  the  Peoples  Educational  Center  of  Hollywood,  Calif.,  winter,  1947. 

16.  Certificate  of  Incorporation  of  National  Council  of  American-Soviet  Friend- 

ship, Inc. 

17.  Photostat  of  folder  of  National  Council  of  American-Soviet  Friendship,  show- 

ing officers,  sponsors,  affiliated  groups,  local  councils,  and  local  committees. 

18.  Bibliography  on  the  Soviet  Union,  compiled  by  the  committee  on  education 

of  the  National  Council  of  American-Soviet  Friendship,  Inc. 

19.  Copy  of  letter  dated  October  19,  1942,  from  Max  Bedacht,  general  secretary. 

International  Workers  Order,  Inc.,  to  all  members  of  the  general  executive 
board,  referring  to  the  American  Council  on  Soviet  Relations. 

20.  Copy  of  letter  dated  October  29,  1942,  from  Max  Bedacht,  general  secretary 

of  International  Workers  Order,  Inc.,  to  the  members  of  the  general  execu- 
tive board,  referring  to  the  American  Council  on  Soviet  Relations. 

21.  Copy  of  letter  dated  October  27,  1942,  from  Maxine  Wood,  assistant  director. 

Congress  of  American-Soviet  Friendship,  to  Max  Bedacht,  executive  secre- 
tary, International  Workers  Order. 

22.  Bulletin  of  the  committee  on  education,  National  Council  of  American-Soviet 

Friendship,  volume  1,  No.  1,  June  1945. 

23.  Minimum  kit  for  secondary  schools  compiled  by  the  committee  on  education, 

Nation  Council  of  American-Soviet  Friendship. 

24.  Minimum  kit  of  teaching  materials  on  the  Soviet  Union,  compiled  by  the 

committee  on  education,  National  Council  of  American-Soviet  Friendship. 

25.  Photostat  of  pamphlet.  Facts  About  the  Soviet  Union,  committee  on  educa- 

tion. National  Council  of  American-Soviet  Friendship. 

26.  Program  of  the  American  Youth  for  Democracy,  adopted  October  17,  1943. 

27.  Constitution  of  the  American  Youth  for  Democracy. 

28.  Chart  showing  the  interlocking  connection  between  leaders  of  the  American 

Youth  for  Democracy  and  the  Young  Communist  League. 

174 


TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER    S.    STEELE  175 

29.  Report  of  United   States  Delegation  to  World  Youth  Conference,  London, 

November  1945. 

30.  Copy  of  World  Youth,  monthly  magazine  of  the  World  Federation  of  Demo- 

cratic Youth,  issue  No.  1. 

31.  Copy  of  World  Youth,  monthly  magazine  of  the  World  Federation  of  Demo- 

cratic Youth,  issue  No.  2. 

32.  Call  to  American  Students  to  the  World  Youth  Festival,  Prague,  Czecho- 

slovakia, July  20  to  August  17, 1947,  issued  by  student  division.  United  States 
Committee  for  the  World  Youth  Festival. 

33.  Preliminary    program    of    the    World    Youth    Festival,    Prague,    Czechoslo- 

vakia, July  20  to  August  17,  1947.  Published  by  the  International  Festival 
Committee. 

34.  Leaflet — an  invitation  to  the  World  Youth  Festival,  Prague,  Czechosolvakia, 

July  20  to  August  17,  1947. 

35.  Booklet  containing  information  regarding  the  World  Youth  Festival,  Prague, 

Czechoslovakia.     Published  by  the  International  Festival  Committee. 

36.  Photostat  of  booklet  containing  information  regarding  World  Youth  Week, 

1946,  sponsored  by  the  World  Federation  of  Democratic  Youth. 

37.  Call  to  a  conference  on  women  of  the  U.  S.  A.  and  the  U.  S.  S.  R.  in  the 

Postwar  World,  auspices  of  the  committee  of  women  of  the  National  Council 
of  American-Soviet  Friendship,  held  on  November  18,  1944,  Hotel  Commo- 
dore, New  York,  N.  Y. 

38.  Leaflet,  What  Is  the  Congress  of  American  Women? 

39.  Certificate  of  incorporation  of  Congress  of  American  Women,  Inc. 

40.  Program  of  the^Congress  of  American  Women. 

41.  Bulletin  of  the  Congress  of  American  Women,  July  28,  1946. 

42.  Growth  of  the  International  Women's  Movement,  by  Nina  Popova.     From 

July-August  1946  issue,  Soviet  Women. 

43.  Pamphlet,  The  Negroes  in  a  Soviet  America,  by  James  W.  Ford  and  James  S. 

Allen,  Workers'  Library  Publishers,  June  1935. 

44.  Map  showing  continuous  stretch  of  dense  Negro  population  in  the  South — ■ 

the  Black  Belt. 

45.  Leaflet,  Forward  Through  Unity  to  Full  Citizenship  for  Negro  Americans. 

Published  by  the  National  Negro  Congress. 

46.  Officers,  executive  board,  and  advisory  board  of  the  Southern  Negro  Youth 

Congress. 

47.  Pamphlet,  Smash  the  Chains,  by  Louis  E.  Burnham.    Published  by  American 

Youth  for  Democracy. 

48.  Certificate  of  incorporation  of  People's  Songs,  Inc. 

49.  Leaflet,  People's  Songs  Presents  a  Hootenanny,  February  16,  1947,  at  Long 

Beach,  Calif. 

50.  Letterhead  of  the  People's  Songs,  Inc. ;  anniversary  issue  of  People's  Songs, 

February-March  1947 ;  Song  of  the  Month,  CIO  News,  July  15,  1946 ;  Three 
Songs  for  Centralia,  published  by  People's  Songs,  Inc. 

51.  Announcement — The  International  Film  Foundation  announces  the  release 

of  seven  Julien  Bryan  productions,  issued  by  International  Film  Founda- 
tions, Inc. 

52.  Certificate  of  incorporation  of  Young  People's  Record  Club,  Inc. 

53.  Certificate  of  incorporation  of  People's  Radio  Foundation,  Inc. 

54.  Six  Songs  for  Democracy,  published  by  Keynote  Recordings,  Inc. 

55.  Folder,  Stage  for  Action. 

56.  Bibliography  of  available  scripts,  compiled  by  Stage  for  Action,  March  1947. 

57.  Certificate  of  incorporation  of  International  Workers'  Order,  Inc. 

58.  Leaflet,  Fraternal  Life,  issued  by  the  National  Organizing  Committee  for 

General  Lodges,  International  Workers. 

59.  Financial   Report   of  the  Front  Line  Fighters   Fund   of  the   International 

Workers  Order,  January  1,  1944.  From  the  report  of  the  general  secretary 
to  the  Sixth  Convention  of  the  International  Workers  Order. 

60.  List  of  nationality  group  societies  of  the  International  Workers  Order,  with 

officers.    From  the  8-page  rate  schedule  of  the  International  Workers  Order. 

61.  Letter  dated  July  23,  1941,  from  Peter  Chaunt,  national  education  depart- 

ment of  International  Workers  Order  to  all  district  secretaries  on  the 
American  Review  of  the  Soviet  Union. 

62.  Letter  dated  May  22,  1941,  from  Sam  Pevzner,  national  education  depart- 

ment of  International  Workers  Order,  to  all  language  and  district  secre- 
taries, all  executives,  on  the  American  Peace  Mobilization. 


176  TESTIMONY   OF   WALTER   S.    STEELE 

63.  Letter  dated  October  14,  1941,  from  Sam  Pevzner,  national  education  depart- 

ment of  International  Workers  Order,  to  district  and  national  group  secre- 
taries on  Veterans  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade  and  Facts  for  Farmers. 

64.  Check  list  of  publications  and  periodicals  issued  by  the  national  educatioa 

department  of  the  International  Workers  Order. 

65.  Copy  of  interoffice  memorandum  dated  June  18,  1943,  from  Eugene  Konecky 

to  Max  Bedacht  re  Fraternal  Outlook,  dealing  with  the  Daily  Worker. 

66.  Folder,  Insurance  for  Democracy  and  Jobs,  published  by  the  Daily  Worker 

for  members  of  the  International  Workers  Order. 

67.  A  call  to  the  Fourth  American  Writers'  Congress,  issued  by  Sam  Pevzner,, 

national  education  director.  International  Workers  Order,  May  12,  1941. 

68.  Copy  of  the  Fraternal  Outlook,  June-July  1947.     Official  publication  of  the 

International  Workers  Order.     Information  on  the  1947  conventions. 

69.  Folder — The  Job  to  be  Done,  issued  by  the  Council  on  African  Affairs. 

70.  What  CRC  Stands  For,  published  by  the  Civil  Rights  Congress.     Don't  Be 

Hoodvpinked  by  the  Thomas-Rankin  Committee,  What's  Behind  the  Eisler 
Case?  published  by  the  Civil  Rights  Congress.  Gerhart  Eisler — My  Side 
of  the  Story,  published  by  the  Civil  Rights  Congress. 

71.  Report  of  the  First  Citizen's  Conference  to  Defend  Labor.     Announcement 

of  Citizen's  Delegation  to  Washington.  List  of  sponsors  of  the  Conference 
to  Defend  Labor. 

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